Research the utilisation of human waste (both processed and raw) within the forestry and plant nursery industries. Provide an overview of geographic areas and organisations/companies currently using processed human waste in these industries.
Create a database of all major organisations/companies involved in the forestry or nursery industries in China, India, Indonesia, and Pakistan. Ensure that social tree planting organisations that ACET-Global could partner with (via their plant stock providers) are considered. Include contact details of the CEOs and a brief overview of each organisation/company identified.
Provide and justify recommendations on the best methods to sell the processed human waste produced as a by-product of the GSSP. Focus on ways that will support the local industry, whilst generating the maximum amount of revenue to fund the ongoing implementation of the GSSP.
Provide recommendations on potential forestry/nursery industry buyers of the GSSP's processed human waste.
Overview of Sanitation Crisis
Sanitation is considered to be among the leading global challenges. It is approximated that over 2.5 billion people have no access to clean and safe water. Likewise, over one billion are exposed to the open defecation on a daily basis which brings about devastating consequences. It is important to note that the issue of sanitation had been listed among the Millennium Development Goals that were to be implemented by 2015. However, the goal remains unfulfilled to date.
Sanitation crisis is an economic, political and social catastrophe. Today one in every three people live without proper sanitation globally. The crisis comes along with devastating cost. It is estimated that at least Eight hundred children under the age of five years die from diarrhea daily due to lack of proper sanitation and safe water. More specifically, lack of clean, safe toilets presents real threat to women and girls. It is an embarrassment to defecate in the open. The situation also creates an easy to assault risk (ESREY, 2000, p. 34).
The impact brought about by sanitation crisis is felt in India, the Middle East region, Asia and globally. Left to reactive to the losses as a result of poor sanitation system, India's economic development and growth opportunities are left crippled. According to the report released by the World Health Organization (WHO), approximately US $230 billion was lost in 2015 globally. The loss had increased by 20% compared to the situation experienced five years earlier (ACET-Global, 2017).
To fully address it, there is solution need to be both sustainable and market based as proposed under the Australian Centre for Education and Training – Global (ACET-Global). The organization's primary objective is to promote sanitation, channel provision of clean and safe water globally (Wankhade, 2015, p. 22).
The project is based on developing an effective, safe, and sustainable sanitation solution to the sanitation crisis in India and globally. We hope that the project will have a positive impact on the social, economic and cultural issues surrounding sanitation in India. The project is pioneered by the WISO organization which has pledged to improve the sanitation of 100 million Indians by 2019. To show it commitment, the company have developed a public-private partnership. WISO have teamed up with the WHO, UNICEF, USAID, and WaterAid. WISO is also a long term member of the India's Toilet Board Coalition which is tasked with developing scalable and sustainable objectives to tackle the current sanitation crisis.
Considering the complexity and immense size of the Indian sanitation issue, WISO has developed several products which have been certified to meet the needs of different income levels, markets, cultures, infrastructure and environmental constraints. Some of the products that have been created by WISO are Safe Toilet (SATO), Green Toilet system, Portable Toilet System and the Micro Flush Toilet System. Each product, as discussed below, shows how commit WISO is at improving the sanitation crisis in India (Mattam, 2016, p. 56).
- The Safe Toilet (SATO) product
The primary goal of the SATO product is to reduce open defecation and prevent the transmission of odors and diseases. Open defecation exposes Millions of Indian to diseases and odors. To solve the problem, the organization created the SATO product. With SATO, a user only needs 500 Milliliters of water to flush the waste away. Afterwards, the counterweighted, airtight door closes to prevent the smell that would attract flying insects (SUSANA, 2008, p. 26).
Proposed Solution by Australian Centre for Education and Training - Global
The products have been designed to fit the use by children; it is affordable and easy to clean when parents are not around. The products come in different designs to meet the need and preferences of different cultures and regions. As of August 2017, over 1.2 million SATO products had been sold in India leading to an improved life of approximately 6 million people (Snyder, 2017, p. 75).
To improve the sanitation conditions of 100 million people, WISO has tailored the development of SATO to suit specific local needs. The cost of producing a SATO unit has been made as low as possible with the benefit transferred to the consumers. The product would be sold through local partners hence creating employment and corporate social responsibility. Associating the product to the local would bring about emotional connection: the citizens will consistently and independently improve their sanitary conditions (United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), 2015).
- Micro Flush Toilet System
The product is to bring about effective management of water resources in urban Centres. The system will significantly consume less water compared to the regular toilets. Moreover, the used water would be recycled by the system for reuse. With the rapid increasing scarcity of clean water in urban Centres, the Micro Flush Toilet system is aimed at mitigating the problem. Considering that water supply in the urban environment has become unreliable and scarce, residents would rather use the water for domestic use instead of flushing their toilets. The new system will ensure that the sanitation consumes less water leaving the remainder for other uses (WINBLAD & SIMPSON-HERBERT, 2004, p. 43).
The system has been designed suitable for both multi-unit buildings and homes; the system has a comfortable sitting area which is easy to maintain and clean. With flapper valves mounted at the toilet bowl, the door from the accumulated water cannot find its way back into the house.
- The Green Toilet System: To safely process human waste into fertilizer.
With the Green Toilet System, human waste would be processed into fertilizer which would add value to the farmers. Both liquid and solid wastes will be separated to avoid odor. The separated waste will then be converted into fertilizer. Waste will be consistently collected from the collection tanks situated behind toilets and safely transport them to the compost facility (ESREY, 2000, p. 22).
The system focuses on the communities without sewage and water infrastructure. It is important to note that water would not be required for the transfer of the waste. Likewise, the system will ensure that groundwater and other water sources are protected from contamination by human wastes. The system will generate income by creating employment at the compost facilities and collection tanks. People will also be offered financial incentives to embrace the new system and avoid unacceptable dumping of their waste (EAWAG et al., 2000, p. 53).
- Portable Toilet System: Improve human waste collection and hygiene
Portable Toilet System: Improve human waste collection and hygiene
The Portable Toilet System is developed to be used by the slum dwellers. It's common knowledge that our slums lack proper sanitation infrastructure in place. Disadvantaged households will be provided with odorless toilets to be used in collecting human waste which would be subsequently be treated efficiently and hygienically (Wankhade, 2015, p. 65).
Products Developed by WISO Organization
The Portable System comprises of an attractive, compact and a stand-alone toilet as well as a collection station. With the mechanisms to minimize the odor emission, the toilet can be placed in households. The cartridge, which is removable, can be transported and deposited at the collection stations already in place. The cartridges are then cleansed and taken back to the households. Waste management companies would then come in and transport the waste from the stations to the waste treatment site (Snyder, 2017, p. 77).
With effective implementation of the four proposed sanitary solutions, the following will be achieved.
- The sustainable sanitation provides effective opportunities for recovery of the resources.
- Sustainable sanitation process would be good for the country economically, environmentally, and socially.
- And, sustainable sanitation will bring about several sustainable development/ investment goals to the people.
By the end of the implementation of the proposed solution, the following results would be realized on an annual basis;
- 250,000 people would have access to 50,000 sanitation facilities,
- 3 out of 5 people will have access to sanitary toilets,
- 58,000 households will gain access to handwashing facilities.
This report has been developed in line with the ACET-Global goals and objectives. The document has presented the proposed solutions in details by elaborately explaining how they would support the people economically, socially and environmental sustainability.
The proposed solution is focused on the community. People will own and drive the success of the proposals to ensure that it is sustainable, financially viable and globally applicable. The proposal is well diversified; - catering for both the rural, urban, slum areas as well as poor households. Both the permanent and portable facilities will largely help to mitigate sanitations crisis facing India. The project would be extended to the global platform with its success in India.
The four proposed solutions are to; first, reduce open defecation and prevent the transmission of odors and disease. Second, bring about effective management of water resources in urban Centres. The system will significantly consume less water compared to the regular toilets. Third, human waste would be processed into fertilizer which would add value to the farmers resulting into cheap fertilizer. And, Fourth, Providing portable sanitation infrastructure to the slums which would reduce unwanted dispose of human waste to the environment. The project is community-driven, economically sustainable, and financially viable.
ACET-Global, 2017. Global Sanitation and Sustainability Project , Sydney: ACET-Globa.
ALSEN, K. & JENSSEN, P., 2004. Ecological Sanitation: for Mankind and Nature, s.l.: as: Norwegian University of Life Sciences.
CONRADIN, K., 2007. Ecological Sanitation in the Khuvsgul Area, Northern Mongolia: Socio-Cultural Parameters and Acceptance. Unpublished Master Thesis. Basel: University of Basel.
CORCORAN, E., NELLEMANN, C. & BAKER, E., 2010. Sick Water? The central role of wastewater management in sustainable development. A Rapid Response Assessment. United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), UN-HABITAT, GRID-Arendal.
EAWAG, SANDEC & WSSCC, 2000. Summary Report of Bellagio Expert Consultation on Environmental Sanitation in the 21st Century, Geneva: Duebendorf & Geneva: Swiss Federal Institute for Aquatic Science and Technology EAWAG & Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative Council.
ESREY, S. A., 2000. Towards a Recycling Society. Ecological Sanitation – Closing the Loop to Food Security, Bonn: Proceedings of the 1st Int. Symposium on Ecological Sanitation in Bonn.
Mattam, M., 2016. Water and Sanitation Challenge: Solution to Sanitation Crisis in India, New Delhi: OpenIdeo.
Snyder, S., 2017. Water in Crisis - India, New Delhi: The Water Project.
SUSANA, 2008. Towards more Sustainable Sanitation Solutions, New Jersey: s.n.
United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), 2015. Progress on Sanitation and Drinking, New York, NY, USA: UNICEF/WHO.
Wankhade, K., 2015. Urban sanitation in India: Key shifts in the national policy frame. Environ. Urban, Volume 27, p. 555–572.
WINBLAD, U. & SIMPSON-HERBERT, M., 2004. Ecological Sanitation - revised and enlarged edition, Stockholm: Sweden: Stockholm Environment Institute..
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