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1.Explain how the facets and levels of culture could impact on cross-cultural management?

2.Discuss the Australian culture and the East Asia cultures applying any three of Hofstede’s national cultural dimensions. Include some possible examples of cultural dilemmas that they could experience.

3.What does the term Business culture mean and how does this apply to Australia and East
Asia?

4.Evaluate the cognitive approach to management in Asian cultures, namely Confucianism and Hinduism. 

Importance of Cross Cultural Management in Promoting Cultural Diversity

Interaction between different cultures broadens the thought process of the individuals. Along with this, the aspect of cross cultural relates with promotion of different cultures, which prevails within the society (Thomas and Peterson 2017). This promotion enhances the cultural diversity. This assignment attempts to develop a comparative study between the cultures of Asia and Australia.

Subconscious exchange of the ideas and thoughts results in enhancement of the cultures. This exchange includes transfer of emotions, which reflects the conscious approach towards preservation of culture, customs and traditions. This is the oriental approach, which reflects the six levels of culture: national/societal; organizational; identity group; functional; team and individual. Cross cultural management is the examination, which is done for ensuring the capability of the team members towards preserving the culture of the others (Berry 2015). Here, other represents the identity groups, whose culture is to be preserved. Functional management style is appropriate within the workplace is terms of working towards living up to the preservation of the shared values. Understanding and cooperation are the important attributes towards respecting the culture of the others.

Community participation is one of the effective management techniques for the promoting cultural diversity. Hiring staffs from different socio-cultural background is an initiative to apply the effective management techniques within the organizational structure. Organizing group discussions between the employees is one of other examples of cross-cultural management practices (Tjosvold 2017). Revisions in the practices and policies is one of the ways for effective management of the cultural differences within the workplace. Conscious approach towards the cultural needs of the groups is beneficial in terms of making plans accordingly. Mitigating the misunderstandings and conflicts is a management practice in terms of reducing the cultural differences.

Liberal approach towards the samples in times of conducting surveys is an example of preserving their culture. This approach brings theory of planned action into the discussion. Focus on the aspects of sales target, meetings and budget contradicts the aspect of preserving the cultural diversity. Providing training to the employees on workplace culture is an attempt towards making them aware about the ways and means for preserving the culture (French 2015).

Asia culture reflects diversity in its culture. The parameters of these differences are festivals, dresses, languages, religions. In all of these parameters, community wellbeing is sought, which reflects the attempts towards promoting cultural diversity. Assemblage of people from different socio-cultural backgrounds add values to the nationality. The cultural parameters is a means for attracting the foreign delegates, which enhances the individualism of both the male and female citizens. Moreover, it enhances the collectivism, as it is a collaborative attempt to preserve the cultural values, traditions and customs (Businessinsider.com.au 2018).

Effective Cross-Cultural Management Practices

Aboriginals need to be credited for preserving the Australian culture. Being the oldest survivors, they initiated the systems of Dreaming, which includes the spirits of land and culture. It is from the Aboriginals that the music took shape. As per the language, English reflects the ethnography. Comedy is the main attribute within literature, which reflects the identity of the Australian inhabitants. Victorian architecture is one of the other parameters of the Australian culture.  Exhibitions of the paintings by the Aboriginals in the tourists is one of the ways of promoting the Australian culture. Diversity is also reflected in cuisine, flexible enough for catering to the appetite needs of the customers across the globe (Businessinsider.com.au 2018). Transformation have come in dress, food and cultural factors. However, music, literature and cinema are the carriers of culture to the present generation.

Tourism is one of the means for making the people aware of the diverse cultures, which are prevalent in the society. Introducing effective packages in the bookings is a means for expanding the scope and arena of the tourism industry. Providing free passes to the cultural shows can be one of the example.

In case of the Intuit Asia Pacific, mention can be made of CEO’s statement, who discovered cultural differences. These differences were hampering the productivity. Therefore, he conducted evaluation for preserving the cultural values of the organization. Flexibility was needed in terms of bringing the changes (Businessinsider.com.au 2018). According to the CEO, culture was a fixed and free model. He believed in the preservation of the traditionalism, which he thought was essential in terms of maintaining the workplace culture. Therefore, preserving the traditionalism is one of the main challenge in the business in Australia and Asia.

CEO of Intuit opines execution of the tasks, which would make the motherland proud. Those activities need to be avoided, which does not afford personal efforts. One of the other challenges in the preservation of cultural values is socializing. For this, effective communication channels are needed, which might not be effective at all times. Outer appearance of the workplace creates impression on the clients and the customers (Steers and Sánchez 2017). It reflects the workplace culture, which is followed by the personnel. Maintaining cleanliness and hygiene attracts the foreign clients and the customers. On the contrary, dirty lobbies and conference rooms creates negative image in the minds of the clients, which aggravates the complexities towards promoting the culture.

Cultural Diversity in Asia and Australia

Language barriers is one of the other issues, which affects the business productivity. Employees from different socio-cultural backgrounds need to be made aware of the workplace culture. They need to be provided training on the local languages and cultures, so that they can represent the culture in front of the foreign delegates. Frequent meetings between the delegates of Australia and Asia improves the stability in the relationship (Adekola and Sergi 2016). This results in the conglomeration of two cultures.

Cognitive approach reflects the consideration of risks for ensuring the wellbeing of the clients and the customers. Consciousness of culture is vital in terms of enhancing the parameter of corporate social responsibility. When placed within a particular context, individuals learn. This is the cognitive approach, which enhances the preconceived knowledge, skills and abilities of the individuals. The learning reflects the kind of cultural upbringing, which the individuals received. Here, managerial context reflects the initiative towards enhancing the learning of the employees in terms of the workplace culture (Stahl and Tung 2015). Herein lays the effectiveness of transmitting appropriate cultural information to the employees. Along with this, organizing group discussions between the employees of different cultures is beneficial in terms of enhancing their adjusting skills and abilities.

One of the other methods is the application of Ethical Code of Conduct, which informs the employees about the behaviour, which they need to expose in the workplace. This ethics is related with culture, as it helps in preserving the core values. This preservation promotes the culture, which adds values to the organization as a whole. Involving the community in the planning process results in the achievement of positive outcomes. This is because of the exposed collaboration, indicating conglomeration of the different cultures (Cieri 2017). Evaluation is needed in the cultural practices and framework for upgrading the standards and quality of preserving the cultural traditions.

Conclusion

Management is essential in terms of ensuring that the activities are executed in an efficient and effective manner. This is applicable in terms of preserving the cultural values. Organizing group discussions and forums results in enhancement of the adjustability skills between the employees. Herein lays the effectiveness of Ethical Code of Conduct, which adds value to the workplace behaviour.

References

Adekola, A. and Sergi, B.S., 2016. Global business management: A cross-cultural perspective. Routledge.

Berry, J.W., 2015. Global psychology: Implications for cross-cultural research and management. Cross Cultural Management, 22(3), pp.342-355.

Businessinsider.com.au (2018). 5 cultural differences when doing business in Australia and Asia. Available at: https://www.businessinsider.com.au/this-intuit-exec-shares-the-5-biggest-cultural-differences-when-doing-business-in-australia-and-asia-2016- 4#b1PKZxi7MKV5lbPZ.99 [Accessed on 21st August 2018]

De Cieri, H., 2017. International human resource management: from cross-cultural management to managing a diverse workforce. Routledge.

French, R., 2015. Cross-cultural management in work organisations. Kogan Page Publishers.

Holden, N. and Vaiman, V., 2015. Cross-cultural management: arguing the case for non-cultural explanations. In The Routledge Companion to Cross-Cultural Management (pp. 108-117). Routledge.

Stahl, G.K. and Tung, R.L., 2015. Towards a more balanced treatment of culture in international business studies: The need for positive cross-cultural scholarship. Journal of International Business Studies, 46(4), pp.391-414.

Steers, R.M. and Sánchez?Runde, C.J., 2017. Culture, motivation, and work behavior. The Blackwell Handbook of Cross?Cultural Management, pp.190-216.

Thomas, D.C. and Peterson, M.F., 2017. Cross-cultural management: Essential concepts. Sage Publications.

Tjosvold, D., 2017. Cross-cultural management: foundations and future. Routledge.

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