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1.Explain your understanding of the historical and current perspectives of nursing and nurse education?

2.Identify any 5 (five) contemporary issues in nursing and examine their impact on clients and the health care environment.

3.Explain in 100 words the role of regulation and professional standards of practice in nursing. Also support your answer with an example of how you would apply the regulations and standards in your own practice?

4.As stated in ANMC National competency standards for the Enrolled nurses, "The enrolled nurse is an associate to the registered nurse who demonstrates competence in the provision of patient-centered care as specified by the registering authority's license to practice, educational preparation and context of care."

5.What do you mean by holistic approach? Explain in 50 words the meaning of adopting a holistic approach. Provide an example to justify how you would incorporate the holistic approach to client care in your practice.

6. Explain your understanding of a performance review?

7.It is important to promote and support individuality of clients when implementing planed care."

8.As an Enrolled nurse how would you share your professional knowledge and skills with others. List at least 2 (two) examples.

9. Propose 2 (two) examples of how would you promote a positive image of nursing as a profession and support the role of other health professionals?

10. Explain the significance of professional development in nursing practice. Enlist 3 (three) ways of maintaining professional development.

11.Identify 3 (three) professional organizations and explain their roles.

12.As an Enrolled Nurse it is part of your job responsibility to work with in a contemporary health care environment. To ensure this you are require to fill out below areas;

(a) Achieve work outcomes and demonstrate good time management with in prescribed periods.

(b) Manage resources according to health environment guidelines.

(c) Utilise contemporary health informatics systems to gather, collate and document data.

(d) Work within context of practice and within boundaries of work role. 

Contemporary Issues in Nursing


.In ancient nursing practices, certain educational qualification was not necessary and therefore, caregivers used to acquire their learning through oral discussion, from generation to generation. They also used to learn techniques from observing other caregivers caring for sick patients or sometimes using trial and error technique.

.However, in current perspective nursing education, proper training and internships are necessary so that they can provide quality care to the patient with respect to the social and ethical boundaries.


 1.Compensation- gender biasness and workplace politics has affected the nursing compensation and this gender gap led men nurses earn more than their female counterparts. It can affect the workplace environment as women nurses may not be able to perform depending on their ability.

2.Workplace violence- It has been reported that violence on workplace (by co-workers or patients) has been increased in last decade. This can hamper the workplace environment, as nurses would not be able to work in an unsafe environment.

3Long working hours- as the maximum of the world population is aging, the number of people seeking care in hospitals have increased. It has led the nurses to work for extra hours that affects the concentration of nurses on each patient.

4.Workplace hazard- nurses face many workplace hazards that expose them to blood related pathogens, injuries, and dermatitis and flu infection. This influences their health directly and their contribution to healthcare process is reduced.

5.Short Staffing- staffing of the nurses in one of the prime contemporary issues nowadays. and therefore dissatisfaction among nursing staffs directly hampers the caregiving process directly.


Professional standards is the means using which, the competency of the care giving process can be assessed. These standards are pre-decided standards that provides the nursing professionals with achievable and desired benchmarks and compares their performance depending of the achieved level. Further, these standards help the healthcare organizations to create safe employee practices, assigning tasks to the licensed personnel and take necessary actions who violate these safety standards. These standards going to help me with understanding my limitations and abilities as a healthcare providers. These guidelines will assist me to identify the situations with dilemma and take necessary steps to overcome it. Further, its  ethical and professional standards will help me to develop my professional career on moral basis.


RN- The Rn is responsible to provide or delegate care duty to another health professional like EN. Further, they are responsible for making important decisions or judgements about any care process. For example, if any care process is beyond their expertise, they can take help from senior healthcare professionals (Nursing and Midwifery Board of Australia 2017).

The Role of Regulation and Professional Standards in Nursing

EN- The responsibilities of ENs are limited as they are the associates to the RNs. they are limited to individual scope of practice. They can administrate certain range of medication to patient, however if ENs possess any extra training, they can assist RNs in primary care settings as well (Australian Nursing and Midwifery Federation Standards 2018).

Other healthcare professionals (Advanced practice nurse and Nurse practitioner)-  The APNs are able to make changes in the current patient care routine and being in the general practice  team they have active roles in management, leadership, education and research.

Further, the NPs are the senior most level of nursing professional and they have the power to provide referral to any healthcare professional in the settings (Australian Nursing and Midwifery Federation Standards 2018).


The holistic approach of nursing is the approach that uses mind-body-spirit-emotions-environment approach to deal with patients and practice traditional nursing. This approach treats a patient as a whole and tries to apply intervention that will help with overall development.


he process of performance review helps the nursing professionals to understand their strength, their weaknesses and the areas in their practice that can be controlled or enhanced through rigorous practice. A planned and structured event helps to motivate the healthcare professional with development and appraisals. The symptoms and disease is not the concern as the nurses are focused on the entire body for the treatment.

For example, the nurses while diagnosing a patient may ask about the social faith and mental situation rather than only the symptoms and effects. this is the holistic approach of nursing.


This statement determines the fact that according to the nursing principle of non-maleficence, it is the duty of the care provider to take care of patient’s need and should not hurt patient intentionally or unintentionally. Therefore, while providing planned care to any patient, they should take care of the patients social, religious, nutritional and personal preferences.


1.While practicing or working, if I will acquire new skills that I can share with my co-workers I will definitely arrange a small training discussion. Explaining a skill can affect a fewer mind, however, explanation with demonstration will enforce the knowledge to every individual in that training.

2.Further, I can share my knowledge through narrating that important piece of information informally. This will help the other person understand my concepts and apply to his/her practice.


1.By maintaining positive attitude and behaviour- As in this tech-friendly era, the image of healthcare facilities depends on the customer reviews and ratings; I will try to behave positively while providing care to the patients.

Holistic Approach to Nursing Care

2.Establishing good work habits- I will abide by the workplace ethics and professional code of conduct. Further, I will try to help my co-workers to deliver quality care.


It is very important for nurses to continue their professional development throughout their career as the skills and interventions of patient care changes almost every day. New researches develops a new theory about the same practice and modifies the process therefore, it is important for the nursing professional to be up-to-date every day.

Three ways that helps the nurses to stay updated are- continuing education, upholding competency, and assessing their learning needs.


1.Academy of Medical-Surgical Nurses- It helps to promote and create excellent professionals of medical-surgical nursing.

2.Academy of Neonatal Nursing- It helps to promote neonatal care process and creates professionals having expertise in neonatal care.

3.American College of Nursing Practice- This organization helps to establish quality standard for nursing education and supports professional nursing education and practice.


(a) Pace with accuracy bears very much importance in the career of nursing professionals. Therefore, while assisting a registered nurse, the enrolled nurse should apply their knowledge and skills to achieve faster outcomes. This can be achieved with the application of proper time management skills and using skills that can provide faster results within a prescribed time. This is important for the enrolled nurses as their working boundaries are restricted and time management will help them to assist the registered nurse with multiple number of patients that will enhance their skills and knowledge about the care giving process. 

(b) As per the health environment guidelines, it is important for the enrolled nurses to be aware of the environmental resources and the guidelines provide by the government, as the government according to the locality of the healthcare settings publishes these guidelines. For example, if the water of that locality is not appropriate for the patient to consume, it is the responsibility of the enrolled nurse to provide the patient with appropriate water for his/her consumption (Australian Nursing and Midwifery Federation Standards 2018).

(c) The modern healthcare system is focused on using technologies and software to store patient data, as it will be helpful for the patient to access his/her data from anywhere in the world and seek healthcare assistance. Therefore, the enrolled nurse should be competent enough to use these modern healthcare systems to analyse, collect and store patient data without any further mistake (Australian Nursing and Midwifery Federation Standards 2018).

 (d) It is important for an enrolled nurse to work within the set boundaries and practice roles as beyond that, their action may harm the patient and the care providing process. According to the practice, standards of nursing, enrolled nurses are associates of the registered nurse and their duty is to acquire the care providing process and observe the unique skills. Therefore, the enrolled nurse should work according to the tasks assigned to them and maintain the ethical consideration of not working beyond the boundaries (Australian Nursing and Midwifery Federation Standards 2018 2018).


AHPRA 2018. Australian Health Practitioner Regulation Agency - Legislation. [online] Available at:

Australian Nursing & Midwifery Federation 2018. Australian Nursing & Midwifery Federation. [online] Available at:

Australian Nursing and Midwifery Federation Standards 2018. Australian Nursing and Midwifery Federation Standards. [online] Available at:

Jamison, D.T., Summers, L.H., Alleyne, G., Arrow, K.J., Berkley, S., Binagwaho, A., Bustreo, F., Evans, D., Feachem, R.G., Frenk, J. and Ghosh, G., 2013. Global health 2035: a world converging within a generation. The Lancet, 382(9908), pp.1898-1955.

Kirch, D.G., Henderson, M.K. and Dill, M.J., 2012. Physician workforce projections in an era of health care reform. Annual review of medicine, 63, pp.435-445.

Kolstad, J.T. and Kowalski, A.E., 2012. The impact of health care reform on hospital and preventive care: evidence from Massachusetts. Journal of Public Economics, 96(11-12), pp.909-929.

NMBA 2018. Nursing and Midwifery Board of Australia - Guidelines. [online] Available at:

Nursing and Midwifery Board of Australia 2017. Nursing and Midwifery Board of Australia - Professional standards. [online] Available at:

Romp, C.R., Kiehl, E.M., Bickett, A., Bledsoe, S.F., Brown, D.S., Eitel, S.B. and Wall, M.P., 2014. Motivators and barriers to returning to school: RN to BSN. Journal for nurses in professional development, 30(2), pp.83-86.

Thompson, N. and Pascal, J., 2012. Developing critically reflective practice. Reflective practice, 13(2), pp.311-325.

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