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Question:
Analyse VDP project and identify inherent risks in the construction, operational and pre-construction phase of the entire project.
 
 
Answer:
Inherent risks for VDP Project

Risk of disruption by the activities of other Construction activities on the construction site

This type of risk mostly happens during the construction of any project. The VDP project may experience a risk of disruption from the neighboring adjacent buildings. The adjacent buildings and any similar projects around may prevent the completion of the project in the required time. If this risk occurs when the consequences are that it will affect the business which happens within the construction site area (Regmi 2016).

Control

The Contractor of the VDP has higher chances of undertaking the risk. The contractor should select the supervisor to prevent the risk of disruption. In case the Contractor succeeds in controlling the risk the construction should continue without the complaints from the adjacent building (Shoults 2016).

Risks of delay in payment to all the employees on site

This type of risk always takes place during the construction of VDP project. The delay in payment to both the Workmen and contractors has a negative effect on the completion of VDP project. Payment is the total amount of money paid anyone for the performance of a work process. In construction industry payment is the amount paid to both the contractors and employees after their works. Payment delay is where there is a delay in paying the employees and contractors their money by the owners on time (Yassine and Pearson 2014). 

 


The possible consequence is that it will create disputes between the management and the employees. Most of the employees will revolt and these will delay the completion of the VDP project. There is also the consequence of no support from other close commercial buildings; this is because of the disruption to their trading (Loreto et al. 2016).

Control and severity

The contractor of the VDP has the capacity of undertaking the risk. They should appoint the supervisors on the site to help reduce the risk associated with the disruption. This will help solve the problem of project delay. The contractor should also appoint an expert to control payment delay by following the best practices of invoicing- they should ensure that the payment is listed clearly by ensuring that they have a clean due date. They can also control the problem of a late problem by preparing a late payment fee. They can prepare either a percentage or a flat fee. This will help most of the workers because they will access loans in case of late payment (Breunig, Söderlund and Kvålshaugen 2015).

Risk of Accidents and damage to property to the workers on site

This kind of risk takes place during the construction phase of the VDP project. Individuals who are working on the construction project are exposed to higher risks of accidents. The properties of the workers may also be damaged. These accidents may cause serious construction accident which may lead to death. The fatal accident may be caused due to falls, trips or slips. Falls are the main cause of the accident in a construction site and them main result in death or injury. Workers who are more than six feet tall are at higher risk of being injured. They always fall from ladders and scaffolding.  The workers may contact to harmful diseases derived from the external environment of the workplace (Ayele 2016).

Control and severity

Accident and damage to properties to workers may make the project to proceed at a loss. It may even delay the VDP extension project and if death occurs to any worker then there will be compensation to those who are affected by the injuries. To control falls, the contractor is advised to provide suitable safety gear and equipment to reduce and prevent causes of fall as well as other accidents (Paris, Ahluwalia, Cummings, Moreland and Wilkinson 2017). The fall protection must also be provided at the construction site. The fall protection should also be given at 6 feet at the site. The contractor should guard hole in the entire floor that can enable workers to walk as well as fall through by putting in place a railing and toe-board. The contractor should also provide suitable working conditions which are free from injuries and known dangers. The contractor should also keep the working environment clean and train workers on how to avoid malicious injury (Hovav and Herbon 2017). If the property happened because of the negligence of the Contractor then he should be made to compensate those who are injured during the work. The risk should also be taken by the Company in case the damage happened because of the environmental factors. If the accident occurs to the workers on site when performing duty then the Contractor will be liable for any damage caused to any workers and the client should pay for the damage in the form of money to those workers who are affected (Dombret and Goldbach 2017). 

 
Risk to the pedestrians (those who are using roads close to the site) project area while using heavy Construction equipment.

 The construction site can cause injury to the Pedestrians or can kill them due to the mobile equipment used on the site. Any pedestrian who is walking close to the construction site is exposed to a different type of risk. If not control then the accidents to those who are walking will cause death or damage (Hovav and Herbon 2017).

Control and severity

The risk will greatly affect the Company. This risk should be incurred by the Contractor. The contractor can manage and control the risk by appointing the controllers of the traffic on the streets as well as putting suitable signboards.

The risk of errors omission in the Design Documents

This type of risk happens during the time of the construction phase of the VDP project. Design errors have a negative effect on schedule, safety performance and cost of construction projects. They can also affect the Company who undertake the project. The additional work will require time and resources to correct the error that has happened. The omission or error can cause injury; damage and financial suffering for example cost of rectifying action and delays. The error in design documents can prevent the progress of the construction (O'Sullivan 2017).

Control and severity

The error or omission by ensuring that essential details are collected by and from qualified experts who are aware of the project, the experts should also have education and experience with the problems at hand. If the error is in the design documents and recognized during the construction, then they should omit the error for the easier progress of the project (Gravino, Sîrbu, Becker, Servedio and Loreto 2017). The client (Company) has to take full responsibility of the risk because they are the giver of the design documents to the VDP Contractor. The architect will also bear the risk and offer a corrective drawing to help in the completion of the construction project.

The risk in obtaining requisite planning authorization (permit) for the extension project

Planning permission is the greatest risk that may affect the VDP project. A decision on whether to make detailed application and when to apply for the project are quite essential for any project. A client should get the planning permission so as to reduce abortive design costs. A planning permit represents a legal document that enables a construction development on any site and it is being issued by the local authority. It is mandatory for any Construction Company to obtain a planning permit before the start of any project.

Control and Severity

The delays can be prevented by seeking the pre-application advice from any experts such as the local planning authority who can explain the application form and the general information needed. If there is no planning permission, then the Company has no capacity to continue with the project. The consequences will be low for the contractor and high for the Client. If a client selects a consultant to make a development planning request for the permit then the consultant from the client will suffer partial risk burden. The Client has the capacity of controlling the risk. In case the Client succeeded in getting the risk then the Client will enjoy benefits (Sardi 2017).   

 
Disputes Resolution approaches
Arbitration

This is more appropriate dispute resolution process in VDP project as it will enable an extension of the project. The process of Arbitration is subjected to legal control, while formal disputes can be decided by the private tribunal. An arbitrator must a private individual with a lot of experience and expertise chosen by either party (Yassine and Pearson 2014). Arbitrators should be guided by the legislation, the decision arrived by the arbitrators can be enforced by the legal institution such as the court (O'Sullivan 2017). The disputes that happen in the VDP extension project regarding a delay in disputes or time relating to excess budget, the arbitrator has the authority and power to assess and award suitable reward for example order to pay money as well as to announce rights between parties. Arbitration is essential since it is accepted and supported globally (Folberg, Golann, Stipanowich and Kloppenberg 2016).  

Avoiding

This approach is also known as the Withdrawal style. The approach is a situation whereby the parties involved withdraw from the problem or postponed the problem to a later date. This type of approach offers a temporary solution because conflict and problem continue to develop between the parties (Cangioni and Spataro 2014).

Techniques to prevent the impact and occurrence of disputes on the construction project
Managing issues

Disputes that may arise in VDP project can be controlled by not only managing the disputes but also the problems arising at the early stage of the project. In the VDP extension there exist different issues which arise on the site (Fainshmidt, White and Cangioni 2014). It will be good when the issues are solved since unresolved problems may lead to serious disputes. The company that undertakes the project should give resolution meetings to avoid the occurrence of disputes (Fainshmidt, White and Cangioni 2014).

Checking conditions and terms of a construction Contract

It is the essential feature to check the conditions and terms of a contract by the parties before the signing of the contract since conditions and terms will be involved conditions that have to be followed such as terms of payment (how and when it should be done). During the early stage of the project, it will be essential to check the extension and variation of time for both parties to prevent the disputes (Lee, Patel, Dean, Webster and Eaton 2017). 

 
The contract should be reviewed before signing it

It is very important to review well a contract for the identification of any doubt that relates to the clause in the contract. The Contractor and the Client can allow the experts to review the contract before signing it to prevent any dispute that may arise.

 Encouraging effective communication

An effective communication will help reduce disputes between the parties that are involved in the formation of the contract. The contractor should offer the required information to the client on the extension projects. The communication between the parties should be specific and clear and it should be given by writing only. The terms should be kept in writing rather than keeping them in verbal communication.

Conclusion

The report covers the project undertaken by the VDP construction. The company that performed the project is effective examined and 6 suitable risks are identified, the controlling criteria and severity are discussed. The most appropriate dispute resolution approaches such as Arbitration and withdrawal are explained to help in solving the disputes perfectly and suitable preventive measures of solving disputes, for example, effective communication, reviewing a contract and managing the contracts for the efficacious completion of the project 

 
References

Ayele, Y.Z., 2016. Risk-Based Analysis of Drilling Waste Handling Operations. Bayesian Network, Cost-effectiveness, and Operational Conditions.

Breunig, K.J., Söderlund, J. and Kvålshaugen, R., 2015. Lasting temporariness: Projects as capability bridges across time and organizational levels.

Cangioni, C. and Spataro, S., 2014. International Intellectual Property disputes: The Impact of National Culture on Preferences for Dispute Resolution Method. The Journal of Business Diversity, 14(1), p.35.

Fainshmidt, S., White, G.O. and Cangioni, C., 2014. Legal distance, cognitive distance, and conflict resolution in international business intellectual property disputes. Journal of International Management, 20(2), pp.188-200.

Folberg, J., Golann, D., Stipanowich, T.J. and Kloppenberg, L.A., 2016. Resolving disputes: Theory, practice, and law. Wolters Kluwer Law & Business.

Gravino, P., Sîrbu, A., Becker, M., Servedio, V.D. and Loreto, V., 2017. Experimental assessment of the emergence of awareness and its influence on behavioral changes: the EveryAware lesson. In Participatory Sensing, Opinions and Collective Awareness (pp. 337-362). Springer, Cham.

Hovav, S. and Herbon, A., 2017. Prioritizing high-risk sub-groups in a multi-manufacturer vaccine distribution program. The International Journal of Logistics Management, 28(2), pp.311-331.

Loreto, V., Haklay, M., Hotho, A., Servedio, V.D., Stumme, G., Theunis, J. and Tria, F. eds., 2016. Participatory Sensing, Opinions and Collective Awareness. Springer.

O'Sullivan, M., 2017. The Structural Causes of Workplace Conflict: Understanding the Implications for the Mediation of Workplace Disputes. Bond Law Review, 29(1), p.6.

Paris, J.J., Ahluwalia, J., Cummings, B.M., Moreland, M.P. and Wilkinson, D.J., 2017. The Charlie Gard case: British and American approaches to court resolution of disputes over medical decisions. Journal of Perinatology, 37(12), p.1268.

Regmi, S., 2016. Quality parameters in evaluation of renovation projects (Master's thesis, UiT Norges arktiske universitet).

Shoults, L.W., 2016. Implementation of Design Failure Modes and Effects Analysis for Hybrid Vehicle Systems (Doctoral dissertation, Virginia Tech).

Dombret, A.R. and Goldbach, R., 2017. Rising House Prices and Ultra?low Interest Rates: A Recipe for a New Banking Crisis?. Economic Affairs, 37(2), pp.254-270.

Yassine-Hamdan, N. and Pearson, F.S., 2014. Arab Approaches to Conflict Resolution: Mediation, negotiation and settlement of political disputes. Routledge.

Sardi, A.E., 2017. Biomonitoring and risk assessment tools to manage impact of diesel oil in tropical coastal habitats.

Lee, J., Patel, R., Dean, C., Webster, G. and Eaton, D.J., 2017. OC-0346: Multicentre audit of SBRT oligometastases plan quality. Radiotherapy and Oncology, 123, pp.S182-S183.

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