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1. With reference to a chosen significant and complex area for enquiry establish a method for investigation/exploration of key concepts, models and principles
2. Critically evaluate complex issues from a variety of viewpoints.
3. Develop effective arguments to support relevant conclusions

4. Critically justify and rigorously apply appropriate methodologies, techniques and practical strategies; being sensitive to the context.
5. Where appropriate formulate solutions to business or management problems in discussion with peers, clients, mentors and others.
6. Reflect critically on the process and outcomes of the investigation/enquiry.
 

Background of the study

Sonnentag and Fritz (2015) stated that stress is known as a biological term that refers consequences of failure of a human in responding appropriately physically or emotionally threats to organism. In other words, stress refers to strain from a situation of conflict between external environment and people that leads to emotional as well as physical pressure. As the world becomes fast paced, it is not possible to live free of stress especially in a workplace. However, there are two types of stress such positive and negative stress depending on unique perception of individual of tension between two forces. Stress at work is comparatively new phenomenon of modern lifestyle (Abbas and Raja 2015). Hence, job stress becomes a chronic disease caused by pressure in the workplace. It negatively affects performance of individuals as well as overall well-being of mind and body.

According to a report published by The Health and Safety Workplace (HSE) in 2015-16, people are suffering from work-related stress or illness (Petrou et al. 2015) 1.3 million working. Approximately, 2515 mesothelioma deaths have been occurred due to past asbestos exposures.  On the other hand, 30.4 million working days hampered due to work-related illness as well as workplace injury. It has been estimated that £14.1 billion cost of injuries and ill health have been taken place from present working conditions. The latest report published by Labour Force Survey imposed that the total number of work related stress, depression or anxiety cases are 48,000 found in 2015-15 as a prevalence rate of 1510 per 100,000 workers (Joseph et al. 2015).  In 2015-2016, it has been reported that stress caused for 37% of all work associated with ill health cases, whereas 45% of working days hampered for stress in workplace.

In this perspective, stress continues to affect health of the organizations. As unhealthy organization directly affect on production of the organization, it reduces involvement of the employees. Wang, Lu and Siu (2015) mentioned that the experiences of work related stress is not new in Malaysia. The organizations in Malaysia continue to experience work-related stress that results in poor working conditions. Working in food and beverage industry is hard and stressful as working hours is long. In addition, the sector has higher proportion of workers resulting a tough completion among the employees. The high degree of interacting with guests and high rate of crises occurs in the industry are the main causes of stress in F&B industry. Hence, it is important to identify the reasons and critically analyze the impact of stress on productivity of the organizations due to high level of stress. 

Research Aims and Objectives

The aim of the research is to analyze the impact of job stress on employee performance critically. In addition, the study has aim to identify the causes responsible for job stress in F&B industry, Malaysia and find out the techniques used for managing stress in the industry.

The research objectives can be explained as followed.

  • To identify the causes responsible for stress in F&B industry, Malaysia
  • To critically analyze the impact of stress in F&B industry, Malaysia
  • To identify the level of awareness among managers in mitigating work
  • To recommend stress management techniques for minimizing stress in F&B industry, Malaysia

The research questions can be listed as followed.

  • What are the causes responsible for causing stress in F&B industry, Malaysia?
  • What is the level of awareness among managers in mitigating stress?
  • What are the stress management techniques for minimizing stress in F&B industry, Malaysia?

The public service department is one of the busiest industry having high demand as well as expectations from public. Therefore, workers require to work over as well as beyond the work schedule. It creates stressful environment for employees of the organization. In addition, there is several issues cause stress among employees like low salaries, lack of engagement in decision making process, heavy workload as well as less opportunities for promotion (Karimi et al. 2014). On the other side, globalization has Malaysian suppliers facing tough competition along with aggressive cost cutting. Moreover, pressure in workplace is growing day by day and people in food and beverage industry are facing changing business and economic conditions as from own role and position in the enterprise. In addition, the workers need to be able for multi-task and meet satisfaction of the users (Zhang et al. 2014).Stress is considered as ubiquitous and becomes universal phenomenon in workplaces.

In addition, International researches give effort in reducing human and economic costs caused for work related stress. The employees highlight the significance of stress at current days in order to manage and minimize stress by making practical guidelines in public and private sectors. In order to reduce work-related stress, organizations included in F&B industry, Malaysia have taken several steps like implying policies for managing work pressure in the organization (Wang et al. 2014). However, growing level of competition becomes the major barrier to keep employees comfort zone in the workplace. Thus, it is requires to investigate the impact of job stress on performance of the employees and organization and find out effective actions that can be helpful to balance work-life pressure.  

In the words of Sykes, Venkatesh and Johnson (2014), there are several studies have conducted study on workplace stress. However, challenges for implicating the techniques helpful to reduce stress are missing and not up to dated as the organizations and working procedure is moving fast changes. It is vital to perceive and address job stress as the components have bad affect on mind and physical health of the employees. Modern organizations face increasing in number and size of the organizations employ as well as rely on specialists as well as professionals whom offered a suitable work environment for performing roles effectively. A number of researchers have confirmed increased interest of researches in the field of organizational behavior in studying the factors that affect performance of jobs like job stress that made the enterprise strives removing or neutralizing factors that cause job stress among workers (Karimi et al. 2014). In other words, occupational stress has an impact on performance of the employees recognized as a vital area of concern for the organizations. Negative stress also affects physical and mental health of the staffs. Thus, analyzing the impact of job stress on employee performance is considered as an important issue for F&B industry, Malaysia. 

Problem Statement


It is important to understand several occupational stress inducers and impact of various aspects of job performance. Occupational stress has become a challenge for employers of the organizations as it has a direct impact on low productivity and increase absenteeism of different employee issues such as alcoholism, drug abuse, host of cardiovascular issue and hypertension. Majority of the previous articles mentioned that impact of stress on specific aspect or dimensions of jobs (Petrou et al. 2015). Thus, it is pertinent to comprehend as to what constitutes performance of jobs and finding four aspects such as general performance, technical performance, human performance as well as administrative performance. On the other hand, skills including knowledge and abilities as well as competencies of the staffs are important for an organization to gain competitive advantages. Moreover, the concerns for organizations are performance of workers irrespective of the factors conditions. As good performance of the employees can lead to provide good organizational performance, it is an indicator of getting success. It is required to analyze the factors dependent for job stress that directly has an impact on employee performance of the organization. Thus, it becomes an issue to manage stress effectively.

Stress has a great impact on organizational performance and affects health of the workers. Thus, it is important to identify the factors responsible for causing job stress among employees. Overtime in workplace has an enormous impact on performance of the employees as well as productivity. Combination of regular overtime as well as potential for performance issues for the employers. Hence, addressing the issues that cause job stress is important for management of the organizations. In addition, business demand as well as productivity is considered as major concerns, which arise out regular and excessive overtime. At present days, nature of work becomes drastically changed and still changing at whirlwind speed. Most of the professions starting from artist to engineer or a doctor to sales executive are suffered from stress (Joseph et al. 2015). Additionally, job stress becomes a threat to physical health. On the other hand, work based stress seen in organized workers consequently affects health of the organizations. As a result, organizations are affected in generating expected outcome and retain competitive in its business position. Hence, it becomes an issue now to manage occupational stress in F&B industry, Malaysia.

The research has four chapters followed by introduction, literature review, research methodology, data analysis & findings and conclusion & recommendations. First chapter of the research deals with background, research aims, objectives, research questions and rationale of the research. Research aims and objectives are helpful to set right direction of the research. On the other hand, research background, problem statement and rationale of the research are useful to understand the topic of research properly and reasons for selecting the topic.

Rationale of the study

Literature review consists of gathering of secondary sources such as books, journals and websites. Theories and models related to the research are explained in the section of research.

Third chapter of the research includes research methodology. In this part, selection of methodological tools is achieved.  It helps to carry forward the research in proper way.

Fourth chapter of the research deals with data findings and analysis. Here, data collected from primary sources like online survey is presented in tabular format. Additionally, data are analyzed in this chapter of the research.

Final chapter of the research discusses conclusion and recommendations. Data analyzed from fourth chapter of the research summarized and concluded in this chapter. Moreover, recommendations are provided in order to manage job stress at workplace and obtain potential outcome.  

Organisational theories: The theory studies enterprises for identifying the patterns as well as structures used in order to solve the issues maximize efficiency along with productivity.

Individual stress: Stress can be defined in terms of physical as well as physiological effects on an individual, physical or emotional strain. 

The chapter deals with gathering of secondary data from different sources such as books, journals and websites and analyzes the data. The concept of stress and its impact on human body is explained in this chapter. Additionally, the key factors for getting success in workplace are explained in this chapter of research. Theories, models related to stress, and employee performance are presented in this chapter. On the other hand, impact of job stress on employee performance is critically analyzed in this chapter of research. Challenges faced by the management of an organization to implement stress management technique and develop a stress free environment are also discussed in this chapter of research.

Workplace stress is harmful as well as emotional response, which can occur during conflict situation between demands of jobs on employee and amount of control that an employee has over meeting the demands (Law et al. 2014). Pressure at workplace is not avoidable for demands of contemporary work environment. Individuals can perceive pressure as acceptable. It may keep employees alert, motivated and able to work as well as work depending on available resources along with personal characteristics.

Social framework approach hypothesis can center the connection between inner and in addition outside condition. Groups working in the organizations depend on specializations, though Pfizer takes after the approach that can impact both the organization in the distinguishing proof of the elements and powers influencing the specific business. Actually, absence of thought in administrative methodologies like arranging and controlling leave a negative effect.  The lifestyle of the intrigue intends to base on securing satisfaction among the customers to meet the honest to goodness destinations. 

Stress-related hazards at work are divided into content and context of work.  

Work content consists of job content like monotony, meaningless tasks, under-stimulation and lack of variety. On the other hand, work load as well as work pace like working under pressure and strict, not flexible, long and unpredictable working hours, participation and control such as lack of control over work procedures, methods and work environment.

On the other hand, work context consists of development of career, status and pay like insecurity in job, lack of promotion scope and low social value. In addition, piece rate payment schemes and unfair performance system of evaluation and interpersonal relationships such as inadequate and unsupportive supervision along with poor relationship with colleague and organizational culture such as poor communication, poor leadership and lack of clarity regarding objectives of the organizations, structures and strategies are included under work-life balance.

Work-related stress is still considered as an evasive concept to people. However, the topic is covered in several papers that are published every year. In this perspective, it is important to focus on the risk factors that are extracted from existing researches. It concerns in specific work-related stress and interventions as well as related costs. Being respected as well as appreciated by supervisors or any significant persons is considered as fundamental human demands (Hildebrandt 2015). As per the reports regarding occupational health psychology, various stressful experiences are connected to being offended for example, by offended, social exclusion and social conflict and illegitimate tasks. On contrary, being appreciated is considered as one of the most significant factors that increases satisfaction, motivation, health and well-being.    

 Stress may cause psychological, behavioral and physiological effects.

Psychological: The response to stress decreases ability to work or interact effectively with people and be less able to take good decisions. Stress plays a part in anxiety as well as depression. The structure of Occupational Stress Indicator has demonstrated that stressful transactions are generally seen as product of intervening systems like people exert influence on as well as responding to environments. In different words, the procedure of stress is dependent on appraisal of a particular situation. Stress generally occurs while magnitude of the stressor is crossing the limits of individual’s capacity to cope. 

Physiological:   Job related stress has a great impact on physiological aspects of a human. Hormone release can trigger fight response of human body. It also assists them to fight harder. It increases heart rate, sweating and blood pressure. Stress can cause heart disease, whereas prolonged stress increases tension putting on arteries. It can affects immune system.

Behavioral: Stress may cause employees to be jumpy, excitable and irritable. Effects of stress cause employee to drink or smoke frequently. In addition, stress is known as a part of anxiety and depression.

Several researchers have argued that stress at workplace has a great impact on performance of the employees. Occupational stress has inadvertently consequences on low performance in organizations. Thus, the significance of stress is focused nowadays by management of organizations in order to manage and minimize stress by implementing practical guidelines in the organizations.

The popularity of stress concept in the field of science and mass media stems widely work of the endocrinologist Hans Selye. He has observed that there is a variety of stimulus events applied intensely as well as long enough, able to generate common effects in a series of animal studies. According to Seyle, these caused several changes nonspecifically and constitute stereotypical such as particular response pattern of systematic stress. In addition, it can be defined that stress as a nonspecifically response of body to any type of demands. Selye has identified three stages of adaption that a person goes through in General Adaption Syndrome 1936. These are alarm, resistance as well as exhaustion (Hildebrandt 2015). The stages are related with specific biological markers like changes in hormone patterns as well as production of stress hormones along with gradual depletion of energy sources of body. In alarm stage, body recognizes challenge or threat and goes into fight that is actually coined by Walter Cannon as vital pioneer in modern stress theory. On the other hand, body attempts adoption to challenging situation persisting in resistant stage. Adoption is required for psychological resources that may get depleted. The stressful challenge is persisted for long time whether exhaustion stage occurs. The immune system is generally impaired as long term damage as well as result of illness.

As per Lazarus, stress can be experienced when a person perceives that demands are exceeded personal as well as social resources that an individual is capable for mobilizing. It is called as transactional model of stress and coping. Perception of an individual is a critical factor. According to him, psychological stress is considered as a specific relationship between person as well as environment appraised by person as taxing or exceeding resources as well as endangering wellbeing.  According to the theory, there are two things thought by a person thinks when it is faced with a situation.

There are various key contemporary theories in scientific literature, which have assisted to make clarification of the causes as well as mechanism underpinned work related stress. Several theories have been extensively analyzed and used in order to guide approaches to intervention. Structural model and description of key variables along with interactions among the variables are helpful in this aspect.

Contemporary stress theory has found its origins in early work of social science research group at the University of Michigan as well as in specific work of Caplan, van Harrison, French and Kahn. They have developed the Person-Environment (P-E) theory. The theory argues that stress can arise for lack of fir between skill of an individual as well as resources and abilities. However, it demands work environment (Al-Kuwari 2015). The particular theory explicitly interacts between individuals as well as environment in order to shape response for working situations along with events. However, it highlights the significance of individual perception of the environment. The lack of fit in a work environment has three forms such as the demands of work environment can be exceeded the ability of an employee, demands of workers continuously fail to meet by work environment as well as a combination of situations existed. 

The Job Demand-Control model as well as its extended version of Job Demand-Control Support model dominates in occupational stress research for more than twenty years. The model postulates that job strain results from interaction between two dimensions of work environment such as psychological demands of job and control. Psychological demands conventionally referred to workload and operated in terms of pressure as well as emotional requirements along with interpersonal conflict dimensions that define contemporary construction of psychological demands. On the other hand, job control refers to ability of persons in order to control work activities. It is defined by two main elements such as decision authority and skill discretion. The theory suggests that people experiencing high demands paired with low control and likely to experience psychological strain and work-related stress along with poor physical and mental health.

The particular model has extended to include a social dimension such as social support.  The model postulates that social support moderates negative impact of job strain on physical as well as mental health of the employees (Gallo 2017).  Additionally, the JCDS model suggests that most of the at-risks groups consisting poor physical as well as mental health are the workers exposed to job strain paired with low workplace support.

There are several articles reviewed by researchers regarding the impact of stress on employee performance. It is pertinent to comprehend as to what constitutes performance and different dimensions of job that are affected by stress. Job performance comprises four aspects such as human performance, technical performance, general performance and administrative performance (Lewis 2015). In addition, inconvenient hours and dehumanizing environment can bring stress for the employees. Poor relationships with the co-workers, staffs and supervisors are associated with the work relationships. Competition among the staffs and not accepted by fellow employees are dependent for work stress. It is important to have healthy condition in workplace as unhealthy condition may lead to work stress.

According to Law, Wu and Liu (2014), there are nearly three billion people across the world are employed and face incessant as well as challenging issues in the organization. Stress has a significant impact on performance as well as efficiency.  In Canada, 44% workers have changed jobs due to stress, whereas 28% people are thinking to change their jobs due to stress. In Germany, the number is 48% and 41% accordingly (Russell 2014). There are approximately 42% employees in the United Kingdom have already changed jobs due to stress. Moreover, 28% employees are thinking to change jobs due to stress. The report published by NIOSH, there are overall 40% of worker across the world have found their jobs as extremely stressful. There are approximately 14% of employees had felt that striking a co-worker, whereas 25% employees feel like screaming or shouting for job stress and 10% employees are concerned regarding individuals at work for becoming violent.

Several researchers view that stress has a negative impact on performance of the employees. However, some stressful work conditions are important for keeping employee productive. Hence, it is required to understand the real scenario and the factors that are responsible for stress and employee performance. Some of the factors are responsible in order to create stress among the staffs in the organization. It is important to select the major causes of stress in the employees (Murphy 2014). The attitude of several workers is different for workload. Some of comfortably can manage work place while it become tough to manage. Thus, workload has a vital impact on performance of jobs. Role of conflict has also an important impact on performance of job of the employees.

In addition, the role requirements of an employee are antithetical. It provides rise to role conflict. On the other hand, it is an important situation of adherence to the role of requirements and makes the process difficult for adhering to the requirements of a different person. A research makes the process to lose talented human resource as it is considered as unjustified remuneration.  Namin (2016) mentioned that that he employees can think that it is required to fulfill the requirements in a suitable way and make the efforts of switching in improper way. On the other hand, as per the efforts, it is important to create stress among them as well as resulting in decrease of performance. As per the report, there is 71% employees mention prime factor as inadequate pay for leaving job. In addition, the employees can think that the employees are not rewarded as per the efforts that are putting in. Inadequate monetary reward has an important impact on performance of the employees. Job performance is considered as total output that employees provide to the organization. Distinctive types of relationships are found between work stress as well as job performance (Naumann 2015). Stress is considered as pervasive issues of an organization. It is important that work stress have a significant role that can decrease efficiency and increase of absenteeism as well as turnover.

 However, it is believed that stress is difficult in nature.  The importance of stress can be classified into two folds such as challenge stressors as well as hindrance stressors. Challenge stressors can be helpful to achieve targets of the organization (Page et al. 2017). The optimal level of stress can increase productivity of the organizational members. In addition, challenge stressors assist in achieving targets efficiently as well as timely. Thus, optimal level of stress can increase productivity of the organizational members. Stress can badly affect performance of the employees. It also increases job satisfaction as well as turnover.

Stress can be linked with demands as well as resources. Demands are considered as expectations. On the other hand, situations as well as circumstances in the enterprise refer to the employees used in encountering the demands. Petrou, Demerouti and Schaufeli (2015) commented that the level of stress can reduce when the resources are high. The factors are responsible for creating impact on the employees. Job performance is seen as activity that individual is able for completing the allocated tasks successfully. As a theoretical level, there are several types of relationships. One of the negative impacts of the process is different types of relationships assumed for existing between the measures of job stress. Secondly, it is important to consider that the relationship productivity decreases with stress as well as job performance.

Employees of an organization are less likely to experience stress when pressures and demand of work are matched to knowledge and abilities. On the other hand, an employee feels stress pressure become excessive and not manageable (Lewis 2015).  Stress can damage health of an employee and business performance. Work-related stress is generally caused for poor work organization by poor work design, poor management and unsatisfactory conditions for work. In addition, lack of support from colleagues as well as supervisors.

Organizations are created through experiencing requests of individuals as items and administrations. Then again, the structure of the organizations takes a few structures, which can be affected by a few factors, for example, reason, size and assignments complexities alongside outer condition and culture (Russell 2014). Present day organizations are currently considered as prolific land for governmental issues with a specific end goal to flourish. Governmental issues of organizations can be characterized as achieving singular thought processes and in addition maintaining enthusiasm of a person over hierarchical enthusiasm without affect on organisation. On opposite, legislative issues in the project are shown where individuals make issues in the advancement of representatives (Murphy 2014). The issues are not considered as genuine ones. In any case, it makes pulling down and obstructs advancement of people. (Namin 2016). An organization is made out of individuals working exclusively and inside the groups also. Subsequently, the demeanor of individuals for working in the organization stays as the factor of contributing for molding the organization.  

Classic view towards stress is that it is negatively related to job response and effectiveness in business. However, the approach has been much simplistic and inconclusive. Problem with this simplistic model is that conventional assumption is that stress has been a one-dimensional variable. Indeed most of these researched gas seen this as a single variable. Previous researches have been missing consideration of distinction among kinds of stress. Further, this has been seen as the kind of demand instead of level of demand. Chia and Chu (2016) suggested that stress is a multidimensional construct. Thus they distinguished among work stressors involving idea that few of them like relationship conflict have been resulting in reverse outcomes. On the other hand, elements like task-conflict has been resulting in positive outcomes. Thus, by drawing that distinction Ratanasiripong et al. (2016) showed that these kinds of stress have been based on whether they are related to challenges like good stress or hindrance-related or bas stress.

According to Apadore and Ramasamy (2017), conflicts are related with challenge stressors and have been predicting positive results and relationship conflicts. Those are related in predicting negative outcomes and hindrance stressors. In this way, Murphy (2014) examined that nature of issues and hindrance related to stress has been relating to work outcomes. Challenge related stress has been regarded as good stress creating feelings of achievement, challenge and fulfilment. Though these kind of stress has been including job overload, pressure on time and rise in responsibility, Bennett (2015) showed that these kinds of challenging task demands or work scenarios creates positive feelings.

Conceptual framework

Research methodology

Research methodology is used to collect data and information for the purpose of decision-making process. The research methodology includes research publication, surveys, interviews as well as different research techniques that could consist of present as well as historical information. The research methodology is placed in a research in order to figure out new ideas for the organization. In other words, research methodology is defined as the activity that engages finding out the process in systematic way. Methodology is also called as a philosophical framework within which the research is conducted. In this chapter of the research, research methods, research approaches as well as designs are described. In addition, justification of selected methodology is explained in the chapter of research.

In the current research, selection of methodological tools would be helpful to analyze the impact of employee stress on performance of the employees in food and beverage industry of Malaysia. In the research, positivism philosophy is selected for the research along with deductive approach and descriptive research design. On the other hand, 95 staffs from food and beverage industry, Malaysia are selected for online survey. Quantitative data analysis method is followed for analyzing data in the survey. However, three managers from different food and beverage companies of Malaysia are selected for interview. Qualitative analysis method is followed for analyzing data obtained from interview.

Research philosophy includes the source, nature along with development of knowledge. It is a belief regarding the ways in which data related to a particular phenomenon needs to be collected, analyzed and properly used (Lewis 2015).  Addressing research philosophy in research involves in being aware as well as formulation of beliefs along with assumptions. Identification of research philosophy is helpful to formulate beliefs as well as assumptions.  Each stage of the research procedures is based on the assumptions regarding the sources as well as nature of knowledge. Philosophy of a research reflects significant assumptions that are served as the based for research strategy. Research philosophy has several braches associated with a wide range of disciplines. Within the opportunities of business studies in specific, there are four major research philosophies such as pragmatism, positivism, realism and interpretivism. The selection of a particular research philosophy has an impact on its practical implications. There is philosophical distinctiveness between the studies focusing on the facts and numbers like an analysis of the impact of employee stress on employee performance.

Positivism philosophy is applied in the present context, as it helps the researcher to analyze the hidden facts as well as information associated with the impact of employee stress on employee performance. On the other hand, the nature of study is limited in time. Hence, interperative or realism philosophy is discarded in the research. In addition, selection of positivism philosophy limits the role of researcher in manipulation as well as assessment of the data, which can lead to reduction of data errors.

Research approaches can be divided into three major types such as deductive research approach, inductive approach and abductive research approach (Brinkmann 2014). The relevance of hypothesis to the particular study is considered as major point of difference between inductive and deductive research approaches. In deductive approach, validity of the assumptions is tested. On contrary, inductive approach contributes to emergence of the theories as well as generalizations in a research. Abductive research starts with the surprising facts as well as research process devoted their description. Research approach is required so that the format needed for conduction of the research is revealed. The first phase of inductive approach is observation, which assists the researcher to develop the way of the research. On the other hand, inductive approach serves specific purpose of establishing new theory for any topic. Deductive approach can be utilized as a procedure explaining practical application of the theories. It helps obtaining access to the research content.

In the current study, the topic will try to understand the impact of stress on employee performance in food and beverage industry of Malaysia. The models related to employee stress and employee performance needs a selection of the approaches in order to understand the approaches precise as well as clear way. On contrary, inductive approach fails in deploying the current topic. It is also important to analyze the topic properly in the research.

Research design assists in describing the framework of the particular topic of the research. Research design is divided into three categories such as descriptive, exploratory and explanatory. Some authors also consider research design as the selection between quantitative and qualitative research methods (Lushey and Munro 2015). Exploratory research does not have aim providing final as well as conclusive answers to the research questions. The researcher can change the direction to specific extent (Whicher et al. 2018). However, the differences between exploratory as well as conclusive research are related to specific research relation of the research. During the procedure of data collection, a specific type of research needs to be applied, which can be helpful in describing the research design as well as the types of research design utilized in academic research pattern. Use of exploratory research design is helpful for the researcher in order to acknowledge different types of concepts and ideas needed for completion of the research paper.  

Justification for selecting chosen design

In the present context of research, explanatory research design is avoided as it supports longitudinal study and it is not possible with the current topic. Descriptive research design is able defining detailed research process involved in analyzing the research topic. The extent of influence passed on by the impact of employee stress on performance of the employees in food and beverage industry in Malaysia.

Data is useful for collecting information as well as facts useful to study any type of research (Page et al. 2017). Data collections are useful for deriving accurate outcomes to a research procedure and enables standard format of the research (Ta and Ickes 2018). There are two types of data collection such as primary data collection and secondary data collection. It is important for an organization to process proper type of data collection method. Primary data is useful for collection of raw data, which is directly catered by the data sources. Primary data are helpful for the organizations to collect raw data from the sources. It is important for the organizations to improve the process. The first hand data collection requires clarification of reality as well as validity. On the other hand, secondary sources are generally used for widening the specific concept of the research topic. It can enable to do better study of the topic as it involves more data as well as explanation.

In the present context, primary sources including interaction session with the staffs as well as managers of food and beverage industry in Malaysia are considered for the research. Literature sources of the research are considered as output of the data obtained through secondary sources.  Primary data collection method is used in the present context. A survey has been organized to collectdata for the research. Secondary sources of data include online as well as offline sources such as books, journals, websites and blogs. An online survey has been arranged for collecting data for the research. On the other hand, conduction of interview would be helpful for collecting data for the research.

Qualitative data is useful for recording narrative form of the data having ability to add better explanation of the research topic (Zou and Sunindijo 2015). However, qualitative data assists in adding theoretical concepts in practical field so that it helps to make better understanding of the specific topic. However, quantitative data is helpful for analyzing the statistical data, which are helpful for better comprehension of the topic. In the present study, mixed approach is applied for both quantitative as well as qualitative method. The staffs will be considered for quantitative research techniques, whereas managers from different organizations will be considered for qualitative research. 

 Sampling is one of the procedures of selecting units from a particular population of interest so that analyzing the sample may generate results back to the population where it is chosen (Wiek and Lang 2016). Sampling methods are usually classified in probability and non-probability. In probability sampling, every member of the population includes zero probability. In addition, probability-sampling method consists of random sampling, systematic sampling as well as stratified sampling.  In the current research context, simple random probability sampling technique has been selected for the research. 95 staffs of food and beverage industry in Malaysia have been selected for online survey method. On the other hand, three managers from different organizations are selected for interview. The employees are asked close-ended questions in the survey method, where likert scale has been followed for developing questionnaire.

 During conduction of research methodology, it is required to follow a code of conduct that can be helpful to identify the wrong as well as right set of behaviors needed for adoption at the time of process. On the other hand, the study regarding the impact of employee stress on employee performance has been done that follows few ethical considerations. It assists in adding standardization of the topic.  

Data application:  Data obtained via study of the topic is useful in order to comprehend the impact of employee stress on employee performances. The researcher has not applied data for any type of commercial application and ensured to be used for academic purposes only.

Respondent’s involvement: There are any external influence or pressure over the participants taking part in the feedback procedure of the research. Moreover, respondents with voluntary participation were encouraged for the research. In addition, any type of mental or physical harassment was not involved in the research. 

Present chapter of the research deals with gathering of primary data by organizing online survey and interview. In order to select sample for the research simple random probability sampling technique is followed. Primary data are collected from survey where 95 staffs of F&B industry in Malaysia are considered for the research. Quantitative analysis method is followed for analyzing the data from survey. On the other side, data collected from interview is analyzed by qualitative analysis method. Three managers from different F&B organizations in Malaysia are considered for quality analysis. In the quantitative analysis, close-ended questionnaire are asked based on 1 to 5 likert scale. However, open-ended questions are asked to the managers of the organizations.

Survey questionnaire

Gender: 

What is your Gender?

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Female

38

40.0

40.0

40.0

Male

57

60.0

60.0

100.0

Total

95

100.0

100.0

Age: 

Descriptive Statistics

N

Range

Minimum

Maximum

Mean

Std. Deviation

What is your age?

95

37

19

56

34.37

9.504

Valid N (listwise)

95

How long you are working with your organization?

How long you are working with your organization?

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

6 months- 1 years

28

29.5

29.5

29.5

2 years-4 years

24

25.3

25.3

54.7

5 years-8 years

14

14.7

14.7

69.5

9 years-10 years

17

17.9

17.9

87.4

More than 10 years

12

12.6

12.6

100.0

Total

95

100.0

100.0

 According to the data from table and graph states that approximately 31.57%, respondents in the survey are working in the organization since 6 months to 1 year. However, 29.57% participants are working since 2 years to 4 years. It is important to be mentioned that nearly 15.78% participants are working from 9 years to 10 years, whereas 10.52% people are working for more than 10 years.

  1. How far do you agree that stress has a great impact on employee performance in F&B industry?

How far do you agree that stress has a great impact on employee performance in F & B industry?

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Strongly agree

29

30.5

30.5

30.5

Agree

35

36.8

36.8

67.4

Neutral

12

12.6

12.6

80.0

Disagree

12

12.6

12.6

92.6

Strongly disagree

7

7.4

7.4

100.0

Total

95

100.0

100.0

Table 4.2: Impact of stress on employee performance

The data from table shows that nearly 30.5% participants are strongly agreed that that stress has a great impact on employee performance in F&B industry, whereas 36.8% people are agreed on the statement. On the other hand, approx 12.6 % respondents in the survey are disagreed that that stress has a great impact on employee performance in F&B industry. In addition, 7.4% people are strongly disagreed regarding the statement. However, 12.6% people remain neutral in the online survey.

  1. What are the challenges you have found while working in your organization?

What are the challenges you have found while working in your organization?

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Staying involved and motivated all time

23

24.2

24.2

24.2

Good staff attitude and behaviour

26

27.4

27.4

51.6

Dealing with change

21

22.1

22.1

73.7

Require new skills and professional development

20

21.1

21.1

94.7

Good communication with customers

5

5.3

5.3

100.0

Total

95

100.0

100.0

Table 4.3: challenges for working in F&B industry

It is important to identify the challenges faced while working in the organization. In the survey, there are 24.2% participants out of total number of respondents think that staying engaged as well as motivated in the workplace is the major challenge for working in F&B industry. However, 27.4% respondents face challenges in maintaining attitude and good behavior. On the other hand, same number of participants found it in dealing with change. Approximately, 21.1% people think that adopting new skills and professional development is the major challenge. However, as it is required to deal several numbers of customers in F&B industry, good communication with customers is a major challenge.

  1.  What are the factors can motivate to work?

What are the factors can motivate to work?

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Financial reward

24

25.3

25.3

25.3

Personal satisfaction

29

30.5

30.5

55.8

Flexibility

20

21.1

21.1

76.8

Impact

14

14.7

14.7

91.6

Recognition

8

8.4

8.4

100.0

Total

95

100.0

100.0

Table 4.4: factors for motivating to work

Figure 4.4: factors for motivating to work

According to the data presented in table shows that there are 25.3 % participants in the online survey said that financial award would be beneficial for motivation in work. On the other hand, there are 30.5% participants in the survey said that personal satisfaction is one of the factors that can be helpful for the employees motivating to work. In addition, approximately 22.1% people believe in flexible time shifting is the factor of motivation. Nearly 14.7% respondents out of total number of participants think that impact is the factor. There are 8.4% respondents think that recognition is the major factor of motivation.

  1. How far you agree instant decision making skill can minimize work stress?

How far you agree instant decision-making skill can minimize work stress?

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Strongly agree

19

20.0

20.0

20.0

Agree

28

29.5

29.5

49.5

Neutral

7

7.4

7.4

56.8

Disagree

20

21.1

21.1

77.9

Strongly disagree

21

22.1

22.1

100.0

Total

95

100.0

100.0

Table 4.5 Impact of instant decision-making skill on work stress

Presented data in table and graph shows that there are 20% respondents in the survey are strongly agreed that decision-making skill can minimize work stress. Nearly 29.5% respondents are agreed about the fact. However, nearly 7.4% respondents remain neutral.  There are 21.1% participants are disagreed about the matter. However, approximately 22.1% participants are strongly disagreed that decision making skill can minimize work stress.

  1. How far you agree increasing competition in market leads to more stress in workplace?

How far you agree increasing competition in market leads to more stress in workplace?

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Strongly agree

28

29.5

29.5

29.5

Agree

19

20.0

20.0

49.5

Neutral

8

8.4

8.4

57.9

Disagree

21

22.1

22.1

80.0

Strongly disagree

19

20.0

20.0

100.0

Total

95

100.0

100.0

Table 4.6:  Increasing competition in market leads to more stress

It is important to find the factors for increasing competition in the market that leads to more stress in the workplace. According to the data, there are 29.5% participants are strongly agreed with the statement. However, there are 20% respondents agreed with this. However, 5.26% participants are neutral. In the survey, 8.4% participants are disagreed about the statement, whereas 20.1% people are strongly disagreed about the increasing market competition.

  1. What the issues you faced while you are stressed in work?

What the issues you faced while you are stressed in work?

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Conflict between team members

30

31.6

31.6

31.6

Misbehave with customers

23

24.2

24.2

55.8

Poor health condition

15

15.8

15.8

71.6

Less productivity

13

13.7

13.7

85.3

Not achieving daily target

14

14.7

14.7

100.0

Total

95

100.0

100.0

Table 4.7: issues faced while in stress

As per the data presented in table and graph, there are 31.6% respondents in the survey think that conflict between team members is the major issue faced by them while they are in stress at workplace. However, 24.2% participants in the online survey have been found that they face misbehaving with customers.  In addition, there is 15.8% people face poor health condition for being in stress. Nearly 13.7 % respondents in the survey face less productivity issues for stress. On the other hand, approximately 14.7% participants cannot achieve daily target due to be stressed in workplace.

  1. How far you agree stressed in workplace can bring several problems outside of the workplace as well?

How far you agree stressed in workplace can bring several problems outside of the workplace as well?

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Strongly agree

22

23.2

23.2

23.2

Agree

26

27.4

27.4

50.5

Neutral

6

6.3

6.3

56.8

Disagree

22

23.2

23.2

80.0

Strongly disagree

19

20.0

20.0

100.0

Total

95

100.0

100.0

Table 4.8: Impact of workplace stress on outside of the organization

As per the data presented in table and graph shows that there are nearly 23.2% participants are strongly agreed that stressed in workplace can bring several problems outside of the workplace as well. There are 27,4 participants in the survey agreed about the fact. However, 6.4% participants in the survey remain neutral on the matter. In the online survey, it has been found that there are 23.2% participants are strongly disagreed about the matter.

  1. How far you agree that management of the organizations have an important role to mitigate stress in work?

How far you agree that management of the organizations have an important role to mitigate stress in work?

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Strongly agree

19

20.0

20.0

20.0

Agree

36

37.9

37.9

57.9

Neutral

13

13.7

13.7

71.6

Disagree

13

13.7

13.7

85.3

Strongly disagree

14

14.7

14.7

100.0

Total

95

100.0

100.0

Table 4.9: Role of organizations to mitigate stress in work

Findings and analysis

 In the online survey, approximately 20% participants in the online survey are strongly agreed that management of the organizations have an important role to mitigate stress in work, whereas 37.9% respondents out of total number of participants in the online survey are agreed about the matter. However, nearly 13.7% participants in the survey are disagreed on the particular matter and 13.7% respondents are strongly disagreed regarding the role of management mitigating stress in work. In the survey, 14.7 % participants are neutral as they are confused about the matter.

  1. What are measures could be helpful to mitigate stress in work?

What are measures could be helpful to mitigate stress in work?

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Develop healthy responses

23

24.2

24.2

24.2

Establish boundaries

34

35.8

35.8

60.0

Scheduling tasks

14

14.7

14.7

74.7

Effective communication with higher authorities

12

12.6

12.6

87.4

Complete work within shift time

12

12.6

12.6

100.0

Total

95

100.0

100.0

Table 4.10: Measures to mitigate stress in workplace

Findings and analysis

In the online survey, it has been found that approximately 24.2% participants think that development of healthy responses in the workplace can be helpful mitigating stress in work. Nearly 35.8% respondents think that establishment of boundaries is one of the major factors that can mitigate stress in work. However, 14.7% participants think that scheduling task can be useful for mitigating stress in work. There are 14.6% participants in the survey found being effective in communication with the higher authorities in the workplace would be helpful to mitigate stress in the work. Nearly 12.6% participants think that completing work within the shift time would be helpful to reduce stress in the workplace.

  1.  How far you agree that there should be balance in working life and outside of working life to minimize stress in work?

How far you agree that there should be balance in working life and outside of working life to minimize stress in work?

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Strongly agree

22

23.2

23.2

23.2

Agree

22

23.2

23.2

46.3

Neutral

8

8.4

8.4

54.7

Disagree

19

20.0

20.0

74.7

Strongly disagree

24

25.3

25.3

100.0

Total

95

100.0

100.0

Table 4.11: Role of work-life balance on minimizing stress

Findings and analysis

According to the data presented in table clearly, shows that there are 23.2% respondents in the survey are strongly agreed that there should be balance in working life and outside of working life to minimize stress in work. However, 23.2% respondents are agreed with the matter. Nearly 8.4% respondents remain neutral. On the other hand, 20% participants are disagreed that there should be balance in working life and outside of working life to minimize stress in work, whereas 25.3% respondents are strongly disagreed about the matter.

  1.  What are the problems you have faced in work while you are in stress?

What are the problems you have faced in work while you are in stress?

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Depression and anxiety

24

25.3

25.3

25.3

Not focused on work

24

25.3

25.3

50.5

Face health issues

14

14.7

14.7

65.3

Difficulty in team work

19

20.0

20.0

85.3

Conflict between team members

14

14.7

14.7

100.0

Total

95

100.0

100.0

Table 4.12: problems for being stressed in workplace

Findings and analysis

In the online survey, there are 25.3% respondents out of total number of respondents feel that depression as well as anxiety is the main issue faced while working in stress. Stress can lead 25.3% participants think to not focusing in work. However, nearly 14.7% participant face health issues while they are in stress. There are 20% respondents out of total number of respondents think that difficulty in teamwork could be faced while in stressed. In addition, nearly 14.7% respondents think that conflict between team members is the issue faced while they are in stress.

  1. How far do you agree individual need to be aware for not to be stressed in work?

How far do you agree individual need to be aware for not to be stressed in work?

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Strongly agree

32

33.7

33.7

33.7

Agree

18

18.9

18.9

52.6

Neutral

16

16.8

16.8

69.5

Disagree

17

17.9

17.9

87.4

Strongly disagree

12

12.6

12.6

100.0

Total

95

100.0

100.0

Figure 4.13: Role of employees to mitigate stress in work

Findings and analysis

In the online survey, there are 33.7% respondents out of total number of participants strongly agreed that agree individual need to be aware for not to be stressed in work. Nearly 18.9% are agreed about the matter. However, 16.8% respondents remain neutral. On the other hand, approximately 17.9% participants are strongly disagreed on the matter. In the survey, nearly 12.6% participants are disagreed about the matter.

  1. How far you agree government has an important role to set up working pressure in organizations so that stress can be minimized?

How far you agree government has an important role to set up working pressure in organizations so that stress can be minimized?

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Strongly agree

16

16.8

16.8

16.8

Agree

22

23.2

23.2

40.0

Neutral

18

18.9

18.9

58.9

Disagree

17

17.9

17.9

76.8

Strongly disagree

22

23.2

23.2

100.0

Total

95

100.0

100.0

Figure 4.14: Role of the government to reduce work pressure and stress

Findings and analysis

In the survey, there are 16.8% participants in the survey are strongly agreed that government has an important role to set up working pressure in organizations so that stress can be minimized, whereas 23.2% participants are agreed on the matter. Nearly 18.9% respondents are neutral on the case. In the survey, 17.9% participants are disagreed about the matter. However, 23.2% participants in the survey are strongly disagreed about the matter.

  1. How far you agree that effective communication in workplace can be helpful to mitigate stress in work?

How far you agree that effective communication in workplace can be helpful to mitigate stress in work?

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Strongly agree

26

27.4

27.4

27.4

Agree

24

25.3

25.3

52.6

Neutral

22

23.2

23.2

75.8

Disagree

11

11.6

11.6

87.4

Strongly disagree

12

12.6

12.6

100.0

Total

95

100.0

100.0

Figure 4.15: Role of effective communication to mitigate stress in work

Findings and analysis

It is important to find out the solutions for being stressed in the workplace. There are 27.4% respondents in the online survey are strongly agreed that effective communication in workplace can be helpful to mitigate stress in work. Nearly 25.3% participants in the survey are agreed on the matter.  However, 23.2% respondents remain neutral on the case, as they are confused about the matter. In the survey, approximately 11.6% participants are disagreed about the matter.

  1. How far you agree job related stress has a large impact on performance of an employee in food and beverage industry?

How far you agree job related stress has a large impact on performance of an employee in food and beverage industry?

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Strongly agree

14

14.7

14.7

14.7

Agree

27

28.4

28.4

43.2

Neutral

21

22.1

22.1

65.3

Disagree

20

21.1

21.1

86.3

Strongly disagree

13

13.7

13.7

100.0

Total

95

100.0

100.0

Figure 4.16: Impact of job related stress on performance of an employee in food and beverage industry

Findings and analysis

According to the table and graph, it indicates that there are 14.7% participants out of total number of respondents in the survey are strongly agreed that job related stress has a large impact on performance of an employee in food and beverage industry. On the other hand, 28.4% participants in the survey are agreed about the matter. There are 22.1% participants remain neutral in the matter as they are confused about the role of stress on employee performance. In addition, nearly 21.1% respondents in the survey are disagreed about the matter. On contrary, 13.7% respondents are strongly disagreed about the matter.

  1. How far you agreed that organizational stress that has impact on your overall performance?

What is the organizational stress that has impact on your overall performance?

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Strongly agree

19

20.0

20.0

20.0

Agree

29

30.5

30.5

50.5

Neutral

13

13.7

13.7

64.2

Disagree

19

20.0

20.0

84.2

Strongly disagree

15

15.8

15.8

100.0

Total

95

100.0

100.0

Table 4.17: Impact of organizational stress on overall performance 

Figure 4.17: Impact of organizational stress on overall performance

Findings and analysis

According to the report presented in table and graph clearly indicates that there are 20% participants in the survey are strongly agreed about the matter. However, there are 30.5% respondents are agreed about the matter. There are 13.7% participants are neutral on the matter. In addition, nearly 20% participants are disagreed about the matter, whereas 15.8% respondents are strongly about the case.

  1. How far you agree that career development related stress affects on your current performance?

How far you agree that career development related stress affects on your current performance?

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Strongly agree

19

20.0

20.0

20.0

Agree

24

25.3

25.3

45.3

Neutral

17

17.9

17.9

63.2

Disagree

21

22.1

22.1

85.3

Strongly disagree

14

14.7

14.7

100.0

Total

95

100.0

100.0

Table 4.18: Impact of career development related stress current performance 

Figure 4.18: Impact of career development related stress current performance

Findings and analysis

The data obtained in table and graph shows that there are 20% respondents out of total number of respondents in the survey are strongly agreed that there are career development related stress affects on your current performance. In addition, nearly 25.3% are agreed about the statement. However, nearly 17.9% respondents remain neutral, as they are not sure for career development. On contrary, 22.1% respondents are disagreed about the matter. It is important to be mentioned that there are 14.7% participants are strongly disagreed about the matter.

  1.  How far you agree psychological stress of an employee affects the level of performance at the workplace?

How far you agree psychological stress of an employee affects the level of performance at the workplace?

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Strongly agree

27

28.4

28.4

28.4

Agree

21

22.1

22.1

50.5

Neutral

18

18.9

18.9

69.5

Disagree

14

14.7

14.7

84.2

Strongly disagree

15

15.8

15.8

100.0

Total

95

100.0

100.0

Table 4.19: Impact of psychological stress on performance at the workplace 

Figure 4.19: Impact of psychological stress on performance at the workplace

Findings and analysis

It is significant to analyze that psychological stress of an employee affects the level of performance at the workplace. There are 28.4% respondents out of total number of respondents in the survey are strongly agreed that psychological stress of an employee affects the level of performance at the workplace. Nearly 22.1% respondents are agreed about the statement. However, approximately 18.9% participants are neutral. There are 14.7%, participants are disagreed, whereas nearly 15.8% participants are strongly disagreed about the matter.

  1. How far you agree that behaviour related stress factors reduce productivity in your organization?

How far you agree that behaviour related stress factors reduce productivity in your organization?

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Strongly agree

28

29.5

29.5

29.5

Agree

24

25.3

25.3

54.7

Neutral

15

15.8

15.8

70.5

Disagree

14

14.7

14.7

85.3

Strongly disagree

14

14.7

14.7

100.0

Total

95

100.0

100.0

Figure 4.20: behaviour related stress factors reduce productivity in organization

Findings and analysis

There are 29.5% respondents in the survey are strongly agreed that that behaviour related stress factors reduce productivity in your organization. Nearly 25.3% participants are agreed about the matter. However, 15.8% participants remain neutral on the matter. The data in table and graph shows that nearly 14.7% respondents in the survey are disagreed about the matter, whereas 14.7% respondents in the survey are strongly disagreed regarding the impact of behaviour on stress of the employees.

  1. How far you agree that it is important for an organization to focus on individual stress  as it generates low morale?

How far you agree that it is important for an organization to focus on individual stress as it generates low morale?

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Strongly agree

20

21.1

21.1

21.1

Agree

21

22.1

22.1

43.2

Neutral

13

13.7

13.7

56.8

Disagree

22

23.2

23.2

80.0

Strongly disagree

19

20.0

20.0

100.0

Total

95

100.0

100.0

Findings and analysis

The data obtained in the table and graph indicates that there are 21.1% participants in the online survey are agreed that it is important for an organization to focus on individual stress as it generates low morale. However, 21.1% participants are agreed on the matter. Nearly 13.7% participants are neutral. On the other hand, 23.2% respondents are disagreed about the statement. Same number of respondents are strongly disagreed about the matter.

  1. What are the outcomes seen when you are in stress?

What are the outcomes seen when you are in stress?

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Absenteeism

22

23.2

23.2

23.2

Poor work relations

25

26.3

26.3

49.5

Reduced productivity

13

13.7

13.7

63.2

Low morale

18

18.9

18.9

82.1

Apathy/ loss of interest in work

17

17.9

17.9

100.0

Total

95

100.0

100.0

Figure 4.22: outcomes seen when in stress

Findings and analysis

The data presented in table indicates that there are 23.2% respondents think absenteeism is one of the outcomes for being stressed in work. On the other hand, 26.3% respondents think that poor work relation is a major outcome. There are 13.7% respondents think that low productivity is the major outcome. However, 18.9% participants think low morale of the employees can be generated for being stressed in work. There are 17.9% respondents think that apathy or loss is the outcome for being stressed in work.

  1.  How far you agree that absenteeism in workplace can be generated for affecting in stress?

How far you agree that absenteeism in workplace can be generated for affecting in stress?

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Strongly agree

18

18.9

18.9

18.9

Agree

24

25.3

25.3

44.2

Neutral

16

16.8

16.8

61.1

Disagree

17

17.9

17.9

78.9

Strongly disagree

20

21.1

21.1

100.0

Total

95

100.0

100.0

Findings and analysis

According to the data gained in the table and graph states that there are 18.9% respondents are strongly agreed that absenteeism in workplace can be generated for affecting in stress. However, 25.3% respondents are agreed about the matter. On the other hand, nearly 16.8% respondents in the survey are neutral on the matter. There are 17.9% respondents and 21.1% respondents are disagreed and strongly disagreed respectively about the statement.

  1.  What are the factors responsible for low productivity in your organization?

What are the factors responsible for low productivity in your organization?

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Job related stress

10

10.5

10.5

10.5

Organizational stress

27

28.4

28.4

38.9

Career related stress

22

23.2

23.2

62.1

Psychological stress

21

22.1

22.1

84.2

Behavioural stress

15

15.8

15.8

100.0

Total

95

100.0

100.0

Table 4.24: factors responsible for low productivity in your organization 

Findings and analysis

According to the data presented in table and graph, suggests that 10/5% respondents think that job related stress is responsible for low productivity. However, 28.4% respondents out of total number of respondents think that organizational stress is responsible for low productivity.  Nearly 23.2% respondents think career related stress is responsible, whereas 22.1% respondents think that behavioural stress is responsible for low productivity of the employees according to their potential.

  1. How far you agree apathy/ loss of interest in work can be resulted for being stressed in the workplace?

How far you agree apathy/ loss of interest in work can be resulted for being stressed in the workplace?

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Strongly agree

11

11.6

11.6

11.6

Agree

25

26.3

26.3

37.9

Neutral

20

21.1

21.1

58.9

Disagree

24

25.3

25.3

84.2

Strongly disagree

15

15.8

15.8

100.0

Total

95

100.0

100.0

Table 4.25: apathy/ loss of interest in work can be resulted for being stressed in the workplace 

Figure 4.25: apathy/ loss of interest in work can be resulted for being stressed in the workplace

Findings and analysis

According to the data presented in table and graph suggests that there are 11.6% respondents out of total number of respondents are strongly agreed that apathy/loss of interest in work can be resulted for being stressed in the workplace. In addition, there are 26.3% respondents are agreed on the matter. However, nearly 21.1% respondents remain neutral on the particular matter. There are 25.3% respondents disagreed on the matter. However, nearly 15.8% are strongly disagreed about the matter.

  1. How far you agree that organizations need to focus on the job related stress factors to generate potential productivity of the organization?

How far you agree that organizations need to focus on the job-related stress factors to generate potential productivity of the organization?

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Strongly agree

22

23.2

23.2

23.2

Agree

31

32.6

32.6

55.8

Neutral

12

12.6

12.6

68.4

Disagree

19

20.0

20.0

88.4

Strongly disagree

11

11.6

11.6

100.0

Total

95

100.0

100.0

Table 4.26: organizations need to focus on the job related stress factors to generate potential productivity of the organization 

Figure 4.26: organizations need to focus on the job related stress factors to generate potential productivity of the organization

Findings and analysis

In the table and chart, the data shows that nearly 23.2% respondents are strongly agreed that organizations need to focus on the job related stress factors to generate potential productivity of the organization. However, 32.6% participants in the survey are agreed on the matter.  There are 12.6% participants remain neutral. On the other hand, 20% respondents remain disagreed on the matter and approximately 11.6% participants are strongly disagreed on the matter.

  1. How far you agree that organizations need to focus on improving morale of the employees?

How far you agree that organizations need to focus on improving morale of the employees?

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Strongly agree

29

30.5

30.5

30.5

Agree

26

27.4

27.4

57.9

Neutral

14

14.7

14.7

72.6

Disagree

13

13.7

13.7

86.3

Strongly disagree

13

13.7

13.7

100.0

Total

95

100.0

100.0

Table 4.27: organizations need to focus on improving morale of the employees 

Figure 4.27: organizations need to focus on improving morale of the employees

Findings and analysis

It is important to focus on enhancement of employees’ morale as it directly affects on the performance. In the survey, there are 30.5% respondents in the survey are strongly agreed regarding the topic. However, nearly 27.4% respondents are agreed. In addition, 14.7% participants in the survey are neutral on the case. In addition, nearly 13.7% respondents in the survey are disagreed that organizations need to focus on improving morale of the employees and 13.7% respondents are strongly disagreed on the matter.

  1. How far you agree that poor work relations is one of the results for being stressed in work?

How far you agree that poor work relations are one of the results for being stressed in work?

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Strongly agree

19

20.0

20.0

20.0

Agree

23

24.2

24.2

44.2

Neutral

19

20.0

20.0

64.2

Disagree

20

21.1

21.1

85.3

Strongly disagree

14

14.7

14.7

100.0

Total

95

100.0

100.0

Table 4.28: poor work relations is one of the results for being stressed in work 

Figure 4.28: poor work relations is one of the results for being stressed in work

Findings and analysis

In the present table and graph, 20% respondents out of total number of participants in the survey are strongly agreed that poor work relations is one of the results for being stressed in work. However, 24.2% respondents are agreed about the matter. There are 20% respondents remain neutral. Additionally, 21.1% respondents are disagreed about the impact of stress on poor work relation. Moreover, 14.7% participants are strongly disagreed on the matter.

  1. How far you agree that organization need to focus on career development as it can reduce additional stress of an employee?

How far you agree that organization need to focus on career development as it can reduce additional stress of an employee?

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Strongly agree

29

30.5

30.5

30.5

Agree

24

25.3

25.3

55.8

Neutral

17

17.9

17.9

73.7

Disagree

15

15.8

15.8

89.5

Strongly disagree

10

10.5

10.5

100.0

Total

95

100.0

100.0

Table 4.29: organization need to focus on career development as it can reduce additional stress of an employee 

Table 4.29: organization need to focus on career development as it can reduce additional stress of an employee

Findings and analysis

According to the report presented in table and graph suggests that there are 30.5% participants in the survey are strongly agreed that organization need to focus on career development as it can reduce additional stress of an employee. In addition, 25.3% respondents remain agreed on the matter. However, 17.9% participants remain neutral in the case. On the other hand, 15.8% respondents and 10.5% respondents are disagreed and strongly disagreed respectively.

  1. How far you agree that organization need to organize workshops for motivating employees and practice to manage stress in the workplace?

How far you agree that organization need to organize workshops for motivating employees and practice to manage stress in the workplace?

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Strongly agree

30

31.6

31.6

31.6

Agree

25

26.3

26.3

57.9

Neutral

14

14.7

14.7

72.6

Disagree

15

15.8

15.8

88.4

Strongly disagree

11

11.6

11.6

100.0

Total

95

100.0

100.0

Findings and analysis

The data presented in table and graph suggests that there are 31.6% respondents strongly agreed that organization needs to organize workshops for motivating employees and practice to manage stress in the workplace. Approximately 26.3% respondents are agreed on the matter. However, 14.7% respondents are neutral on the matter. On contrary, 15.8% respondents are strongly disagreed on the matter.

Model Summaryb

Model

R

R Square

Adjusted R Square

Std. Error of the Estimate

1

.187a

.035

-.043

1.281

a. Predictors: (Constant), How far you agree that organization need to organize workshops for motivating employees and practice to manage stress in the workplace?, How far you agree that absenteeism in workplace can be generated for affecting in stress?, How far you agree that organizations need to focus on the job-related stress factors to generate potential productivity of the organization?, How far you agree apathy/ loss of interest in work can be resulted for being stressed in the workplace?, How far you agree that poor work relations are one of the results for being stressed in work?, How far you agree that organizations need to focus on improving morale of the employees?, How far you agree that organization need to focus on career development as it can reduce additional stress of an employee?

b. Dependent Variable: What are the factors responsible for low productivity in your organization?

ANOVAa

Model

Sum of Squares

df

Mean Square

F

Sig.

1

Regression

5.144

7

.735

.448

.869b

Residual

142.688

87

1.640

Total

147.832

94

a. Dependent Variable: What are the factors responsible for low productivity in your organization?

b. Predictors: (Constant), How far you agree that organization need to organize workshops for motivating employees and practice to manage stress in the workplace?, How far you agree that absenteeism in workplace can be generated for affecting in stress?, How far you agree that organizations need to focus on the job-related stress factors to generate potential productivity of the organization?, How far you agree apathy/ loss of interest in work can be resulted for being stressed in the workplace?, How far you agree that poor work relations are one of the results for being stressed in work?, How far you agree that organizations need to focus on improving morale of the employees?, How far you agree that organization need to focus on career development as it can reduce additional stress of an employee?

Coefficientsa

Model

Unstandardized Coefficients

Standardized Coefficients

t

Sig.

B

Std. Error

Beta

1

(Constant)

3.508

.743

4.724

.000

How far you agree that absenteeism in workplace can be generated for affecting in stress?

-.063

.094

-.072

-.668

.506

How far you agree apathy/ loss of interest in work can be resulted for being stressed in the workplace?

-.018

.106

-.018

-.168

.867

How far you agree that organizations need to focus on the job-related stress factors to generate potential productivity of the organization?

.011

.101

.011

.105

.916

How far you agree that organizations need to focus on improving morale of the employees?

.056

.098

.063

.577

.566

How far you agree that poor work relations are one of the results for being stressed in work?

-.049

.101

-.053

-.486

.629

How far you agree that organization need to focus on career development as it can reduce additional stress of an employee?

-.139

.111

-.150

-1.256

.212

How far you agree that organization need to organize workshops for motivating employees and practice to manage stress in the workplace?

.037

.108

.041

.346

.731

a. Dependent Variable: What are the factors responsible for low productivity in your organization?

Regression 2) 

Model Summaryb

Model

R

R Square

Adjusted R Square

Std. Error of the Estimate

1

.417a

.174

.042

1.211

a. Predictors: (Constant), How far you agree that it is important for an organization to focus on individual stress  as it generates low morale?, How far you agree job related stress has a large impact on performance of an employee in food and beverage industry?, How far you agree that career development related stress affects on your current performance?, How far you agree stressed in workplace can bring several problems outside of the workplace as well?, How far you agree psychological stress of an employee affects the level of performance at the workplace?, How far you agree that behaviour related stress factors reduce productivity in your organization?, How far do you agree individual need to be aware for not to be stressed in work?, How far you agree instant decision making skill can minimize work stress?, How far you agree that there should be balance in working life and outside of working life to minimize stress in work?, How far you agree that management of the organizations have an important role to mitigate stress in work?, How far you agree increasing competition in market leads to more stress in workplace?, How far you agree that effective communication in workplace can be helpful to mitigate stress in work?, How far you agree government has an important role to set up working pressure in organizations so that stress can be minimized?

b. Dependent Variable: How far do you agree that stress has a great impact on employee performance in F&B industry?

ANOVAa

Model

Sum of Squares

df

Mean Square

F

Sig.

1

Regression

25.053

13

1.927

1.315

.222b

Residual

118.694

81

1.465

Total

143.747

94

a. Dependent Variable: How far do you agree that stress has a great impact on employee performance in F&B industry?

b. Predictors: (Constant), How far you agree that it is important for an organization to focus on individual stress  as it generates low morale?, How far you agree job related stress has a large impact on performance of an employee in food and beverage industry?, How far you agree that career development related stress affects on your current performance?, How far you agree stressed in workplace can bring several problems outside of the workplace as well?, How far you agree psychological stress of an employee affects the level of performance at the workplace?, How far you agree that behaviour related stress factors reduce productivity in your organization?, How far do you agree individual need to be aware for not to be stressed in work?, How far you agree instant decision making skill can minimize work stress?, How far you agree that there should be balance in working life and outside of working life to minimize stress in work?, How far you agree that management of the organizations have an important role to mitigate stress in work?, How far you agree increasing competition in market leads to more stress in workplace?, How far you agree that effective communication in workplace can be helpful to mitigate stress in work?, How far you agree government has an important role to set up working pressure in organizations so that stress can be minimized?

Coefficientsa

Model

Unstandardized Coefficients

Standardized Coefficients

t

Sig.

B

Std. Error

Beta

1

(Constant)

-.123

.954

-.129

.897

How far you agree instant decision making skill can minimize work stress?

.049

.089

.059

.553

.582

How far you agree increasing competition in market leads to more stress in workplace?

.010

.087

.012

.109

.914

How far you agree stressed in workplace can bring several problems outside of the workplace as well?

.121

.088

.147

1.377

.172

How far you agree that management of the organizations have an important role to mitigate stress in work?

.095

.099

.103

.966

.337

How far you agree that there should be balance in working life and outside of working life to minimize stress in work?

.061

.088

.077

.697

.488

How far do you agree individual need to be aware for not to be stressed in work?

.092

.091

.106

1.003

.319

How far you agree government has an important role to set up working pressure in organizations so that stress can be minimized?

-.101

.097

-.117

-1.044

.299

How far you agree that effective communication in workplace can be helpful to mitigate stress in work?

.282

.101

.306

2.793

.007

How far you agree job related stress has a large impact on performance of an employee in food and beverage industry?

.060

.102

.062

.583

.562

How far you agree that career development related stress affects on your current performance?

.183

.095

.202

1.939

.056

How far you agree psychological stress of an employee affects the level of performance at the workplace?

-.076

.091

-.088

-.838

.404

How far you agree that behaviour related stress factors reduce productivity in your organization?

.079

.093

.091

.842

.402

How far you agree that it is important for an organization to focus on individual stress  as it generates low morale?

.037

.093

.043

.398

.691

a. Dependent Variable: How far do you agree that stress has a great impact on employee performance in F&B industry?

The data gained from the survey indicates that adjusted T square value of dependent variable is -0.43, which is less than 1. The factors related to it like absenteeism, apathy/loss of interest in work have negative value. On the other hand, dependent variable represents positive value.  Thus, from the data obtained from above survey, it clearly indicates employee stress has a significant impact on performance of the employees. This kind of stress also created counterproductive behaviour in work. This might include changes in personality for employees, disrespect towards customers or co-workers and exhibit extreme anger towards others. Then, at some point of time, employees might start disregarding safety measures and company polices. This leads to jeopardizing themselves or other people at workplace. Further, company might suffer loss in revenue as customers stop frequenting their business since continual exposure towards adverse effect of those types of employee stress. Hence, it is required to take effective steps by the management of food and beverage companies in Malaysia in order to mitigate stress in the workplace so that employees can deliver work efficiently.

Based on the data obtained from survey and regression analysis on the findings, it can be stated that stress has a significant impact on employee performance. Analyses of the workers’ opinions are subject to structure and culture of the organization and in addition deciding efficiencies alongside the dedication by the same. The structure of the organization has impact on employee performance.  

From the above results generated in survey and interview, it can be clearly stated that it is important for an organization to focus on mitigating stress of the employees. It has been found that stress among the employees can reduce productivity and leads to be frustrated for the organization. In this regard, organizations need to take effective steps like encouraging communication with higher authorities. In addition, measures like providing adequate leaves and facilities like childcare, healthcare service and maintaining overall work-life balance would be helpful to mitigate stress among the employees.

Conclusion and recommendations

Conclusion

The role of organization is important to be considered for stress and employee performance. Conflicting demands in jobs may lead to work stress. Moreover, additional responsibility for employees may be the issue for increasing stress that affects on the performance of the employees. Career development is one of the major factors for stress and employee performance. Lack of job security, under or overqualified for job are the factors for work stress. Inadequate credit for accomplishments is responsible for work stress.  Structure of the organization and atmosphere can be the cause for stress and employee performance. Family issues, money issues, life stages and health are responsible for creating stress in workplace. In this perspective, the identified factors need to be effectively sorted out with proper and suitable method so that employee can not feel stress in work and perform in better way.

  • It is important to set up that business scopes in financial, infrastructural facilities close to the employees of the organization.
  • In addition, financial helps to the employees would be helpful to mitigate stress in the workplace.
  • The organizations need to support the staffs to obtain a safe and secured position in the workplace.
  • In addition, relations between authoritative structure and employees in the organization would be helpful to mitigate stress in workplace. It is useful to comprehend the elements of inspiration for people and groups to accomplish the objective.
  • It is also important to maintain work-life balance so that employees can lead stress-free life and perform to their bets potential level. 

There was time limitation for the research and limited in Malaysia only while food and beverage companies are operated in various countries across the world. Other hand, time-limitation does not allow participation of larger sample sizes for doing better quality as well as analysis. In addition, financial budget was also a constraint in the study.

Scope of the research for presence of restrictions could not be exploited in appropriate way and level. However, the research could be helpful to the organizations to take necessary actions for mitigating stress in the workplace. Moreover, for future researchers, the study could be used as secondary source of data. 

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