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Describe about the Casework and Case Management. 

Background Information

This report aims to discuss individuals with complex support needs on a person living with autism. The case study will focus on a client called Jack (not his real name). Jack was born with autism, a mental condition, which was present from his early childhood. This condition characterises great difficulty in communicating and forming relationships with others as well as in using language and abstract concepts. The study will evaluate the complex support needs of the client living with complex conditions. The report will then focus on the development goals needed for complex needs clients as well as what individuals should consider when handling individuals with complex needs.  

Jack is a nineteen-year-old ninth-grade young man. Jack is, fundamentally, a very jovial and delightful person. He maintains a tremendous ability to appreciate humor and he is pleasant when socializing with others. Jack adapted exceptionally well to his first year of higher education. Jack is a scholar of the resource room, where he attends one lesson on school days. He visits other classes which incorporate, choir, resource science, reading, gymnastics, mathematics as well as social studies. Though his reading lesson provides for learners who have challenges in the text, it doesn't classify as a form of learning offered to students with exceptional needs; his resources science lesson, nonetheless, is mainly for students with extraordinary needs. Jack had a fulltime basis paraprofessional in every part of his school life, a distinct person for preparatory, middle school and currently in the high education level. The paraprofessional gives Jack's most assistance, and he is tremendously reliant on him. Jack's family incorporates a father who works in the military, a mother who is a housewife but practices gardening and a brother who is in the second year of his university level. Jack enjoys all the support from the entire members of the family (De Rubeis, He, Goldberg, Poultney, Samocha, Cicek, & Singh, 2014, p.209). 

The family members are down to earth on Jack's potentials but even now anticipate for high performance from him. In return, Jack gives the impression to keep a perfect connection with the family members. Jack's mother appears the most concerned in his learning, even though both parents take part in the parent-teacher seminars, Individualized Education meetings (IEP), a document developed for each public school child who needs special education. Jack's brother is too much concerned with his wellbeing. Jack and his brother attend the church meetings as well as the youth group meetings and hangout most time at home and their compound together. Jack loves the company offered by his family members since they are always available for him when he needs them. Jack aspires to perform in his learning. He is a stickler for perfection and anticipates completing extraordinarily in his education. Jack speaks little about himself to others unless when probed. He talks on how great he would like to achieve in life and act as a role model. Jack has high expectations despite his condition (De Rubeis, 2014, p.214)

Complex Support Needs

Jack is experiencing autism which is developmental disorganisation caused by problems with social interaction as well as communication and by limited and monotonous behaviour. His parents realised the conditions' signs in the first two years of his life after birth. The signs developed gradually after his birth. Jack’s autism is suspected to have occurred from the effect of hazardous chemicals in the surrounding of her mother during the prenatal period. The parents believe that the chemicals did much damage to Jack's neuron development. The parents believe that mercury that exists in the sea fish or the cosmetics entered the mother's body. Research done proves that mercury interferes with the functioning of the brain then hinders the growth of the child’s brain (Daniels, & Mandell, 2014, p.583).

Doctors who are concerned with Jack autism regard that vaccines may cause autism since mercury is a characteristic of vaccines, while it is not scientifically proven. Several clinical officers claim that if a child was unwell or had a mitochondrial imperfection; vaccination for infants can be the environmental factor. The other possible suspected factor is that a bacterium called Helicobacter pylori went to the gut by drinking water that was unhygienic. Unclean water is capable of causing the critical impacts on the creation of chemicals in the brain. The logic is that the brain, as well as the immune structure and the gut, connect in a narrowly enclosed way and they function simultaneously with each other (Kenny, Hattersley, Molins, Buckley, Povey, & Pellicano, 2016, p.220).

The brain plays an essential role as an organ in communication. Thus researchers credence to that the causes of autism have a link with communication among brain cells. Doctors identify 20 genes which appear to connect with autism. Each gene connects one to two per cent of all autism reports. Researchers believe that specific parts of the brain which exist at the back of the forehead and a tiny structure which almost two inches inside the infant’s ear known as amygdale rapidly develop in the client and appears significant as compared to healthy children. The Vanderbilt Center, a centre for Human Genetics survey, indicates that the relation amidst autism and genes like CDH9 as well as CDH10 which are essential connect the brain cells (Grynszpan, Weiss, Perez-Diaz, & Gal, 2014, p.342).

Jack socially interacts with the family at home and friends at school. Jack is shy and doesn’t look directly in strangers eyes. He may sometimes misbehave by hitting others without any proper reason. Jack talks with wrong grammar without organization. Pronunciation difficulties happen when he tries to talk compound words.

Furthermore, Jack doesn't know to communicate with others or may fail to comprehend the meaning of words. Jack's parents bring him teddy bears and toys which he likes playing. Jack watches cartoon programs which Jack loves. He likes watching a specific cartoon repeatedly and doesn't find it annoying at any time (Case-Smith, Weaver, & Fristad, 2015, p.136).

Specific: Jack is not able to speak fluently and mention compound words in a way that others can understand. He may utter words that do not make complete meanings. That is an area of concern for poor Jack. Difficulty in speaking makes it difficult for him, and he may find out that people tend to ignore him at times. Ignoring Jack doesn't please him, and the family members feel that this may affect the way he socialises with others. Some people might ignore him due to this condition, and it pisses him off. He may get annoyed and hit anyone for no proper reason. Beating others is a way of him showing that he is annoyed by something. When someone cracks a joke on his mode of speaking, he gets angry and may cry. His way of speaking makes it difficult for people to comprehend what he may try to say. It is difficult for Jack to communicate his basic wants and needs to teachers and classmates. Violence affects his rate of maintaining relationships between him and others. In spontaneous speech, Jack fails to incorporate grammatical markers in his speaking. His utterances may appear telegraphic which makes it much difficult for individuals to understand him (Pellicano, Dinsmore, & Charman, 2014, p.231).

SMART Goals

Measurable: Jack’s teachers and caregivers need to measure and demonstrate his progress. Goals and objectives for Jack require including process is necessary for success to determine whether Jack achieves them. The goals need to reflect what Jack is likely to accomplish within a few solid months. The suggested target needs to mirror Jack's much long-term priorities. The caregivers should concentrate on the steps that lead to long-term interests to attain a result that is achievable within the indicated period. Considering the fundamental behaviour will assist the caregivers to establish a process that Jack can achieve within the set timeframe. A timeframe for the goals need setting to ensure that Jack develops a better way of communicating with others. The progress needs indication so as those responsible may note what is capable of being achieved and what needs more efforts to succeed. Jack should practice the required skills for a specified amount in a day. A register should exist where those involved in Jacks SMART objectives record achievements. The entry will store data of what the measurable goals are as well as what needs to be done to achieve them (Croen, Zerbo, Qian, Massolo, Rich, Sidney, & Kripke, 2015, p.321).

Attainable: Jack's SMART goals should indicate those that he can achieve in the specified time. Jack needs to learn how to pronounce words better. He needs to understand what instruction directs to him and make his utterances comprehensive. Jack requires to establish a good relationship between him and his peers. The people whom he associates with should encourage him to attain the set objectives in his actual plan. Jack requires achieving in uttering compound words. He should identify grammatical markers to make his speech fluent whenever he communicates with others. He should learn to mention compound words with ease. This will make him more understandable when pronouncing words to his peers. He should develop courage when facing people and stop being shy when discussing issues with strangers or peers. Jack should learn that hitting people is wrong when provoked. He should learn to handle situations no matter how difficult it may seem. Jack needs to learn how to make and maintain friends by treating them in a caring way.  He should accept his condition and appreciate who he is. Acknowledging himself will make him stop getting annoyed whenever anyone wrongs him (Mazurek, 2014, p.107).

Relevant: Jack needs to attain goals that are within the context of the daily set routines as well as activities that will enable him to achieve the targeted areas. The SMART goals and objectives need to establish essential and crucial skills. The critical skills are skills that Jack can learn during the period within the context of the daily procedure. Jack's learning to pronounce compound words to express his needs is a sample of an essential skill that Jack can make use of throughout the day with the several people to create a better understanding with his peers. By incorporating the objectives, all those concerned in Jack's SMART goals will gain conscious of some of the contexts where they can evaluate the results. The goals set to assist Jack should be those that will support him achieve in his autism condition. The goals should consider those requirements that are within what needs achievement in the course of plan development. The purpose of essential goals is to ensure that Jacks is more independent in his life and that the peers and those involved in his daily life can meet his needs in detail (McStay, Dissanayake,  Scheeren, Koot, & Begeer, 2014, p.123).

Timely: People connected to Jack need to indicate his goals and objectives directly in acknowledgement to interests as well as relations of those who are concerned with his wellbeing other than about examination and assessment of outcomes. The goals and objectives need to be specific measurable and attainable at the indicated time. The estimates should note what amount of time each priority takes. The priorities need to maintain the scheduled time to allow for proper demonstration as well as enough time to show the production of the implemented efforts. Goals, as well as objectives, need to reflect the target of the START goals when the teams involved in the performance delivery records them as a reply to the targeted outcomes. The timely goals will enable Jack to perfect in whatever he is supposed to accomplish in time. Managing time will allow him to deliver the purpose of each activity which will, in turn, improve his response towards the autism condition. Though the situation, he will achieve things positively and establish a strong relationship with his peers as well as those involved in the process of making him a better person (Weiner, Wigdor,  Ripke, Walters, Kosmicki, Grove, & Werge, 2017, p.342).

Autism is a long-term condition and the vision of finding treatment contended as an issue for various people in the autism scope as well as their relatives though there exist several approximations and modes of assistance which could help Jack who is living with autism to control their condition and accomplish their abilities. It is challenging to agree on what approximation is necessary for Jack while there are many things we may not be sure on the success of each method since only a few techniques privately and scientifically evaluated. Many times confident and courageous demands are made on therapies as well as actions taken to improve autism with no any evidence giving moral support. This is careless and unsuitable while we attempt to create the conscious to people on autism. It is essential that Jacks parents, as well as Jack and people on the autism scope, can get dependent information and offer advice both after diagnosis and on a daily basis. Jack would benefit from individual assistance and any actions taken to improve his condition are suited to their particular needs (Kenny et al., 2016. P.42)

Some communication-related methods would be used to help Jack's autism condition. These include; behavioural and educational embankments implemented to assist individuals with autism to achieve their abilities (Kenny et al., 2016, p.43).

Applied behaviour analysis is a therapy that would assist in the treatment of Jack. It is a hugely systemic, scientific perspective that would teach-play, methods of passing communication, self-responsibility, and educational as well as social living expertise. It would reduce questionable characters. Research shows that it would produce results for Jack if he engaged in this. The applied behavioural analysis incorporates skilled personnel to break don expertise into constituent sections and by repetition, support as well as inspiration it would help Jack learn them. With ABA the psychotherapist would observe Jack's abilities and determine what would be beneficial to him, all the greater when Jack doesn't seem interested in adopting specific skills. ABA would benefit Jack more if he was referred to the expert recommended time of 40 hours in a week. Jack could engage in the therapy frequently on a full-time basis in the classroom-based learning. If Jack's skills improved and he made his relationship better ABA would still play an essential role for him (McStay et al., 2014, p.45).

Verbal behaviour therapy would assist Jack to communicate with his peers and everyone involved in his life purposefully. Jack would learn how to utter words in a better way. He would speak words that would be understood and perfect the way in which he related to people. He would tell people about what he needs since Jack would make differences between things as well as get help whenever he needed ((McStay et al., 2014, p.79).

Cognitive behavioural therapy would help Jack to recognise what causes specific characters by himself. A psychotherapist would initiate experimental rejoinders. Jack would develop the ability to realise when they almost engage a recurring role or a mental attitude and learn to do new things that he discovered in the process. The cognitive behaviour therapy would assist Jack with a cause to worry usually with autism like developing fear or anxiety ((McStay et al., 2014, p.82).

Developmental as well as self-difference relation a psychotherapist and Jacks parents would engage Jack through the activities that he enjoys and finds interest doing them. It would depend on Jack having the motivation to involve as well as socialise with other individuals. The psychotherapist would respond to Jack's direction in the implementing of new lessons ((McStay et al., 2014, p.89).

The relationship established action taken to improve autism is a family-focused approximation in treating autism with a focus on determined emotional and social goals created to develop reasonable relationships. Developed relationships incorporate the capability to produce an emotional connection and share skills. The family would set goals to establish experiences connected to the individual association, like the ability to understand and share the feelings of another as well as an overall motivating force to associate with others. This therapy would procedurally break its many goals that adults practice to cue development like maintaining eye contact and responding correctly during communication ((Mazurek, 2014, p.66).

Treatment, as well as learning of autistic and connected communication disadvantaged children, is a classroom centred program which would modify academic instruction and social growth to Jack's strengths ((Mazurek, 2014, p.72).

Social skills group would assist Jack to engage in practical language and control challenges that he faces with his mates. Jack would find it more suitable socialising with grownups than with his age group since he finds it difficult coping with them. In the social skills groups, the leader would create a particular situation that imitates reality and directs Jack to establish suitable behaviours. The set groups would usually make use of texts and pictures to display interacting skills. Interacting scripts would provide Jack with a specific language to control challenging environments (Weiner et al., 2017, p.76).   

Reference

Case-Smith, J., Weaver, L. L., & Fristad, M. A. (2015) A systematic review of sensory processing interventions for children with autism spectrum disorders: Vol. 8. Bingley: Emerald Group Publishing.

Croen, L. A., Zerbo, O., Qian, Y., Massolo, M. L., Rich, S., Sidney, S., & Kripke, C. (2015) The health status of adults on the autism spectrum: 3rd ed. New York: Harper Collins Publishers.

Daniels, A. M., & Mandell, D. S. (2014) Explaining differences in age at autism spectrum disorder diagnosis: 1st ed. New York City: Guilford Publications.

De Rubeis, S., He, X., Goldberg, A. P., Poultney, C. S., Samocha, K., Cicek, A. E., ... & Singh, T. (2014) Synaptic, transcriptional and chromatin genes disrupted in autism: 2nd ed. Abingdon-on-Thames: Routledge Publishers.

Grynszpan, O., Weiss, P. L., Perez-Diaz, F., & Gal, E. (2014) Innovative technology-based interventions for autism spectrum disorders: 2nd ed. London: Pearson Publishers.

Kenny, L., Hattersley, C., Molins, B., Buckley, C., Povey, C., & Pellicano, (2016) Perspectives from the UK autism community: 4th ed. Abingdon-on-Thames: Routledge Publishers.

Mazurek, M. O. (2014). Loneliness, friendship, and well-being in adults with autism spectrum disorders: 4th ed. London: Pearson Publishers.

McStay, R. L., Dissanayake, C., Scheeren, A., Koot, H. M., & Begeer, S. (2014) Parenting stress and autism: Vol. 1. Abingdon-on Thames: Routledge Publishers.

Pellicano, E., Dinsmore, A., & Charman, T. (2014) Community views and priorities from the United Kingdom: Vol. 8. Boston: Cengage Learning Publishers.

Weiner, D. J., Wigdor, E. M., Ripke, S., Walters, R. K., Kosmicki, J. A., Grove, J., ... & Werge, T. (2017) Polygenic transmission disequilibrium confirms that common and rare variation act additively to create risk for autism spectrum disorders: 3rd ed. Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.

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