Rational System Perspective
Discuss about the Influential Ideas about the Role of Managers in Shaping Organization Outcomes.
Managers influence an organizations performs directly as they are responsible for managing the organization's departments and personnel. This places them in a position that affects the organization's performance and outcomes direct making it important for them to understand and utilized different Organisation Theories to encourage and harness the best performance. It’s also critical for the manager to be in a position to develop approaches that can be used at the organization by infusing different theories targeting to promote the organization performance (Yousif 2013). Aspects such as rational system perspective; division of labour; bureaucratic theory, and contingency theory must be used to improve the organization's performance. The data can then be used to improve organizational outcomes by improving performance, productivity and ultimately profits. The manager, therefore, plays an immense role towards implementing suitable theories with the goal of improving the organization's outcomes by ensuring the below factors have all been addressed. With business growing highly competitive in the modern world, managers must participate in Paradigm Wars to ensure their brand retains its reputation and competitiveness in an ever changing market.
The Rational System Perspective refers to the formal structure an organization follows and influences different aspects such as the organization policies and formal employee organization (employee hierarchy structures). It is critical for an organization to offer a formal structure which is followed by each employee as well as set specific rules, terms, and conditions which allow each employee to follow a set of guidelines (Scott & Davis 2015). The two aspects influence organization personnel performance greatly thus critical they are implemented by the organization they enhance its performance. It also important they are constantly audited and revised to address new factors which may develop over time.
Effective management and operations of an organization required for the development of strong policies addressing different factors encountered by the organization. The development of organization policies must be done by the human resource manager but must also involve managers, team leads and all stakeholders associated with the organization. It’s imperative for each stake holder’s perspective to be collected and discussed broadly before the policies are developed to prevent developing one sided policies. Policies must be developed to protect the organization and each stakeholder thus helping promote stability within the organization and among the stakeholders. Policies must not only protect the organization's interest but should also address and protect stakeholder interests. Organization policies should never be developed only focusing on the organization benefits as this nurtures a bad attitude among stakeholders who also turn their attention towards searching for other employment opportunities which offer better policy terms.
A formal organization structure also requires for a well-organized employee designation and hierarchy structures to be put in place. This would allow for the each stakeholder to understand their position as the organization thus allows them to focus their attention towards targeting a higher position through promotion. Employee hierarchy structures rules must also be followed on daily operation needs but open communication must also be available to all organization stakeholders. The lowest ranked employees must still have direct communication with the highest authority which would help highlight issues of concern were following the hierarchy structure to communicate may not be preferred. Having both the hierarchy structure and direct communication among organization employee allows to better streamlining stakeholder performance each stakeholder focuses on their duties in a better manner. When certain concerns are not addressed in an appropriate manner by the responsible person the matter can then be referred to a higher authority.
Format communication is another important element linked to promoting positive organization behaviour and growth whereby all communication requires be doing in a formal manner as well as documenting. The organization must, therefore, provide format communication medium such as stationary, email account and website log in from where work can be done and reported. There must also be effective measures in place to record all communication and actions taken by each account holder to deliver a clear report on their performance. This will also allow for the employee to focus more on their work and avoid misusing company resources as they understand they are under surveillance and each of their actions is being monitored and recorded.
To maximized organization outcomes it’s also important to distribute the workforce according to departmental demand. Individuals also need to be assigned certain duties they are good at performing to encourage specialization (Seunarine 2001). It is also important to encourage employee task versatility and multitasking allowing them to perform more duties at different positions at an organization.
The workforce cannot be distributed evenly across all departments and it’s the responsibility of the manager to evaluate each department needs and allocate the department the desired number of employees. This allows for the organization to distribute its knowledge and skill strength appropriately across the organization. This also ensures the organization only retains the required number of employees which helps avoid over hiring which may result in promoting idleness among over saturated departments.
To promote high efficiency and improved quality the manager must also be able to audit each employee's performance and identify areas they are strong and confident in. the employees should them be assigned the duties to handle the task and be held responsible for ensuring the best performance and quality. Each member of a team or department should, therefore, be encouraged to develop a specialization on one of more areas and be responsible for its implementation.
Employee designation (hierarchy structures)
It’s also for the manager to encourage employee responsibility and work versatility which allows for the employee to multitask and be capable of performing different responsibility at the office. This is important as it strengths the employee skills within the organization making them of an asset for the organization as opposed to employees who only possess on skill. This also allows the manager to have a group of employees with multiple talents and skills who they can turn to for assistance when a department may require additional help so a shortfall of personal. To stabilize the organization performance and outcomes the manager must encourage dedicated employees to master multiple responsibilities across different department which helps encourage stability and stable development and performance.
Most organizations today follow a Bureaucratic management structure in which the organization employees follow a hierarchy management structure. The organization will also have clearly defined decision-making rules which must be followed to prevent breaching organization policy. The management is non-elected placing the overall and final decision-making process in the highest authority’s hands (Merz 2013). To effectively manage organization development it’s important to utilize the above approaches but also be able to make minor adjustments to the approaches to encourage performance and boost organization outcomes.
An organization must distribute its workforce according to their designation and encourage hierarchy structure reporting which means staff members are expected to report issues to their superior. The same applies to every level where team members report to tame leads, team leads to department heads department heads report to serious managers and senior manager’s report to the President or CEO. The structure may vary but the principle remains the same where each level reports to its higher authority. But to improve performance hierarchy structure reporting should be further enhanced by also delivering direct communication to higher levels of management leading to the highest designations. This is important as it allows each staff member to raise a concern which may not be getting the required attention from a superior on the hierarchy structure. By infusing the hierarchy structure reporting with direct reporting organization outcomes are better achieved as each organization member is response to acting on their duties swiftly and responsibilities knowledge the issue can be forwarded to a higher authority for review.
Decision-making remains the fundamental right of the highest authority among organizations following the Bureaucratic Theory but at the same time, the decision can be improved by considering staff input. It’s important to understand the line worker encounter the day to day challenges facing the organizations and being able to take their input into consideration before finalizing on decisions of critical towards making the right decision (Gerber et al. 2014). Failing to take employee impute related to a certain decision can lead to serious complications which can gravely affect the organization performance and growth. To prevent such instances occurring, the managers must be able to encourage employee participation towards highlighting important areas, data, and information which may require being carefully analysed before certain decisions are taken.
Flexibility is another important factor managers must consider encouraging organization development and smoother operations. The Contingency Theory refers to having a fixed organization structure and policies but at the same time also allowing for flexibility towards the decision making and process management. This theory views organization management and operation as being uncertain thus resulting in there not being any fixed approaches to be used. A basic criterion of management is there for followed while handling every operation but also allows for changes or modifications to be made which will help improve results. The approaches may not be fixed and may require the employees of a responsible individual to adopt unconventional approaches but allow for the individual to resolve the problem and close the case (Bacher 2007). The Contingency Theory of organization management is commonly used in design and manufacturing industry where theoretical approaches may require modification when practically implemented to secure the desired result. The same applies to many industries and it’s important for the modifications to also be reported and recorded to help modify the theoretical plans which require modification to perfect their accuracy and performance.With businesses growing highly competitive on a daily basis, it has become important for managers to adopt effective management approaches which will ensure the brand retains its reputation and competitive edge in a market. Unlike the past when brand dictated the guidelines related to product design and employee policy, today consumers have more brands to consider and employees have more employment options thus eliminating brand monopoly in the marketplace (Porter & Tanner 2012). This has resulted in the requirement for proper management of every stakeholder needs to effective build a positive reputation among customers and its employees and suppliers.
Managers remain at the forefront of implementing positive change in any organization at they are the link between the workforce, senior management, and other stakeholders. This places them at an important position at which they are responsible for mediating and making the important decision which addresses each stakeholder needs with the objective of promoting business operations and performance but also addressing stakeholder needs. This will ultimately result in every stakeholder benefiting which encouraging uniformity and growth of the brands a whole.
Bacher, C 2007, Contingency Theory, GRIN Verlag.
Gerber, J, Arms, H, Wiecher, M & Danner, C 2014, Leveraging Flexibility: Win the Race with Dynamic Decision Management, Springer, Berlin.
Merz, F 2013, Max Weber ?s Theory of Bureaucracy and Its Negative Consequences.
Porter, L & Tanner, S 2012, Assessing Business Excellence, 2nd edn, Routledge, Oxon.
Scott, W & Davis, G 2015, Organizations and Organizing: Rational, Natural and Open Systems Perspectives, Routledge, Oxon.
Seunarine, S 2001, Principles of Business for Cxc, 4th edn, Nelson Thornes, Cheltenham.
Yousif, A 2013, Building a Competitive Public Sector with Knowledge Management Strategy, IGI Global, Hershey.
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