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I need a essay paper answering the questions:
1 From the British Perspective, what caused the Indian Rebellion of 1857-1858? What do the posted primary sources overlook regarding causes?
2 What were the long-term impacts of the rebellion for the Britain and India?
3 How did accounts of the rebellion likely impact popular British perceptions of India and Indians?
4 To what extent does the novel, The Siege of Krishnapur, capture 1 British attitude towards the imperial mission, 2 British responses to the Indian Rebellion, and 3 the overall impact of the rebellion for the British?

Root Causes of the Indian Rebellion of 1857

This paper intends to discuss and analyse the Indian Rebellion of 1857-1858 from the British perspective. The paper would discuss the long term impacts of this rebellion on both the Britain and India. The British rule in India was such an important phase of history that it has been compared with dominion held by Rome on a large portion of the world. With their first victory over India in the year 1757, British dominion had a glorious hundredth year of powerful administration on India. The Indian rebellion of 1857 led to shake the power of English dominion in India for the first time. There were signs and warnings of this inevitable consent but the government disregarded them due to the feeling of strength and confidence. Sir Charles Napier who has served as commander in chief in Indian forces affirmed the storm in the military servants of East India Company. This thesis revises the British perspective on the Indian rebellion of 1857 in the light of its impact on India and Britain.

This section of paper would provide the reasons for the rebellion of 1857. The causes were not instant and immediate. The root cause of Indian rebellion of 1857 was discontentment and grievance of the sepoys towards the British government. The reasons for the outbreak of Indian rebellion were military, religious, economic and political.

The use of new Enfield rifle was one of the major cause of the Indian Rebellion of 1857. It started at Barrack pore which was 17 miles from Calcutta, when a low caste workman in the garrison asked for water from drinking vessel of sepoy. The workman on being refused questioned the use of pig’s grease and cow-fat on the cartridges by the sepoys. The rumour of use of pig’s grease and cow-fat in the cartridges was radiated among the sepoys. Both the Hindu and Muslim sepoys feared destroying their religion and caste. This incident acted as the ground for the Indian rebellion of 1857 which is also called the Sepoy mutiny. The situation seemed suspicious to the sepoys and they stated this to Sir Charles Napier that if they are into the conflict of selecting among the military discipline and religion they are likely to give away the military disciplines. After the incident like fires among the lines, an officer in command at the Barrackpore regiment addressed the troops. This addressing had no permanent effect on the sepoys. The British government ordered to confine the use of this cartridges to Europeans and sepoys took this as a confirmation of the rumours. The Cartridges of Enfield rifle acted as a peril of English empire. Meerut witnessed the immediate cause of the Rebellion of 1857-58 in May. The ten years imprisonment was given to the 85 soldiers of 3d Calvary as they denied to use the suspicious cartridges. As a result of this punishment, three regiments of sepoys marched off to Delhi and massacred every European they could found. This step was taken to secure themselves from the ruling race. The Europeans were concerned about reaching the military stations containing European troop.

Long-term Impacts on Britain and India

The posted primary sources overlook the economic and political reasons for the Indian rebellion of 1857. The economic policies of the British government are considered as one of the reasons for revolt. The revenue system of the British government which included Mahalwari settlement in Central India, Permanent settlement and Ryotwari settlement were the major reasons of resentment among the masses of India. The peasants felt exploited due to land revenue system and the drain of wealth. This was effective in weakening the economic condition. The primary sources also fail to provide the political reasons as the reason behind the Indian Rebellion of 1857. The British expansion policies led to dispose of the Nawabs and landlords from their state and they were forced to become the subsidiary of the British. This came out as a major reason for resentment among the upper castes of India. The policies of subsidiary alliance and doctrine of lapse hampered the relations between the British government and Indian rulers of the state. These reasons are considered as the political factors for the revolt of 1857.

Long term impacts of rebellion for Britain was that administration of India was transferred to the British Crown. The government had to assure the rulers of state and Nawabs that their territories would not be annexed.  The British government had to reduce a considerate amount of Indian soldiers and increase the European soldiers. The British had to respect the religious sentiments of Indian in order to acquire their support after the Indian rebellion of 1857. Also, the queen’s proclamation of 1858 abandoned the territorial expansion policies. Policies were made to provide security to the landlords on the rights over their land. Long term impacts of rebellion for India was that this revolt was able to shake the glorious rule of East India Company to a certain extent.  It affected the government policies of British in India. Revolt of 1857 is also considered as the First war of Independence. It also led to the rise of tribal movements such as Santhal revolt. Although this revolt started as a Sepoy revolt but was later joined by the masses. The letter to the governor Colvin states the situation of the rebellion as dreadful. ‘The Relief of Lucknow’ describes the last day at lucknow fort and presents realistic approach towards the situation prevailing at that time.

This section of paper would illustrate accounts of the rebellion that impact popular British perceptions of India and Indians. The letter to the Lieutenant-Governor J. Colvin describes the scenario of the revolt. The accounts of Indian rebellion such as fortifying and massacring the Europeans as a result of 1857 revolt was new for the British. Indians were considered to have been a conservative race whose traditions and method of life had been disregarded by the British rulers. But this incident of the rebellion of 1857 changed the perception of the British government about the Indian and India. The rebellion of 1857 created a situation of distrust and mutual fear in the minds of both the ruler and the ruled. The British Government became careful and showed reactionary attitude to the Indians. As a result of this the British took the initiative of an introduction of educational and social reforms for India and Indians.

Popular British Perceptions of India and Indians

This section of paper would consider the ‘Siege of Krishnapur' to develop a clear understanding of the British attitude, response and overall impact of the rebellion of 1857-1858. It illustrates a story of a town of Krishnapur and tells about a group of British soldiers which holds on for four months against the native military of India. The people in the community were the collector who is a Victorian believer, a daydreamer, magistrate and doctor Dunstaple. The British attitude toward imperial mission in this novel is that it participates in the revivalism of the Victorian imperial heritage promoted by the Raj narratives. It reviews the achievement of British imperial from the vantage point. The attitude towards imperialism in this novel shows reposition and deconstruction of British imperial simultaneously.

This section of paper would discuss British attitude towards the rebellion. It reflects yesterday situation in today’s consciousness. The British response to Indian rebellion was constructive in nature. They tried to provide a situation of mutual collaboration and security after the rebellion. The reforms in the tax laws and zamindari systems by the British was an appropriate gesture. The government were ready to respect the religious attributes of the Indian.

 The overall impact of the Rebellion of 1857-58 on the British government was that an adopted an approaching and reforming method of ruling to get the support of the natives. Analysing this novel, it is found at the end that sepoys, cholera and starvation have killed the people. It criticises the superstition prevailing in the native country when collector and magistrate build an embankment to provide the flood. It is also effective while criticising the lavish lifestyles of maharajas. This novels builds a bridge between the real and fictional character and is efficient for providing the situational analysis of post-1857 revolt.

This paper concludes that the Indian rebellion of 1857-58 occurred as a result of the military, political and economic laws of the British government. The British rule was not pleasing to all sections of the Indian society including landlords, artisans, craftsman, and tribal. The policies of the East India Company caused resentment among the people. It can be concluded that this uprising helped the British government in changing their rules. The rebellion of 1857 thus can be considered as the First War of Independence for the Indians. This rebellion led to the change of power from East India Company to the British government. The paper is appropriate in explaining British perspective about India and the Indians. This paper is efficiently considering the novel ‘Siege of Krishnapur' in providing the details of the environment after the rebellion. This Paper would be effective while providing the analysis of the situation at the time before and after the uprising of rebellion.

Anderson, Clare. "Sites of Provocation and Coalescence: jails as spaces of rebellion in 1857-8." (2014).

Babb, Stefanie A. "" Othering" oneself: European civilian casualties and representations of gendered, religious, and racial ideology during the Indian Rebellion of 1857." PhD diss., Florida Gulf Coast University, 2014.

Blackburn, Florian. "Mutiny or Revolution? The Consequences of Events in India in 1857." (2015).

 Bush, Vannevar, and As We May Think. "The atlantic monthly." As we may think 176, no. 1 (1945): 101-108.

Fairchild, Christina Lee. "" Because We Were Too English:" John Kaye and the 1857 Indian Rebellion." PhD diss., 2017.

Farrell, J. G. 2010. The Siege Of Krishnapur. New York: New York Review Books.

Halsall, Paul. Internet modern history sourcebook. Paul Halsall, 1997.

Lawrence, Henry Montgomery, and Sheo Bahadur Singh. Letters of Sir Henry Montgomery Lawrence: selections from the correspondence of Sir Henry Montgomery Lawrence (1806-1857) during the siege of Lucknow from March to July 1857. Sagar Publications, 1978.

LeClair, Daniel R. "The “greased cartridge affair”: re-examining the Pattern 1853 Enfield cartridge and its role in the Indian Mutiny of 1857." International Ammunition Association Journal504 (2015): 98-109.

Tappan, Eva March, William Hopkins Tillinghast, Karl Julius Ploetz, and Horatio Willis Dresser. The World's Story: A History of the World in Story, Song and Art, Ed. by Eva March Tappan. Vol. 14. Houghton Mifflin, 1914.

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