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Analysis

Discuss about the Hildegard Peplau for Nursing Profession.

Hildegard Peplau was a scholar who came up with several theories which assisted the nursing profession in different ways (Nelson, 2010). She was an industrious individual who brought lots of theories and practices which are still used in the nursing practice. She explained how things work and her work was much welcomed from the nursing fraternity. She developed theories like psychodynamic nursing, the nurse-patient relationship and Roles of Nurses are various and Diverse (D'antonio et al., 2014). She is one of the theorists who utilized different discipline to formulate her interpersonal relationships in the nursing theory which assisted in the development of nursing knowledge. The paper will address how Hildegard Peplau played a role in changing the nursing profession

Hildegard Peplau is one of the renowned theorist nurses in the globe as the mother of the psychiatric nursing. Her efforts transcended her psychiatric nursing, and it had a significant impact on the profession of nursing, nursing science and nursing practice. She played a great role in emphasizing and influencing practice standards and professional education and also the significance of professional regulation via the credentialing (McAllister and Lewenson, 2014). She came up with lots of developments to nursing science and psychiatric nursing via the elaboration of the interpersonal laws among the range theory which have offered significance in regards to the nurse and patient relationships. The critical condition of the nurse and patient relationship and its importance as a therapeutic modality were put under operation in her scholarship and offered the basis for science and art on the nurse practice.  This particular theorist could even challenge most psychiatric nurses to work hard within the new millennium via progressive dedication to the significance of the relationship between a nurse and patient, participation in evident based practices and provision of leadership in bring new changes in nursing practices and health care paradigm (Drew, 2014).

Her theory of psychodynamic nursing comprised an understanding of individual’s behavior and helps some other people who have difficulties with their identity. The human relationships principles’ which were applied to the hardship which was differentially experienced by individuals were well-taken care in this nursing dynamic theory (Eriksson et al., 2014). Hildegard defined nursing as an important therapeutic and interpersonal approach. She further described nursing as a tool of education which is a force that offers maturity, and its objectives aim at personality promotion (Dion, 2014). She held an assumption that a person can assume some duties which have the ability of empathy in a relationship she asserted that people might behave in distinct ways which assisted in the past when they experienced some issues.

Hildegard Peplau's theory of psychodynamic nursing

 In this theory, she emphasizes that energy and tensions come from conflicting needs and the arising energy can be harnessed to beneficial means for defining comprehension and tackling the issues at hand(Adams, 2016).  However, the nurse- patient theory states that relation of the nurse and patient is characterized by some overleaping phases together with some therapeutic jobs or objectives to be achieved (Drew, 2014). In each step, the patient will express requirements that find expressions and get intervention through independent means. In the orientation, Peplau asserted that this point that the nurse and the client meet and be familiar and get to understand the each one role. In the exploitation phase, she indicated that the nurse and the sick individual work hand in hand to attain the complete potential of the patient and achieve their relationship goals (Drew, 2014). The patient should use the nurse as an asset and not a social duty to the nurse. She further contributed by saying that the client should have a full trust on nurse and make use of the services of the nurse and also his or her expertise capabilities. She also alleged that the sick individual struggles towards termination and discharge objective.

In addition, the termination phase of the relationship between nurse and the patient happens after the existing objectives for the have been achieved. Thenurse and the patient did the summary of their association. However, a significant aspect of this kind of affiliation in contrast to the social relationship has a short duration and also it is temporary (Winship et al., 2015). Furthermore, she proceeds to say that in a long term relationship, the end can typically happen during the time when the patient is discharged from the medical center or if it happens that the patient dies. In addition, in a more short term relations like the visit to clinic or even urgent situation room visit, Peplau pointed out that the annihilation happens when the client leaves, and at this time, the affiliation is not composite. She further noted that in several circumstances, the relationship should end the moment the patient has developed increased self-reliance to tackle with their issues.

Peplau also utilized the education discipline to expand her development from bad interpersonal relations model. She used it to teach and trains other nurses through more advanced ways of being a psychiatric nurse (Dion, 2014) She did not indicate her endorsement of using them in her teaching and practice nevertheless she thought that this was the superb intervention in nursing. When she was interviewed and questioned on if other disciplines could be used in nursing and also if it was the best way for the nurse to practice using knowledge of someone, she came out with responses that she promoted the scientific studying neuropsychiatry, biochemistry, and genetics(Deane and Fain, 2016). She thought that it was very crucial for all nurses to proceed to study and understand human beings biologically and also on the existence of human beings within the environment. She acknowledges the use of knowledge in an aim to serve the nurse to be the best. She pointed out that if a nurse and the sick meet, they are all unfamiliar to one another and she stressed that patients should be treated with lots of courtesy, respect, and equality just like any other person (Peplau, et al., 2015) She also asserted that the patient should not be prejudged or given assumptions but he or she should be taken the way they are. However, she outlined that the patients should be treated as emotionally stable except evidence indicate otherwise.

The nurse-patient relationship

Peplau also came up with a resource role of a nurse. She pointed out that nurse is offer answers to queries, particularly on health information. The nurse also is responsible for conveying information to the sick concerning the treatment and the care plan. She asserted that the questions come from bigger issues hence the nurse will find the kind of response which is relevant for effective learning either providing clear-cut answers or information on counseling(Fernandes and Nunes de Miranda,., 2016). Concerning the teaching in nurse profession, she believed that teaching is one of the roles which are a combination of all the duties. She came up with two roles which comprise teaching; experimental and instructional. She pointed out that instructional encompasses of providing a broad variety of ideas which is provided to the patients. On the other hand, she found that experimental is utilizing the learner’s experience to be a starting point to present kinds of learning that the sick individuals make on their experiences.

 She also believed that counseling plays a critical role in psychiatric nursing. The role of the counselor is to assist the patient to comprehends and remember things that are happening to them and also things which are going on in the current life situations (Deane and Fain, 2016). In addition, she found that the counseling offer guidance and also the motivations to develop changes. In regards to the surrogate role, she pointed out that the sick individual is accountable for placing nurse within the substitute role(Drew, 2014). The conduct and the attitudes of the nurse develop the feeling tone for the sick person who triggers the emotions that were developed within the previous association. The nurse assists the sick individual to know the differences and similarities flanked by past relationship and the nurse.The leadership role assists the patient to assume the great responsibility to attain the treatment goals through a proficient and satisfying means (Deane and Fain, 2016). She also pointed out that the nurse helps the sick person to achieve these particular goals through active engagement and cooperation with the nurse.

Peplau was one of the pragmatists mainly rather than an academic theorist. Also, she did capture the essence of what nursing is and also what it can be in future thus lending it a timeless quality (Smoyak, 2015). She developed knowledge together with a practical import, hallucinations, individual, family, interpersonal concepts and also the group therapy. Nurse owes her to debt for contributions she made.

Conclusion

Hildegard Peplau did a marvelous job in making sure that nursing profession gets transformed. She provided theories which assisted the relation between nurses and patients. She found that the counseling offer guidance and also the motivations to develop changes. Concerning the surrogate role, she pointed out that the sick individual is accountable for putting nurse within the surrogate role. She employed the education discipline to advance her development from bad interpersonal relations model. She used it to teach and trains other nurses through more advanced ways of being a psychiatric nurse. Through her contributions, it is evidence that nursing profession could not have survived to this far without her. She is celebrated, and she owes lots to nurses. 

Reference List

Adams, R 2016, Dignity: Impact in Human Interactions.

https://opus.ipfw.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1000&context=stu_symp2016

D'antonio, P, Beeber, L, Sills, G & Naegle, M, 2014, The future in the past: Hildegard Peplau and interpersonal relations in nursing. Nursing inquiry, 21(4), pp.311-317.

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/nin.12056/full

Deane, W.H. & Fain, J.A, 2016, Incorporating Peplau’s Theory of Interpersonal Relations to Promote Holistic Communication Between Older Adults and Nursing Students. Journal of Holistic Nursing, 34(1), pp.35-41.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25854267

Dion, K, 2014, March, An Analysis and Comparison of the Works of Peplau and Travelbee. In Nursing Research (Vol. 63, No. 2, pp. E106-E106). 530 Walnut St, Philadelphia, Pa19106-3621Usa:LippincottWilliams &Wilkins.

https://www.academia.edu/23237315/A_comparison_of_the_works_of_Peplau_and_Orlando

Drew, B.L, 2014, The evolution of the role of the psychiatric mental health advanced practice registered nurse in the United States. Archives of psychiatric nursing, 28(5), pp.298-300.https://www.psychiatricnursing.org/article/S0883-9417(14)00097-1/fulltext

Eriksson, H, Christiansen, M, Holmgren, J, Engström, A, & Salzmann?Erikson, M, 2014, Nursing under the skin: a netnographic study of metaphors and meanings in nursing tattoos. Nursing inquiry, 21(4), pp.318-326.https://www.deepdyve.com/lp/wiley/nursing-under-the-skin-a-netnographic-study-of-metaphors-and-meanings-sBTiu0M5yu

Fernandes, R. L, & Miranda, F. A. N. D, 2016, Analysis of the Theory Of Interpersonal Relations: Nursing Care In Centers Of Psycho-Social Attention. Journal of Nursing UFPEonline, 10(2),880886.https://www.revista.ufpe.br/revistaenfermagem/index.php/revista/article/view/7501/pdf_9759

McAllister, A, & Lewenson, S.B, 2014, Inside Track of Doing Historical Research: My Dissertation Story. Nursing Research Using Historical Methods: Qualitative Designs and Methods in Nursing,p.41.

https://books.google.co.ke/books?hl=en&lr=&id=JA-gBQAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PA41&dq=Hildegard+Peplau:+Psychiatric+Nurse+of+the+Century+Worldwide+Networks&ots=I2SPc1cDo9&sig=b3dKCGiorryN5otn_aWrTMnivJU&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q&f=false

Nelson, S, 2010, Theories focused on interpersonal relationships. Philosophies and theories for advancednursingpractice,71.

https://books.google.co.ke/books?hl=en&lr=&id=7tdLDgAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PA267&dq=Peplau,+H.,+Travelbee,+J.+and+Orlando,+I.J.,+2015.+Nurse%E2%80%93Patient+Relationship+Theories.+Nursing+Theories+and+Nursing+Practice,+p.67&ots=oO7SB_hNkm&sig=2wh1ZktlhsZONVSlbucgEkzruc&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q&f=false

Peplau, H,Travelbee, J. & Orlando, I.J, 2015, Nurse–Patient Relationship Theories. NursingTheoriesandNursingPractice,p.67.https://books.google.co.ke/books?hl=en&lr=&id=oMjXBgAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PA67&dq=Hildegard+Peplau:+Psychiatric+Nurse+&ots=-vbOnUjBnX&sig=3qhCRmIFweqatjxcwR7gx0wxqE&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=Hildegard%20Peplau%3A%20Psychiatric%20Nurse&f=false

Smoyak, S.A, 2015, Creativity is the Heart of Psychiatric-Mental Health Nursing. Journal of psychosocial nursing and mental health services, 53(1), pp.3-4.

https://www.healio.com/psychiatry/journals/jpn/2015-1-53-1/%7B911695c4-b488-4832-b56b-0d98e1119ea2%7D/creativity-is-the-heart-of-psychiatric-mental-health-nursing

Winship, G, Hardy, S. & Bray, J, 2015, Skellern Lecture and the Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing Lifetime Achievement Award 2015. Journal of psychiatric andmentalhealthnursing, 22(4),pp.22325.https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/jpm.12218/full

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