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Power output and air/fuel ratio

Question:

Discuss About The Hydrogen As Fuel Internal Combustion Engine?

The energy sector is undergoing different changes and different suggestions to overcome the different challenges in the industry. The environmental impacts are taking the center and therefore raising different researches to focus on other sources of energy to fuel the machines rather than fossil fuels. The analysis of hydrogen to be used as a fuel for internal combustion engine has been carried out for long and at some point looks much more promising to solve the different challenges (Rahman, Mohammed and Bakar, 2008). Even with the various advantages, hydrogen as well has some pros, which has been able to challenge its implementation as part of fuel for internal combustion engine. Hydrogen-fueled internal combustion engines (H2ICEs) has been a topic f focus and trial for several decades and several tests have been as well carried to evaluate the effect of use of hydrogen in this sector. The hydrogen internal combustion engine came in place in order to replace the traditional gasoline engines. This part of this paper will mostly focus on the different elements of use of the hydrogen in the HICE rather than the differences on the engines. The use of hydrogen as a fuel is able to lead to production of water, which is emitted (Verhelst, Verstraeten and Sierens, 2014). Unlike the other denser field, which led to production of oxides of nitrogen, which are harmful to the environment, the production of water is friendly. The hydrogen fuel engines are able to burn fuel in the same manner as the gasolines engines do burn.


Power output is a key factor, which is considered when adopting an engine. The air/fuel ratio and fuel injection methods are the major factors, which determine the power output for the hydrogen fueled engines. A stoichiometric air/fuel of 34:1 of hydrogen is usually used in these engines. Using this ratio, hydrogen is likely to replace 29% of the combustion chamber content and therefore leaving the 71% for air (Antunes, Gomes, Mikalsen and Roskilly, 2008). With the increase of the air content, the energy content is likely to be less than when gasoline is used as a fuel. This ratio is able to reduce the power output in the hydrogen engines. There are two key methods, which are mostly used, which include carbureted and port injection methods in the mixing of air and fuel before it enters the combustion chamber. The use of these methods in the internal combustion engine may result to either a 15% increase or decrease in the energy output for the engines. Metering of the fuel is key in determination of the theoretical power output in the engines. The metering of the fuel is able to contribute to the output of the power on these hydrogen engines.

Combustion properties of hydrogen

The hydrogen fueled engines are designs to twice the air in order to complete the combustion. The ratio of air and fuel are key in the production of nitrogen oxides. The use of hydrogen and the control of the ratio are able to lower the production of nitrogen oxides to near zero in these hydrogen fueled engines (Priyanka, and Sharma, 2014). The main use of the hydrogen as a fuel in the energy production is to reduce the production of the nitrogen oxides. Combustion properties of hydrogen are superior in terms of advantages achieved. Hydrogen as a fuel has a high flame velocity, which enhance its burning to produce power output. The use of the hydrogen as a fuel is able to increase the efficiency of operation through increase of power output. Flammability is another key factor, which is needed for fuels. Hydrogen has a wide range of flammability enhances wider operation of the engines. Complete burning of fuel is likely to happen and this leads to fuel economy. In addition, hydrogen as a fuel has a high diffusivity. Formation of uniform airflow is usually achieved through the adoption of the hydrogen as a fuel (Verhelst, Maesschalck, Rombaut, and Sierens, 2009). In addition, through the diffusivity, if any leakage is able to happen the hydrogen is usually able to disperse it immediately and therefore lead to control of hazards. In addition, hydrogen has low density. The low density is advantageous in terms of weight but has some disadvantages. Large volume of hydrogen is usually require to cover a room unlike gasoline, which is dense. Secondly, reduced power output is usually related to the low density of hydrogen. Nevertheless, the use of hydrogen as a fuel in internal combustion engine is gaining its popularity. The need to enhance environmental factors, which gasoline and other fuel are causing, is able to promote the use of hydrogen.

The use of hydrogen as a fuel is able to bring various advantages to the industry. First and foremost, hydrogen is environmental friendly and it’s by product does not pollute the environment. This is one of the key advantage of adapting hydrogen as fuel unlike other fuels. When burned, hydrogen does not produce carbon and nitrogen oxides, which are widely produced by other fuels (Rude, et al., 2011). Additionally, hydrogen is non-toxic and this means that it is environmentally friendly. In terms if final products, when burnt hydrogen is able to produce water as the final product. This product is environmentally friendly and therefore the hydrogen as a fuel does not conflict the environmental existence. Gasoline and nuclear energy are able to produce other products, which are toxic to the environment. Products of carbon and nitrogen oxides by these other duels are able to deplete the ozone layer and therefore leading to global warming (Kim, Lee and Choi, 2012). This is able to affect the climatic conditions and therefore affecting the ecosystem as a whole. This is a great advantage, which is able to promote the use of hydrogen as a fuel a part from the other fuels. Therefore, the adoption of hydrogen as a fuel is able to bring positive impacts to the environment than the other fuels, which destroy it much.

Advantages of hydrogen as fuel

In addition, hydrogen is readily available and therefore a source which can last. Fossil fuels can be extinguished from their sources and therefore relying on them means that some point the sources will be no more. Hydrogen fuel is more powerful; in fact, it is three times more powerful than other fuels. This means that the adoption of hydrogen as a fuel will be able to fuel all the machines unlike other fuels, which means that some machines such as rockets must search for other alternatives for fuel (Balat, 2008). Efficiency is a key factor when adopting any fuel. Hydrogen is able to lead to high efficiency and therefore enhancing its use. Hydrogen is able to produce three times efficiency when used as a fuel more than other fuels. This is a great advantage, which is achieved when there is fuel is adopted in the industry and therefore it enhances the operations. More importantly, hydrogen is renewable and this means that it can be used repeatedly unlike the nonrenewable energy fuels. The hydrogen fuel is available and can be produced to meet the demands, which may arise. This means that shortage cannot be experiences when adoption of the hydrogen fuel is done (Glassman, 2012). Since hydrogen can be sourced automatically or produced using water, the fuel has a future to meet further demands. Other fuel sources are able to be depleted with time and this places a risk on the emerging demand of fuel in different industries. A source, which can be able to withstand the increased demand, is therefore needed and the hydrogen fuel is able to generate hopes of that source and fuel.

Hydrogen use as a fuel does not only have the positive part but also has some dark areas on it. First, hydrogen production process is expensive therefore meaning that the final end product will be expensive too. The process of production is long and requires large efforts to bring out the hydrogen as a fuel (Kelly, Gibson & Ouwerkerk, 2008). When compared with other fuels, it is cheaper to produce them than the production of hydrogen. Additionally, transportation and storage of hydrogen as a fuel is not easy. Since the fuel will not only be used at the point of production, its transportation and storage becomes an expensive affair. Other fuels have transportation mechanisms such as pipeline and trucks, which enhance their storage and transportation to consumption points in an easy way. This makes them cheap to consumers. Transporting hydrogen fuel to consumers will make it more expensive for them to afford it for their use.

Challenges and hurdles of using hydrogen as fuel


In addition, hydrogen is highly flammable and this means that special mechanism for its forage will be required. The handling of the fuel then becomes an issue, which will affect its usage as a fuel due to flammability. Moreover, the production of the hydrogen will require other energy sources (Swain and Adt, 2010). This means that the usage of other sources such as gasoline will not be evaded at all. The production process for the hydrogen will require these sources to complete the process. This is unlike these sources, which are able to run their parts in order to refine the fuels. Therefore even with the numerous advantages which the hydrogen fuel is able to bring, there are few hurdles, which need to be jumped for effective implementation of this energy

References

Antunes, F., Gomes, M.J., Mikalsen, R. and Roskilly, A.P.  (2008). An Investigation of Hydrogen Fuelled HCCI Engine Performance and Operation. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 33(15):5823-5828.

Balat, M. (2008). Potential Importance of Hydrogen as a Future Solution to Environment and Transportation Problems. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 33(15):4013-4029.

Glassman, I. (2012). Combustion. Academic Press, Inc California.

Kelly, N.A., Gibson T. L. Ouwerkerk D. B. (2008). A Solar-Powered, High-Efficiency Hydrogen Fueling System using High Pressure Electrolysis of Water: Design and Initial Results. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy; (18): 2747-2764.

Kim, Y.Y., Lee T.J., and Choi, H.G. (2012).  An Investigation on the Causes of Cycle Variation in Direct Injection Hydrogen Fueled Engines. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, (1):69-76.

Priyanka, G., and Sharma, S.K., (2014). Review on Opportunities and Difficulties with HCNG as a Future Fuel for Internal Combustion Engine. Advances in Aerospace Science and Application, Research India Publication; 4(1):79-84.Balat, M. (2008). Potential importance of hydrogen as a future solution to environmental and transportation problems. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 33(15): 4013-4029.

Rahman, M.M., Mohammed, M.K., and Bakar, R.A. (December 2008). Effect of Engine Speed on Performance of Four-Cylinder Direct Injection Hydrogen Fueled Engine. Proceedings of the 4th BSME-ASME International Conference on Thermal Engineering, Dhaka, Bangladesh, 27-29, 175-200.

Rude, L.H., Nielsen, T.K., Ravnsbæk, D.B., Bosenberg, Ley, M.B., Richter, B. (2011). Tailoring Properties of Borohydrides for Hydrogen Storage: A Review. Phys Status Solidi (a); 208(8):1754–73.

Swain, M.R. and Adt. R.R. (2010). The Hydrogen-Air Fuelled Automobile, Proc. 7th Intersociety Energy Conversion Engineering Conference; 1382-1388.

Verhelst, S., Maesschalck, P., Rombaut, N., and Sierens, R. (2009). Increasing the Power Output of Hydrogen Internal Combustion Engines by means of Supercharging and Exhaust Gas Recirculation. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 34(10): 4406–4412.

Verhelst, S., Verstraeten, S., and Sierens, R. (2014). A Comprehensive Overview of Hydrogen Engine Design Features. J. Automobile, ; 221(8): 911-920.

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