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The Origin of Hitler's Philosophy

Discuss about the Hitler and Indoctrination of German Youth.

“He alone, who owns the youth, gains the future.”

The above quoted lines of Adolf Hitler at a 1935 public speech clearly indicate the philosophy behind his indoctrination of the German Youth. He further says, “I am beginning with the young....With them I can make a new world” in another speech four years later too drive home the point loud and clear to the Nazi officials and the need for the indoctrination of the German youths (Indoctrinating Youth). It is significant to note that many historians believe that the only way Hitler could hold such a dominating power over the nation of German was by his almost complete indoctrination of the German Youth. The “Hitler Youth” along with the Nazi Police became the most lethal weapon of Hitler and they were responsible for reporting back any conspiracies to the Nazi police even the suspicious behavior of their parents and family members. (Hart 40-78) It is to be noted that during the zenith of the cult of Hitler the “Hitler Youth” had a membership of over eight million youths which made it the third largest movement in the history of the Third Reich. In 1935, commenting on the nature of the youths whom he wanted in the “Hitler Youth” he said, “A violently active, dominating, intrepid, brutal youth—that is what I am after. Youth must be all those things. It must be indifferent to pain. There must be no weakness or tenderness in it. I want to see once more in its eyes the gleam of pride and independence of the beast of prey....I intend to have an athletic youth—that is the first and the chief thing....I will have no intellectual training. Knowledge is ruin to my young men” (Indoctrinating Youth). This statement of Hitler clearly articulated the preparation for the war for which he had been preparing ever since the fall of Germany and Austria in the First World War (1914-1919). Therefore, the “Hitler Youth” can be looked upon as the lethal weapon through which Hitler wanted to reclaim the lost glory of Germany.

In his book “Origins of the Second World War”, AJP Taylor states that the germs of the Second World War (1939-1945) were contained in the “Treaty of Versailles” signed at Paris in 1919 which officially concluded the First World War (1914-1919) (Taylor 10-43). It is to be noted that the nations like England, France, Italy and others claimed the First World War to be “the War which will end all wars” (Hart 4-56). However, on the contrary, it was precisely the terms of the treaty which concluded this particular that prepared the groundwork for the next major war. It is to be noted that as a part of the treaty Germany was to surrender all her foreign colonies, surrender all her industrially rich areas like the Rhine Valley, undergo disarmament, the boundaries of the nation were re-aligned and in addition to all these the nation was also made to pay a huge amount as war indemnity (Bell 5-89). Therefore, Hitler in response to this said on 18 September 1922, “It cannot be that two million Germans should have fallen in vain . . . No, we do not pardon, we demand—vengeance!”(The First World War). Therefore, it can be said that the rise of Hitler was an inevitable phenomenon and had he not risen to power someone or the other would have taken his place.

The Creation of Hitler Youth

Hitler in one of the meetings of the Nazi party said regarding the aim of the creation of the “Hitler Youth”, “These young people will learn nothing else but how to think German and act German. . . . And they will never be free again, not in their whole lives” (Richie 5-71). Therefore, with this objective in mind Hitler created the “Hitler Youth” in the year 1922 as the fertile ground from which recruitments could be made to the Nazi policy as well as the Nazi political party and also as the soldiers who could fight on behalf of the nation in the event of a war (Kyle Frabotta, "The Mindset Of The Hitler-Jugend"). The organization had its humble beginning in the year 1922 however soon the organization started gaining momentum and by the year 1926 was called by the name of “Hitler-Jugend, Bund deutscher Arbeiterjugend ("Hitler Youth, League of German Worker Youth")” (Kyle Frabotta, "The Mindset Of The Hitler-Jugend"). It is a reflection of the success achieved by this organization that between the years 1933 and 1945 this organization was the only youth organization in the Nazi land of Germany (Richie 5-61). Talking about the creation of this particular organization, Hitler himself said in 1933 “'the mobilization of the mind is as necessary as, perhaps even more necessary than, the material mobilization of the nation” ("Nazi Indoctrination And Anti-Semitic Beliefs In Germany."). Therefore, it would not be too far-fetched to say that the organization was created with the view to control the youths of the nation and thereby indirectly control the nation (Bbc.co.uk.).

It is to be noted that the “Hitler Youth” also acted as the “partial paramilitary organization” where the male youths in the age bracket of 14-18 received not only their physical but mental training as well (Kaiser 1-67). Hitler even went to the extent of creating sub-divisions of the organization for younger children like “German Youngsters in the Hitler Youth” for the males in the age range of 10-14 and the “League of German Girls (Bund Deutsche Mädel or "BDM")”  ("Nazi Indoctrination And Anti-Semitic Beliefs In Germany."). The idea behind the indoctrination of these youths at an early age was to ingrain in their young brains the essential precepts of Nazism at an early age. However, the organization ceased to exist after the surrender of the nation in the year 1945.It is interesting to note that on 10 October, 1945, this organization as well as its related organs were outlawed along with the Nazi Party by the “Allied Control Council” (Kaiser 1-67). Moreover, the “Federal Republic of Germany” under its “Section 86 of the Criminal Code” declared the organization to be an “unconstitutional organization and the distribution or public use of its symbols, except for educational or research purposes, is not permitted” (Kaiser 1-67).

Purpose and Function of Hitler Youth

The organization “Hitler Youth” had an interesting history behind its creation and the form which it attained during the reign of Adolf Hitler. It is to be noted that back in the 1922, the Nazi party which was based at that in Munich formed its first youth organization called “Jugendbund der NSDAP”, which is often considered to be the prototype of the “Hitler Youth” (Glantz and House 5-89). The need as well as the declaration of the formation of the organization was announced on March 8, 1922 in “Völkischer Beobachter” (Glantz and House 5-89). It is interesting to note that at this particular point of time there came into existence another youth organization which was called by the name of “Jungsturm Adolf Hitler” (Halpern 4-31). According to critics, “One reason the Hitler Youth so easily came into existence stems from the fact that numerous youth movements existed across Germany prior to and especially after World War I” ("Life For German Youth In The 1930S: Education, Propaganda, Conformity, And Obedience."). In the year 1924, “Jugendbund der NSDAP was renamed Grossdeutsche Jugendbewegung (Greater German Youth Movement)” (Mayers 4-45). In the year 1926, “the Grossdeutsche Jugendbewegung was officially renamed Hitler Jugend Bund der deutschen Arbeiterjugend (Hitler Youth League of German Worker Youth)” (Mayers 4-45). It was this particular organization which under the leadership of Kurt Gruber became the official “Hitler Youth” in the year 1926 (Mayers 4-45). It is to be noted that these youth organizations as well as movements had different reasons for their being however they were used by Hitler as the breeding grounds where the future Nazi politicians and members of the Gestapo could be hired. In short, they were supposed to become the main muscle power of the dictator of Germany, Adolf Hitler. The genius of Hitler lies in the fact that he converted these diversified youth factions into the organization “Hitler Youth” which along the Gestapo became the eyes and the ears of the Nazi Party.


Adolf Hitler, the Chancellor of Germany during the inter-war years said in his semi-autobiographical work, “Mein Kampf”, “If you tell a big enough lie and tell it frequently enough, it will be believed”. It is to be noted that the “big enough lie” which was used by Hitler was the supremacy of the German race. He said that the Germans were the only true descendents of the Aryan race and therefore they are superior to all others because of the purity of their race (Keegan 5-23). Thus, repudiating the other races, especially the Jews, he said in the Chapter 10 of “Mein Kampf”, “Only the Jew knew that by an able and persistent use of propaganda heaven itself can be presented to the people as if it were hell and, vice versa, the most miserable kind of life can be presented as if it were paradise. The Jew knew this and acted accordingly. But the German, or rather his Government, did not have the slightest suspicion of it. During the War the heaviest of penalties had to be paid for that ignorance”. Therefore, with this particular motive the Nazi educators and scholars “glorified Nordic and other Aryan races, while denigrating Jews and other so-called inferior peoples as parasitic bastard races incapable of creating culture or civilization” (Keegan 5-23). Adolf Hitler in the book Mein Kampf, with the intention of upholding the supremacy of the German race said, ““The stronger must dominate and not mate with the weaker, which would signify the sacrifice of its own higher nature. Only the born weakling can look upon this principle as cruel, and if he does so it is merely because he is of a feebler nature and narrower mind; for if such a law did not direct the process of evolution then the higher development of organic life would not be conceivable at all”.  It is to be noted that the hatred against the Jews reached a feverish pitch when the government in the year 1933 purged “the public school system of teachers deemed to be Jews or to be “politically unreliable” (McDonough 8-67). According to a source,“Most educators….joined the National Socialist Teachers League. 97% of all public school teachers, some 300,000 persons, had joined the League by 1936. In fact, teachers joined the Nazi Party in greater numbers than any other profession” ("Life For German Youth In The 1930S: Education, Propaganda, Conformity, And Obedience."). It was at this time the Jews were extricated from public services and all their properties were confesticated by the government. It is to be noted that it was a reflection of this hatred which was artfully aroused by Hitler in the hearts of the German citizens against the other races that when he started on his inhumane mission to terminate all the Jews from the face of the Earth, no one complained about the mission (McDonough 8-67). On the contrary, majority of the German citizens supported the decision.

The End of Hitler Youth

It is to be noted that the German youths spent the majority of their time in schools or the youth groups. However, the German government found ways to infuse this little remaining time which they spent alone or with their family with propaganda (Shirer 9-89). In this context the role played by Julius Streicher, the director of the “Ministry of Propaganda” becomes very important. He published thousands of books, posters, comics, composed songs, films and others to whitewash the minds of the German youths (Shirer 9-89). It is to be noted that “the media was full of messages expressing the superiority of the “Aryan” race and the inferiority of Jews and other undesirables” ("Life For German Youth In The 1930S: Education, Propaganda, Conformity, And Obedience."). The youths literally worshipped Hitler and several national holidays were declared which celebrated the glory of Hitler (Satyanath 5-97). In this context January 30 and April 20 were important which marked the beginning of his Chancellorship and the day of his birthday respectively (Satyanath 5-97). In addition to this November 9 was celebrated as the “Day of the Martyrs of the Movement”. Alfons Heck, one of the members of the “Hitler Youth”, gives a description of one of these events as “Shortly before noon, 80,000 Hitler Youth were lined up in rows as long as the entire stadium. . . . When Hitler finally appeared, we greeted him with a thundering, triple “Sieg Heil,” (Hail to Victory). . . . Then his voice rose. . . . “You, my youth,” he shouted, with his eyes seeming to stare right at me, “are our nation’s most precious guarantee for a great future. . . . You, my youth. . . . Never forget that one day you will rule the world.” For minutes on end, we shouted at the top of our lungs, with tears streaming down our faces: “Sieg Heil, Sieg Heil, Sieg Heil!” From that moment on, I belonged to Adolf Hitler body and soul” ("Life For German Youth In The 1930S: Education, Propaganda, Conformity, And Obedience."). In addition to this, the schools were used as fertile grounds where the Nazis used to brainwash the youth adults. In this context Erika Mann, one of the profound antagonists of the Nazi rule in her book “School for Barbarians” says, “the Blockwart (neighborhood wardens), the swastika, the signs reading ‘No Jews allowed’ as just part of ‘an atmosphere that is torture, a fuming poison for a free born human being.’ She continues, ‘The German child breathes this air. There is no other condition wherever Nazis are in power; and here in Germany they do rule everywhere, and their supremacy over the German child, as he learns and eats, marches, grows up, breathes, is complete’” ("Rebuilding Germany 'S Children: The Nazi Indoctrination And Postwar Reeducation Of The Hitler Youth."). In one of her other stories “The Birthday Party”, she narrates how the German youths used to betray and turn against their own parents in the name of supporting the “Hitler Youth” and the Nazi government  ("Rebuilding Germany 'S Children: The Nazi Indoctrination And Postwar Reeducation Of The Hitler Youth."). Just like Erika Mann, there are other authors like Edelweiss Pirates and others who dared to raise their voice against the autocratic rule of the Nazi government  ("Rebuilding Germany 'S Children: The Nazi Indoctrination And Postwar Reeducation Of The Hitler Youth."). The viewpoint of Alfons Heck is important to note in this context “I was born into a regime which had succeeded in turning me into a fanatic, willing to die for causes I believed not merely achievable but just—the creation of a new world order under the Nazi ideology. The tenets of this faith had never been opposed by those who influenced me as a child—my elders and educators including my priests. Since membership in the Hitler Youth was compulsory, we had no choice but to follow orders”.


The young members of the “Hitler Youth” were ingrained with the idea that they were the future of the Nazi Germany. Therefore, in order to achieve this objective the officials of the Nazi government ingrained their minds with the precepts of Nazi ideology including the supremacy of the German race and racism (Appleby 9:1-10). It is to be noted that initially the organization used to provide hiking, mountain climbing, trekking and other activities to the youths. However, over time these activities were replaced by military training, paramilitary activities, weapon training and others which would be used by the Nazi government during the times of emergency. According to a historian, “the aim was to instill the motivation that would enable its members to fight faithfully for Nazi Germany as soldiers” (Appleby 9:1-10). It is interesting to note that in the schools controlled by the “Hitler Youth” emphasis was placed on military training, emotional hardness, the virtues of sacrifice for the cause of the nation, active participation in the cause of the government and various others rather on academic education (Fox 27:31-59). Some of the schools hammered the idea into the impressionable minds of the youths that "Germany must live even if they (members of the HJ) had to die” (Fox 27:31-59). The members of the “Hitler Youth” were sub-divided into various groups like the Catholics, Anti-Catholics and others in a bid to spy on the various diverse sections of the society in the most effective manner. In addition to this, the “Hitler Youth” even promoted the idea of classlessness among its members in a bid to eradicate the division among the youths. In fact, Hitler’s indoctrination of the German youth was so complete that historian Richard Evans says, "The songs they sang were Nazi songs. The books they read were Nazi books” (Evans 1-31). The opinion of Alfons Heck, himself a member of the “Hitler Youth” is very significant to note “Unlike our elders, we children of the 1930s had never known a Germany without Nazis. From our very first year in the Volksschule or elementary school, we received daily doses of Nazism. These we swallowed as naturally as our morning milk. Never did we question what our teachers said. We simply believed what was crammed into us. And never for a moment did we doubt how fortunate we were to live in a country with such a promising future”.

The management of this “Hitler Youth” was conducted on complete military lines. They were even provided with uniforms as well as emblems and all other equipments which were provided to the soldiers of the realm as well (Lampen 2-45). The youths were often treated as young soldiers in order to foster them with the sense of respect. They were ingrained with the idea of the respect so much that they used to report the suspicious activities of their parents as well as other family members. It is interesting to note in this particular that the parents who used to prohibit their kids from becoming a member of the “Hitler Youth” were denied employment opportunities by the companies as well as the governmental authorities. In addition to this, the families with the maximum number of youths in the “Hitler Youth” were provided with the maximum amount of job, financial and all other kinds of opportunities and therefore the German families also wanted their kids to join and become a part of the “Hitler Youth” (Feick 5-78).

The organization of the “Hitler Youth” was a complex one and was overseen by the leaders from the rank of the Nazi party. It is to be noted that the members of the “Hitler Youth” organization were divided into various smaller sections and each of these sections had their weekly meetings in the place decided by the group. The activities of these groups were overseen by the experienced leaders of the Nazi party and it was under his or her supervision that the precepts of the Nazi ideology, racism, the supremacy of the German race and other related concepts were taught to the innocent youths. These diverse groups from various parts of the nation would come together once a year at Nuremberg, where the meeting was presided over by the top members of the Nazi party including Hitler himself (Feick 5-78). It was in these diverse groups itself that military and other kinds of specialized training was given to the youths which would help them during their service in the Nazi party, Gestapo and other organs of the party (Pine 4-89).  It is interesting to note that the youths were considered to be the personal property of the state, “Your son is not your personal property, solely at your disposal. He is on loan to you but he is the property of the German Volk. To object to his name being put forward for an elite school is tantamount to insulting the Reich and the Fuhrer” (Feick 5-78). The government also used media and other means to influence the mind of the youths. The “Wille und Macht (Will and Power)” was the official organ of the organization. This magazine was published on a monthly basis. In addition to this, there were other magazines as well like the “Die Kameradschaft (Comradeship)”, “Jungen eure Welt (Youth your World)”, “Mädelschaft” and others which were used by the Nazi government to indoctrinate the minds of the German youths. The opinion of Hitler himself in this regard is very significant to note ““The receptivity of the masses is very limited, their intelligence is small, but their power of forgetting is enormous. In consequence of these facts, all effective propaganda must be limited to a very few points and must harp on these in slogans until the last member of the public understands what you want him to understand by your slogan” (Hitler 5-89). Therefore, with this particular intention the Nazi government published several magazines as well as periodicals to indoctrinate the minds of the youths with Nazi ideologies.

As already mentioned, the organization “Hitler Youth” was formed in the year 1922. However, soon the organization gained momentum and within a year only the organization gained more than 12,000 members (Pine 5-67). It is interesting to note that in the year the Chancellor of Germany, Hitler which declared that the “Hitler Youth” was the only legal youth organization in the nation and all the other ones to be illegal. At this point of time, the membership within the organization has increased to 600,000 (Pine 5-67). Hitler himself said about the organization “"all of the German youth in the Reich is organized within the Hitler Youth" (Pine 5-67). It is interesting to note that in the 1940 the membership in the organization had crossed more than eight million. These youths played a significant role in the growth as well as the overall development of the nation of Germany. It is to be noted that these members of the “Hitler Youths” played a significant role during the Second World War (1939-1945). They formed not only one of the pillars of the Nazi party but also played a significant role in the Second World War and years leading up to that during which time Germany was to emerge as a major super power of the world.


It is interesting to note that after the death of Hitler, the entire aura of the organization “Hitler Youth” faded overnight (Lee 3-31). In fact, the process had set in during the later years of Hitler and more specifically after the start of the Second World War. In this particular, it is interesting to note the opinion of Jugend Schirach, the architect of the concept of the “Hitler Youth” after the completion of the trial in which he was charged with treason against the nation of Germany, after the end of the Second World War, “I have trained this generation to believe in Hitler and to be faithful to him. The youth movement which I built up bore his name… It is my guilt that I have trained youth for a man who became a murderer a million times over” (Ponzio 4-76). According to the opinion of Alfons Heck articulated in his memoir “A Child of Hitler”, “The experience of the Hitler Youth in Nazi Germany constitutes a massive case of child abuse. Out of millions of basically innocent children, Hitler and his regime succeeded in creating potential monsters. Could it happen again today? Of course it can. Children are like empty vessels: you can fill them with good, you can fill them with evil; you can fill them with compassion”.

Conclusion

Therefore, from the above discussion it becomes clear that the “Treaty of Versailles” (1919) within itself the germs of the Second World War. The rise of Hitler in Germany after the First World War when seen in the context of the precepts of the Treaty of Versailles becomes totally justified. The rise of Hitler was a gradual process and it lasted till the end of the Second World War. Hitler used various techniques as well as mechanisms for the acquisition of power and also to exert his control over the citizens of the nation of Germany. One such machinery used by Hitler is the creation of the organization “Hitler Youth” in the year 1922. This “Youth Hitler” organization of Hitler aspired to indoctrinate the youths. It is a reflection of the indoctrination of the youths that by the year 1940 more than eight million youths were a part of this particular youth organization. However, it is to be noted that it was a general youth organization where youths gather to get to know each other or to discuss things. This “Youth Hitler” organization of Hitler wanted to brainwash the youths of the nation of Germany and use them for the purpose of taking vengeance on the winners of the First World War. Therefore, it would not be too far-fetched to say that “Hitler Youth” was able to indoctrinate the German youth in a complete manner.

References

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