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Locate a local company which will allow you to interview them and review their existing business processes.
For this local company, provide the following information:
An overview of its existing business process architecture
For one major business process in this company, undertake the following tasks:
Provide a brief description of the process and the purpose or desired outcome of the process
Identify key stakeholders and their expectations/requirements
Fully describe, document and represent the current AS-IS, step by step, process, using appropriate maps, models, and tools. Include all data, document, and information flows, in addition to technologies, people and functional areas involved in its completion.
Undertake analysis of the types of inefficiencies associated with the execution of this process.
Provide a list of recommendations for the improvement of this process for the company.

Stakeholders

In this paper we will analyze a restaurant known as Café Deli which was founded in 2000. Over the years the café has grown both in terms of size and organizational structure. The café was it has an annual turnover of  around $1.5million. Hence analyzing its AS-IS process will be appropiriate. Business process analysis contributes to achieving the goals of a trade facilitation project by providing a methodology for analyzing the processes that are carried out, the parties involved, the information being exchanged and the rules governing the way that the process is executed(Brijs 2013). The process of this company can be both automated and manual. Like any other business, this restaurant has got challenges facing Café Deli Restaurant.The inadequecies related to the business process and thus will offer recommendations for improving this process. You can start process analysis by collecting information about the company(Cadle, Paul and Turner 2015). This information helps you determine the types of processes you could automate.

Overview

All the essential business relationships and structures form the architecture of the business process. The main aim of this restaurant is to meet the needs of the customers and add more value to the input to form an output. By creating more experience for the customers in terms of ensuring that the customers are morethan satisfied with not only the food but also the environment. The quality of work is determined by two factors the human and material resource of the company. Some of the noted inadequecies identified is slow service which can be improved. Hence it is necessary for all the relevant people to understand the process.

1.inputs- The inputs of Café Deli are materials, human resource, methods, equipment and environment. Hence, inn a day the workers and management have to know the optimum amount of materials they need to meet daily demand. And the process shoud be uninterrupted.

3.interrelated activities- this may include the services that create more value to the customers. Other activities include purchasing,preparation, cooking, serving and other activities that ensure that the customer gets the final product.
Gather the following business information to use when designing workflow processes:  If you have an organization chart, review it to see how the company is organized.  If the company is multinational, list the languages ??required for the workflow processes. Collect the business process flows that document the business units of the organization. If there are different process flows for the same organizations in different locations, collect these process flows(Gerth, 2013). Compare business practices in locations to find out if differences are significant. Review standard operating procedures, such as ISO 9000 (International Organization for Standardization) quality management or ISO 14000 procedures.in Café Deli. Review industry regulatory requirements and how they affect business processes.

Implementation analysis

Stakeholders

  • Owners/Shareholders- The owners is responsibility for controlling and managing the restaurant. They expect the staffs to work hard and improve their performance quality
  • Staffs, General Manager and Kitchen Manager-The staffs have the responsibility to provide whatever the customer demands. They expect that after they satisfy the customers fully and as expected the management have an incentive scheme for them for motrivation.
  • Customers- They prefer those restaurants, which are able to meet their expectations in term of food quality, quantity and prices.
  • Supplier- the expect the owner to pay them on time after they supply good quality products
  • Local Government and Ministry of Health- they expect the restaurant to follow regulations provided interms of providing quality and hygienic food to customers.

Implementation analysis

Gather the following deployment information to use when designing workflow processes:
Determine the number of organizations and sites that exist for the company. Create workflow processes at the system level. Find out if there are separate processes or sub processes for different organizations or sites. Find out if you use Integration Framework to integrate with any external system(Hass, n.d.). Determine if any Cafe Deli product option has been purchased.  Look for the applications that the company has implemented.  Determine the types of records for which you are using the software.  Find out if the system has been configured to generate inventory reordering records, preventative maintenance work orders, and planned payment invoices.

Workflow processes identify the people who create and manage a record throughout their life cycle. Workflow processes also identify the types of records that are used.

Business Process Analysis (BPA) is a methodology that supports the analysis of a business with the objective of understanding its processes and improving the efficiency and effectiveness of its operations. It describes the processes involved, the participants, the exchange of information and the norms that regulate this exchange especially in companies like Cafe Deli(Juric and Pant, 2008).
Relevance to trade facilitation. BPA is a great way to improve effectiveness. It provides the means to describe the processes involved ("As is" process) and presents diagrams and images that those responsible for facilitating trade can easily understand(Krogstie, 2016). Based on this analysis, unnecessary steps, bottlenecks and opportunities for simplification can be identified. Some examples illustrate typical applications. BPA can be used to design improvements (in the "As-desired" process) and in specific computer systems to carry out relevant business procedures. The International Supply Chain and Trade Facilitation measures
Trade facilitation projects in Cafe Deli Limited typically have an interinstitutional reach. Therefore, many parts are involved and the communication and the project itself are complex, varied and very important. BPA provides a structured strategy for such projects.

The use of BPA in trade facilitation projects

The business process of the organization enables the  Café to operate efficiently as well as present a positive outcome. If the project aims to implement the best solution practice as identified in another area (ie, geographic), the use of such a solution as a reference model represents a very effective strategy. The use of BPA increases the ability to reuse previous work(Kupersmith, Mulvey and McGoey, 2013). The diagram below shows how the GAP phases support various e-commerce solutions, trade harmonization and facilitation aimed at improving the effectiveness of trade transactions.

The thematic sphere of Business Process Analysis within a typical Trade Facilitation project in Cafe Deli is the best business system. The BPA use scenarios provide an overview to guide a practitioner as to whether certain methodologies fit the needs of the project. Many major companies use BPA for consulting services and implementation solutions. These tools support BPA and the composition of results. In addition, the desirability of carrying out a continuous process in order to improve trading procedures over a longer time perspective should be assessed. Requirements change over time; External and internal influences vary and must be monitored. Organizations establish structures described as Business Process Management to facilitate these goals.

Business Process Analysis (BPA)

Communication Network-  the restaurant has an effective communication network and the messages flow both downwards and upwards from junior staff to senior staff.

 Information Flow- the communication channel is reliable. There can be an audit trail of orders and payments which can be stored.

Performance Management-  there is an evaluation system for employees as well as if the customers needs are met.

 Business Decisions-  For this restaurant, this is based on business rules. 

This model shows the Change from Automation to Process Innovation as discussed below.

information systems were used to automate business processes in an attempt to replace part of the human effort and also in the delivery of information for the processes around the making of Decisions (usually raw data in continuous paper bales) (Paul, Cadle and Yeates, 2015)..

In the AS-IS Model,It was later noted that automation was not enough and that ICT could also be used to obtain a more integrated and more efficient value chain. Automation, without a redesign, reinvention or innovation of processes, is equivalent to paving on an old ox track (a very used but decisive example) without taking into account the possibility of building new bridges, cutting hills and filling gullies for greater efficiency , Generate innovations that open new alternatives and provide strategic advantages along with new projections in its use.

Business Process Reengineering, a discipline introduced in the early 1990s, proved to be an appropriate use of ICT in the organization. It has also been used in the AS-IS Model in organizations(Paul, Cadle and Yeates, 2015).. It recognizes the mistakes and failures of simple automation and seeks the use of IT in an innovative way to restructure work and transform processes, achieving greater efficiency, increased productivity and competitive advantages. So, it is logical to infer that well-constructed and managed information systems (SI) allow to improve productivity, among other delights, but it would be a mistake to think that ICT itself is "the answer" to the problems of the enterprise. organization.

ISs can speed up some processes, automate certain manual procedures, and support decision-making activities. Even though companies have made great strides in this trend given to the computer area, in general there has been a result that leaves everyone smiling.

The definition and development of IS must be carried out in a coherent way, together with the questioning of existing tasks and redefinition of processes. The introduction of ICT must necessarily drive this redesign of the processes.

Relevance to trade facilitation

Any change, innovation, transformation or reinvention of a business process, to be successful, must consider ICT (it is its great mission) and also strategies, structures, organizational culture and human resources.

It often happens that a radical transformation in the organization has a high percentage of failure. Due to this, prior to the beginning of a transformation based on the ICT, one should consider aspects such as:

What are the myths, attitudes or barriers (factors of failure) that can damage the change project?

What are the success factors for this transformation process?

How do we design an effective transformation? How do we communicate it to everyone?

Obviously you should have an adequate answer to each of the above questions (and many more) before embarking on any project.

Cafe Deli limited has an Enterprise Architecture (AE) scheme developed by Open Group members that is used to develop a wide variety of enterprise architectures(Kupersmith, Mulvey and McGoey, 2013).
Cafe Deli limited systems benefits organizations that need a continuous flow of information, where information systems are an obstacle to the operation and that seek to enable the strategic change of business, making manufacturing a strategic business element.

1- Business Architecture: Identifies the value chain of the organization from macro to subprocesses. Such identification goes through the value chain production areas (CORE business processes), areas of management processes and administrative support areas.
After the identification, it then goes to the Definition of the Business Processes Architecture.
It uses BPMN (Business Process Modeland Notation) as a modeling technique to provide a standard notation that is easily readable and understandable to those involved in the business, such as business analysts, technical developers, and business managers and administrators.

BPMN serves as a common language between the parties for a feasible communication understanding that is often presented between the design of business processes and their implementation.
Then, the objective Business Architecture of Applications is presented, based on frames of reference and best practices of the industry(Lee, 2007). This approach contemplates an approach to the integration model that should have the Enterprise Applications Architecture.

After these processes and the results of the Processes, Data and Applications Architecture, the conceptual definition of an "SOA Architecture", which is based on the specification of the services and their distribution in each of the 6 layers of SOA architecture (solution layer, process layer, business logic layer, core services layer, application layer, utilities layer) in order to guarantee its implementation requirements according to its function within the SOA architecture.

For this the following steps are executed:
Select reference models and tools.
Develop the description of the objective architecture Hardware and Software Platform that meets the vision of the Enterprise Architecture. Run the gap analysis and identify the impacts that the changes should be contemplated. Execute a formal review by stakeholders and take decisions on procurement, updating and rationalization of technology element. Cafe Deli limited has a common sense, effective, practical and prudent method for developing business architecture and consists of three main parts(Lee, 2007):

In terms of lessons learned, The Project Manager should document the tactics used to be able to use them in future projects. In its case, it would be advisable to formalize the processes with the writing of checklists for the identification of the interested parties. Conclusions Construction sector organizations must commit themselves to their moral obligations with the project stakeholders and to agree on how this impacts, (Or is affected by) in its income statement. In the case of the construction sector in Spain, this moral obligation is especially significant. The financial entities have become the largest real estate companies in the country, and have received public funds to clean up their income accounts, eventually creating the business process to take over the housing stock(Lee, 2007). In this situation, the moral obligation to the society that supports them should be above all other considerations. The rest of the organizations in the construction sector are small and medium enterprises.

Reengineering is an organized effort, conducted from the top downwards in the organization, with the aim of anticipating, as much as possible and necessary, to completely reformulate its main work processes, so as to achieve high level improvements in regard to the increase of productivity, the quality of the services and products and the efficiency in the attention of the clients.

A company that could enter the market and offer an acceptable product, at a good price, would manage to sell. Now there is not only more competition but competition in different ways. Not to forget that modern technology has introduced new ways of competing and new competition, Internet for example. So we have to be aware of this in order to be able to cope with it and be prepared for that new type of competition(Lee, 2007). The Change: It has already been noted that consumers and competition has changed, but we must also emphasize the fact that The way it is changed has changed. Before it was believed that automation was the solution, but this only makes it faster processes today, which is wrong if the process is inadequate and worse even if there is not even need of doing so, which in the long run would be a slight improvement at the expense of an extremely strong investment.

That is why the only way to face this new world is to know how to do better the current work for Cafe Deli Ltd, which can be done when analyzing the work. The previous one leads us to the root of Reengineering; Forget that it is mandatory to organize the work according to the principles of the division of labor and become the idea that it is necessary to organize the work around the processes. This is necessary because it is essential to focus on the customer. The speed of technological change also promotes innovation The product life cycles have passed from years to months. The time available to develop and introduce new products has been reduced. Today companies have to move faster, or soon they will be totally paralyzed. Globalization: Another factor to take into account in explaining why reengineering is globalization.For this we propose the following methodology, represented schematically in power point, and that constitutes the following phases to consider:

Stage 1 - Preparation: Define the goals and the strategic objectives that justify the reengineering and the links between the results of the reengineering and the results of the organization. Develop the vision and objectives of the company's processes. Establish priorities and goals. Step 2 - Identification: The purpose of this stage is the development of a customer-oriented model, identifying specific processes and adding value. This includes defining clients, processes, performance, success, resources, etc. (Paul, Cadle and Yeates, 2015). It also requires in-depth knowledge of the entire company and its processes. Identify the processes that need to be redesigned. Identification of critical processes, bottlenecks, etc. Because resources are essentially limited, prioritizing continuous improvement is absolutely advisable. First of all, it is necessary to identify the organization's Critical Success Factors (CSFs) .An CFS is an element in which it has to be especially excellent because it can determine the success or failure of the organization. CSFs must satisfy the condition "necessary and sufficient" ensuring that each of them Is necessary for the Mission of the organization and that the sum of all is sufficient to reach it. Once determined which are the FCEs, we will be able to identify which are the processes of the organization that have direct impact in the same, being these processes the Critical Processes . Identifying Critical Processes is the basis for managing the organization's continuous improvement efforts(Paul, Cadle and Yeates, 2015).

 Stage 3 Vision: Understand and measure current processes. The purpose of this stage is to develop a process vision capable of producing a decisive breakthrough in performance. The vision of the new process should be understandable for all staff, describe the primary characteristics of the process, be motivating and inspiring.

 Step 4 - Solution: Bring together the people involved and conduct work sessions. At this stage a technical design and a cultural-organizational design of the company are produced. The technical design stage seeks to realize the vision (Stage 3), specifying the technical dimensions of the new process(Paul, Cadle and Yeates, 2015). Social design must necessarily be carried out at the same time as the Technique, because for a process to be effective, these designs must be effective.

 5 - Transformation: The purpose of this stage is to realize the vision of the process by implementing the design of stage 4. Design and elaborate a prototype of the process. Technical implementation. The Process Map and the identification of the critical processes will allow us to focus and carry out a prioritized and consistent process management that will ensure continuous improvement. To guarantee continuous improvement we must take into account a fundamental fact: The improvement Continuous is a value that cannot be imposed on employees, it has to come out of themselves. Getting employees to provide the best of themselves and thus ensure success in continuous improvement of the organization requires to manage three requirements:

Forge links between functions and coordinate while activities are done. Put the decision site where the work is done and incorporate control into that process. Those who do the work must make the decisions. Compress pyramidal organization in flat.

 To ensure the success of the company is vital that those who purchase or use their products or services consider it better than the rest of their competitors. Obtaining this consideration from the client depends on the added value we give him. But what is the value ?: It is the "Degree of utility or aptitude of things, to satisfy the needs or to provide well-being or delight" So, to satisfy our Clients, but even to keep them loyal, we must concentrate on adding the maximum value to products and services so that they are able to provide well-being, delight and satisfaction of the specific needs of each of our clients. Three are the basic elements from which we can manage our organization(Vailiev, 2010).

Business Process Architecture? Optimization Work units Any organization can be structured according to three hierarchical levels: Strategy, Processes, and Information Systems. Strategy: in the strategic part the organization defines its markets, products / services, objectives and goals; In other words, it is concerned with the aims it intends to achieve.

Processes: at the process level, the company implements the business operations congruent with the strategic objectives and goals, through its structuring in the form of business processes; Its purpose is to provide the necessary operational means to achieve the goals outlined in the strategy.

Process life cycle - Modeling: at this stage a business process is created, it is also here where improvements are defined, or changes to processes to optimize them. - Implementation: integrates the necessary components to implement the process as technological solutions. - Execution of Processes: the previously developed process is exploited and information is collected for the control and follow-up of the process(Vailiev, 2010).

Each sector and each company has its own configuration and, however, there are certain points where they all converge. It is to avoid the worst inefficiencies, those related to:

Use of resources: from materials and equipment, to energy or water. This type of inefficiencies generates costs much higher than those that many companies calculate and that is why they must be avoided by promoting policies of sustainability, labor flexibility and responsible consumption.

Systems and processes: starting from a good leadership, we must remedy the lack of efficiency in this area. Improving the organization, adapting the resources to the needs and optimizing the distribution of workloads are three ways to tackle the problem.

Time use: excessive latencies, dead time, interruptions, delays ... Yes, time is a limited resource, but it is everyone's responsibility to avoid bad habits, such as procrastination or lack of prioritization; And take measures that help optimize their use, avoiding the cost that delays in the delivery of projects or overtime generate in the organization.

Feedback: the voice of the client is as valuable as the personal contribution of employees. Together they provide a very complete view of the perception of the business being transmitted. The information they provide with their comments, suggestions, requests or complaints is fundamental to detect weaknesses, the origin of many inefficiencies. In order not to lose this valuable feedback it is necessary to enable the communication channels that make this information exchange possibleRoughton and Crutchfield, 2011).

Objectives: to know the business, the environment and the market is essential to ensure business efficiency. A very practical way to begin a dynamic of continuous improvement is to set goals. In this process the vision, mission and values ??will be revealed; Needs and shortcomings; The available resources, the roles and responsibilities and the expectations of change.

Data: the term business efficiency is not static, but implies an evolution. We must adapt to new situations, new requirements and remain efficient. Data is the only way to quantify reality, preparing it for analysis and providing knowledge that strengthens decision making and minimizes errors.

Review and adjustment: once the goals of business efficiency have been met, it is necessary to continue measuring, obtaining data that allow us to decipher if we are moving in the right direction or if we are losing alignment.

Improving the business process for Cafe Deli Ltd

1) Define the processes that make up the organization and the most important key indicators of each phase of the process. It is necessary to know the indicators and measure them to know where the improvements should be carried out. Example: digitize the administrative part of the company. The key indicators would be, for example, the reduction of time in manual tasks, cost savings, among others.

2) Define the phase or phases of the process in which it will be sought to improve the indicator that was chosen in the beginning. It is better to modify the phases one by one as this will make the results achieved. If too many things are changed at one time, it will not be known that it has positively and positively influenced.

3) Once you have chosen the phase, or phases, that need to be improved, the project is planned. First, the process must be designed and clear what objectives are to be achieved. Once the design has been established, the technological resources must be chosen to carry out the processes, to measure their results, etcRoughton and Crutchfield, 2011). Next, the timings of the process must be defined and respected when starting it. Finally, the team involved should be involved from the beginning of the improvement process.

4) Mark the appropriate objectives. It is important to mark the objectives to be achieved as well as to identify opportunities for improvement and what resources are needed to achieve those objectives.

5) Analyse the results obtained. It is important to have tools to analyse the results obtained with the improvement of the process. In this step, you should analyse the initial indicator and see if the objectives have been achieved (Roughton and Crutchfield, 2011). Both quantitative and qualitative results should be analysed and if the objectives defined in the beginning have been achieved and if the changes have been implemented to improve the process. The results should be communicated to both the involved team and the entire company.

6) Constantly monitor and follow the process, using the metrics. The objectives that were given in an improvement process may change over time. They have to constantly review the processes and see if they change, as well as if they have achieved the improvements they wanted.

References

Brijs, B. (2013). Business analysis for business intelligence. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.

Cadle, J., Paul, D. and Turner, P. (2015).Business analysis techniques.Swindon: BCS The Chartered Institute for IT.

Gerth, C. (2013). Business Process Models. Change Management. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Hass, K. (n.d.). Breakthrough business analysis.

Juric, M. and Pant, K. (2008).Business process driven SOA using BPMN and BPEL. Birmingham, U.K.: Packt Pub.

Krogstie, J. (2016). Quality in Business Process Modeling. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Kupersmith, K., Mulvey, P. and McGoey, K. (2013).Business Analysis For Dummies. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons.

Lee, I. (2007). E-business innovation and process management. Hershey, PA: CyberTech Pub.

Leopold, H. (2013). Natural Language in Business Process Models. 1st ed. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

McConnell, J. (2003). How to identify your organization's training needs. New York: AMACOM.

Models in environmental regulatory decision making. (2007). Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press.

Paul, D., Cadle, J. and Yeates, D. (2015).Business analysis.Swindon: British Informatics Society Limited.

Roughton, J. and Crutchfield, N. (2011).Job Hazard Analysis. Burlington: Elsevier Science.

Vailiev, Y. (2010). Oracle Business Intelligence. Birmingham [England]: Packt Pub.

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