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This question draws upon ‘basic’ CCNA level skills and requires you to investigate the CCNA curriculum for any areas you may be unsure about in order to implement the system in Figure 1 using Packet Tracer.

Whilst the concept in the diagram is entirely fictional, the essence of this assignment task is to develop your design, practical and investigative skills.

The entire solar system will use the class B public address of

  • Create and configure in the Packet Tracer file subnets for:
    • the Sol Core
    • Mercury to Venus
    • Venus to Earth
    • Earth to Mars
    • Mars to Jupiter
    • Moon Base Alpha to support 100 host addresses; the PC is symbolic of one local resident
    • the Asteroid Belt, which must be further sub-networked for the Ceres, Pallas and Juno ‘mining colonies’, each supporting at least 10 residents. In the future there are potentially another 99 asteroids that could be mined
    • hosting the Europa server; there will be no other hosts
    • hosting the Ganymede server; there will be no other hosts.

  • In a separate document
    • explain the logic behind your addressing scheme
    • show how this is implemented
    • apply the appropriate addresses/subnet masks to the router interfaces
    • apply IP addresses to the Moon Base Alpha, Europa and Ganymede servers.

  • All the networks interconnecting Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars, including the LANs and associated subnets, are on OSPF 0. Configure the network with OSPF for this system. Each routed entry in each router MUST only advertise routes to the interfaces configured and not be susceptible to additional interfaces being added.

  • The connection between Mars, Jupiter and its two server LANs is accessible by a static route on both sides. Configure and inject this information into the OSPF area’s configuration.

  • As part of the separate document (created in part (b)), show examples of the implementation and explain how you configured the system for OSPF.

  • Miners on all asteroids need to get to the Europa server on port 443 / HTTPS only, but access to the Europa server from Moon Base Alpha is forbidden. Configure the appropriate router(s) correctly to implement and enforce this requirement. (5 marks)
  • Users on Moon Base Alpha need access to Ganymede on port 80, but miners on all the asteroids are not allowed similar access for security reasons. Configure the appropriate router(s) to correctly implement and enforce this requirement.

  • For each of the configurations made above, explain in the separate document that you created in part (b):

    1. the technology used to implement and enforce the requirement
    2. the underlying structure of the technology or method implemented
    3. the rationale behind the network device/interface location where the technology/method has been implemented
    4. any assumptions and associated rationale made in setting up this configuration
    5. any additional decisions about the configuration, possibly made by yourself, with justification in the documentation where you deem appropriate.

Please use the researching networking and related information as a guide to completing this question. It is advisable to use verifiable and reliable sources of information in the use of quotations.

Research and critically evaluate at least two complex interior protocols (such as OSPF or EIGRP).

Identify for each protocol:

  • your rationale for selecting the protocol
  • operational strengths
  • weaknesses and known issues
  • the operational requirements of each
  • commercial implementation(s) by Cisco or others.

The evaluation must be unbiased and use sources external to Cisco’s own material, giving each protocol a balanced and objective review.

Addressing Scheme for Communication in Computer Networks

An addressing scheme has clearly needs in order to communicate in the computer network. In this scheme, address scheme includes packets that are forwarded from a location to different location. Each of the layers has TCP/IP protocol that has important points to be considered in the protocol stack model. On the other hand, a logical network appears to a user as single as well as separate entity (Khan et al. 2016). However, it needs to be created from several networks as one of the parts of larger network. In addition, a logical network can be defined through IP addressing scheme. When designing the network, logical parts of the ID addressing scheme are utilized within the network. The logical network is utilized for designing the network. The information that is existed in the logical network is important and assists to determine the process of design that is usable for designing the network.

There is use of voice over Internet Protocol Technology that allows making a phone call utilizing internet connection as well as dedicated network, which utilizes IP protocol. In addition, it saves bandwidth used. The data packets that includes voice information that are routed over the network and encoded in the digital form. In order to filter and check the unauthorized traffic, which can travel across the particular network (Ishikawa et al. 2014). There are major objectives of designing the network is allowing genuine users in order to access the network as well as prevent intruders from accessing it

In order to fulfill requirements of the technology, cisco packet tracer technology is used. It is a cross platform for visual simulation tool developed by Cisco systems. It allows the users in order to create topologies of the network as well as imitate modern networks of computer. The particular software allows the users in order to create topologies of the network. The software allows the users simulating configuration of Cisco routers as well as switches utilizing simulated configuration of the routers as well as make drag as well as drop the user interface. In this perspective, it is important to allow the user to make the devices of the users active in this perspective (DaCosta 2013). The software is usually concentrated on the devices that would be helpful to make the changes. Moreover, it is important to ensure that the network devices are included in the network.

It is important to properly implement network with the help of cisco packet tracer. Interface connections are included under the networking commands. The network administrators configure every interface of the routers. With the command, pertinent information is provided. In addition, it is important to make valuable information available for the interface. On the other hand, it is important to configure that will be helpful to overcome the troubleshooting.

Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) Technology in Network Design

Detecting interface of the routers and documenting information of the circuit is useful to set the target for particular connection. It is important to utilize the field of description notating the current IP address before the processing of interface. In order to execute seamless network design projects, it is important to have effective solution providers for clear comprehending of the demands of clients for minimum downtime as well as network flexibility (Desai et al. 2015). In addition, learning about the most vital considerations for robust network design project as well as the process of dealing with the issues that needs to arise is involved in the present case. The solution providers need to implement primary networks through utilizing inexpensive and readily available as well as highly commoditized network components such as switches, network storage systems, NICs as well as routers. However, it is required to simplify the process of implementing a series of primary elements that is not adequate for the project. Moreover, networks are bigger that results increasing the demands for access. The performance as well as uptime is also increasing for the issue. Hence, it is required to implement designs of the network designs, which has ability to encounter demands of the clients for getting better performance as well as reliability and minimizing downtime along with maintenance of the network flexibility. The process of second installment of the network design needs to be configured well and required to have most important considerations for the robust network design.

In this aspect, one of the most important considerations in robust network design can be getting as resilience. Ferdoush, and Li (2014) stated that it is the ability in order to sustain acceptable level of the service in fault event. In addition, the changes and challenges to get normal network operation are included in the process. Hence, resilient network has ability to recover from software or process issues and hardware. Network resilience takes various forms that depend on the solution provider. In some of the cases, challenge is also changed along with some of the solution providers, who see resilience as one of the most important aspect of the network flexibility. In addition, architecture of the work has selection for accommodating the future technology changes.

Resilience in the network can be intertwined with redundancy of the network. In addition, deign of a redundant network has secondary resources, which has ability to maintain the functionality when basic element fails. For an instance, a client depends on accessing on the Interne access may need redundant WAN connectivity. It can employ WAN providers in order utilize the entirely distinctive physical circuits that can ensure access available when connections is disrupted. On the other hand, the network infrastructures can include the redundant links between the segments of major network. It results portions of the network remaining available while link fails.

Cisco Packet Tracer: Visual Simulation Tool for Network Topologies

It is important to have effective network configuration for setting and control of the network, flow as well as operation in order to support communication of the network communication of the organization (Wu et al. 2016). It is also required having several configuration as well as setup processes on the network hardware, software along with different devices as well as elements for supporting. The Network configuration is recognized as network setup. Thus, it is important to implement effective router configuration that has ability to specify the correct IP addresses as well as route settings. In addition, host configuration need to set up network connection on the host through logging in the default network settings like IP addressing, network name and proxy as well as ID/password in order to enable the network connection as well as communication.

It is important to have most used protocols in the network that has several advantages over the network. The algorithms need to be evolved from the previously-used classless as well as the legacy protocols. There are some networks has class-ful protocols in specific place. It is one of the best used for classless protocol, which can mesh more advanced procedures for network. In addition, the TechTarget contributor for the Cormac Long has ointed out that there is a little number of algorithms, which belongs to the standard of the industry and used in most of the networks. The process includes the Open Shortest Path First protocol as well as the Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol.

There is Open Shortest Path First protocol available, which is considered as classless and link-state algorithm created in the open standard format for enabling the routing across extensive, along with the multi-vendor networks. In addition, there are various benefits for selecting to OSPF that includes the ability in order to differentiate the network into various  segments that has distinctive degree of the autonomy (Lin et al. 2014). It assists to develop organized and siloed hierarchical structure. In this case, the protocol is recognized as one of the most efficient utilization of the IP address space. In addition, OSPF needs increased router memory as every router within the maintenance of the network topological database.

The Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol has a hybrid classless algorithm that is developed by Cisco Packet Tracer. It includes the characteristics of vector as well as the link for the state routing protocols.  In addition, the EIGRP can enable routing of various protocols as well as the specifically built for utilization of the enterprise networks. The specific protocol provides load balancing option for particular types of the traffic. On the other hand, the algorithm is required to have proprietary to the Cisco. It has function in the all-Cisco network, and the Orbit Computer Solutions that can be pointed out in the network. It means that network leverages for any type of non-Cisco components as well as EIGRP cannot function.

Important Considerations for a Robust Network Design

There are several strengths and weakness that can be pointed out by following. The Strengths are as followed.


  • It is very easy to configure as well as use
  • It has been around for long time and well known as well as widely used.
  • The Version 2 can add support for the VSLM or the Classless Internet Domain Routing and MD5 Authentication as well as route summarization.


  • On the other hand, there is limited hop count of 15. After getting the packet travels through the 15 routers as well as the another router that has no knowledge about the bandwidth of the link
  • There is no support various paths for the same route in the network
  • Updates of routing updates need vital bandwidth. The reason behind it is the entire routing table has the changes
  • It is prone to the routing loops
  • There are requirements to travel to and that will be discarded.
  • It converges slowly and especially on the large networks

Comparison of the routing protocols can have several advantages in order to examine speed of the convergence, scalability as well as the resource use along with the process of implementation as well as maintenance of the particular algorithm. The characteristics have leveraged in order to assist in taking the best decision regarding the protocols of the routing. Utilization of OSPF can see that there are crucial differences between the protocols with others. However, there are algorithms having fast speed of the convergence as well as the boast for large scalability along with the more complicated for implementation as well as maintenance.

However, there are differences in the resource utilization. OSPF utilizes high level of resources and for this each of the OSPF routers can store topological database of the particular network. At the same time, it has limitations related to speed of the bounding queries. When selecting a routing protocol, it is required to be imperative to understand the network and certain requirements for scalability and resource utilization as well as speed of the convergence. Use of this information, the decision-makers as well as the network administrators can get help to select the protocol, which can enable the best utilization of the available resources during ensuring that data is transmitted properly across as well as outside the network.

In addition, the existing proposals have tendency to make differentiate end-point detection method for individual hosts as well as topological addresses of the network attachment points. The system of communication needs the systems use as well-defined formats in order to exchange several messages (Vasilakos et al. 2016). In this perspective, each of the messages has exact meaning intended in order to elicit response from the range of possible responses that is pre-determined for specific situation. In addition, the specified behaviour has typically independency of the process that is implemented in the system. The Communications protocols needs to be agreed upon the parties involved.

In order to reach the agreement, a protocol needs to be developed into the technical standard. Along with these, a programming language can explain that there are same for computation and close analogy between the protocols as well as programming languages (Vasilakos et al. 2016). The protocols have communications regarding programming language for computations. In the Multiple protocols, it is required to explain the different aspects of making single communication. In addition, a group of protocols that are to be designed in order to work together recognized as protocol suite. These are implemented in software in protocol stack.


Akyildiz, I.F., Wang, P. and Sun, Z., 2015. Realizing underwater communication through magnetic induction. IEEE Communications Magazine, 53(11), pp.42-48.

Brandwine, E.J., Amazon Technologies, Inc., 2016. Selecting among virtual networking pr

DaCosta, F., 2013. Rethinking the Internet of Things: a scalable approach to connecting everything. Apress.

Desai, P., Sheth, A. and Anantharam, P., 2015, June. Semantic gateway as a service architecture for iot interoperability. In Mobile Services (MS), 2015 IEEE International Conference on (pp. 313-319). IEEE.

Ferdoush, S. and Li, X., 2014. Wireless sensor network system design using Raspberry Pi and Arduino for environmental monitoring applications. Procedia Computer Science, 34, pp.103-110.

Ishikawa, N., Yoshida, N. and Ishibashi, N., 2014, October. Overlay networking protocols and device metadata for controlling and managing home networks and appliances. In Consumer Electronics (GCCE), 2014 IEEE 3rd Global Conference on (pp. 553-557). IEEE.

Khan, A.A., Rehmani, M.H. and Reisslein, M., 2016. Cognitive radio for smart grids: Survey of architectures, spectrum sensing mechanisms, and networking protocols. IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials, 18(1), pp.860-898.

Lin, Y.D., Hwang, R.H., Armitage, G. and Eramo, V., 2014. Open source for networking: Tools and applications [Guest Editorial]. IEEE Network, 28(5), pp.4-5.

Vasilakos, A.V., Zhang, Y. and Spyropoulos, T. eds., 2016. Delay tolerant networks: Protocols and applications. CRC press.

Wu, S., Wang, H., Wu, D., Chatzimisios, P. and Chen, Z., 2016. Security and networking for cyber?physical systems. Security and Communication Networks, 9(9), pp.807-807.

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