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Executive Summary

Describe about the Internal Combustion Engine?

The technology  selected is an Internal Combusion Engine. This technology is widely used  in the automotive industry and other industries as well. Different types of Fuels are used in Engine which would push the piston placed inside the cylinder.The power produced by these actions is utilized to move the wheels or in any other appliance in the desired direction.This technology has seen enormous growth since it came into existence.There are lots of challenges and competition  with this technology, but the future still holds good for the Internal Combustion Engine. As this technology has quite a high number of benefits as compared to the other option. There is still a scope of improvement in this technology as this does produce some harmful gases.

In this report the history of internal combustion engine from its creation to the present is discussed. Later on in the next section of the document, its impact on work area with respect to social, economic and environmental effects is discussed. This report will put light on the effects of selected technology that is an internal combustion engine in work area. In the last section  future of internal combustion engine technology  is discussed. Its influence in the  future of the workplace. Even different scopes of future development would be discussed.

 The internal combustion engine can be defined as the engine which make use of different fuels for pushing  the piston inside the cylinder. Which in turn helps in the movement of the crankshaft which move the automobile wheels attached to it. It is connected with he help of either chain or drive shaft (Schmidt, F. 1965). Various kinds of fuel that are generally used for  a car combustion engine which are kerosene, diesel and gasoline (petrol) (Schauperl, Z., Nikšić, M. And Kolednjak, D. 2012).

The internal combustion engine is considered as heart of Automobile industry. The internal combustion engine was designed in 1680 by a Dutch physicist. The Dutch physicist named Christian Huygens was never able to build an internal combustion engine, but he has major contribution in the design.  The fuel he used for the internal combustion engine was gunpowder. In 1807 another scientist named Francois Isaac de Rivaz belonging to Switzerland discovered internal combustion engine (DALBY, W. 1922). He used different fuel instead of gunpowder. He made use of oxygen and hydrogen mixture of its fuel. The scientist Rivaz tried to make use of this fuel in his attempt on a car to make automobile, but did not succeed. In the year 1824, another scientist named Samuel Brown to burn gas  make use of the Newcomen steam engine. He also makes use of his experiment for powering up in a vehicle. In the year 1858, an engineer named Jean JosephÉtienne Lenoir discovered an internal combustion engine. The fuel used for this was  coal gas. The major success he got in the invention was he was able to manufacture electric spark engine and also he patented the discovery of his name ( Blythe, N. 2003).  He also got success in manufacturing a three wheeled wagon using improved engine. This engine was making use of petroleum and carburetor which was primary. This three wheeled wagon created history of 50 mile journey on road first time. In the year 1862, a french civil engineer named Alphonse Beau de Rochas tried to make his contribution in the four stroke engine but he could not succeed. He also patented his attempt of four stoke engine. In the year 1864, another attempt was done by an Australian engineer named Siegfried Marcus (Forrester, R. 2006). He manufactured an engine with one cylinder. A Crude carburetor is also attached to the cylinder which is further attached to a cart which covered a distance of the 500-foot on a rock drive. Later on he invented first gasoline powered vehicle in the world which ran with a speed of 10 miles per hour. Another attempt was done by an American engineer named George Brayton in the year 1873 (Olney, R. And Lindblom, S. 1982). He  did attempt to discover two stoke engine. The fuel he used for this two stroke engine was kerosene. But he did not succeed. His attempt was considered helpful in manufacturing the first practical oil engine and it was considered as safe as well. The  contribution of two German engineers named Nikolaus August Otto and Eugen Langen helped discover an additional capability gas engine in the year 1866.The famous scientist named Nikolaus August Otto in 1876 discovered the for stoke engine. His four stroke engine is also named as Otto cycle. He also patented his success. In the year 1876 two stroke engine was discovered by the scientist Dougald Clerk. French engineer built a four stroke engine in the year 1883 named Edouard Delamare-Debouteville (Olney, R. And Lindblom, S. 1982).  This engine contained a single cylinder and also use stove, gas as a fuel. It was never confirmed if he actually built a Car but Delamare-Debouteville's  was way ahead of the time, at least on paper, it was better than Daimler and Benz.Another scientist made his major contribution in the year 1885 named Gottlieb Daimler. He made major contributions in the gas engine which is even nowadays used (Hiereth, H. And Prenninger, P. 2007). This engine contained cylinder which was vertical and also had gasoline, which was injected from a carburetor. He later in the year 1887 patented his success on his name. He also discovered  two wheeled automobiles named "Reitwagen". He has his contribution to the discovery of first world's four wheeled vehicles. Afterwards history was created on the date January 29,1886 when a scientist named Karl Benz become successful in discovering a gas fueled car (SCHAFER, A., HEYWOOD, J. And WEISS, M. 2006). He also patented it in his name. In the year 1889 a famous scientist named Daimler got success in inventing the four stroke engine. He made the valves of  this engine in mushroom shape and it contained two cylinders which were in V-slant shape. Maybach in the year 1890 got a major success in constructing a four stroke engine (Intake system for an internal combustion engine. 2001).  This four stroke engine contained four cylinders which were used first time in the history of an automobile. Designing Engine and Car were both related activities. Almost all the engine designer, also were part of designing the Cars (Forrester, R. 2006) .This led to the growth of  the Internal combustion engine based vehicles. In the beginning of 20th Century steam powered automobiles were developed on a large scale and the tone which was set in the19th century was taken forward. But this trend was changed later  due to the spreading of petrol engines as the first choice for motive power (Schauperl, Z., Nikšić, M. And Kolednjak, D.2012). Next in line was the steam-turbine Cars which came into picture during 1950 even nuclear reactors were used in these steam -turbine Cars, but these nuclear ideas were soon out of favor due to their negative impact. In the 21st century the focus of engineers has moved to computerized control, electric batteries, fuel cells (SCHAFER, A., HEYWOOD, J. And WEISS, M. 2006). Production of electric cars was around 100 during the start of 20th Cenury in United States, which started to grow quite fast, but within some time due to high cost which means that the Internal combustion engine was still the favored technology in the 21st century.The growth of internal combustion engine continued as even the fuel cells were very expensive for the manufacture. So the fuel engine would cost about 10 times more than what it cost to have an internal combustion engine (Blythe, N. 2003). Even though the price of fuel cells came down drastically, but still internal combustion engine would find its relevance. There are other technologies which are present and can be used in place of internal combustion engine, but these still have a long way to go in terms of catching up with internal combustion engine (Holt, D. 2005). There have been lots of studies which have suggested that there might not be any other technology, which would replace the internal combustion engine in near future.

Internal Combustion Engine

There was an enormous effect of internal combustion engine on society.The benefit of this internal combustion engine is the ratio of weight to power over the steam engine. The internal combustion engine manufactured in the year 1880 by the scientist Otto had a weight of 440 lbs/unit of the power generated whereas the internal combustion engine manufactured in the year 1990, which used petrol as fuel had a weight of 9 lbs/unit of the horsepower generated ( The Internal Combustion Engine. 1941) .  The ratio of weight to power permitted the internal combustion engine for the use in various segments such as aircraft, motor vehicle, tanks and submarines.

The internal combustion engine plays very important role in  our civilization.

In the twentieth century, the combustion engine had started to replace railways.Both the urban and rural communities of the world were being connected by the highways,roads and various  motorways which were manufactured especially for motor vehicles which were motorized by the  Internal combustion engine (Macmillan, 2015).Now the people of various countries can commute anywhere at their own comfort.In the twentieth century there is lots  of improvement in aircraft sector in terms of safety and performance.Aircraft were now used as a weapon of war.The aircraft were also used in next half of the 20th century for international tourism.The fast development seen in internal combustion engine technology since the 19th century  had a very big impact on human beings and society overall.  The power produced by the Internal combustion engine is very high considering the other factors such as size and light weight (Fuhs, A. 2009).This power can be used from airplanes to heavy trucks, which means that it has connected human beings across the world.The other helpful instruments for human beings also use the internal combustion engine like electric generators, chainsaws and other appliances.These have made life easier and better for human beings.

There have been an indirect impact on the economy due to the invention of the internal combustion engine. There was lots of improvement in agricultural technology as Internal combustion engine generates power which can be used in different agricultural works which in turn would help the economy grow. The tractors and other machinery were used for improving the productivity in the fields as these machineries were powered by the internal combustion engine. There was a lot of influence of this internal combustion engine as the countries who provided oil to the world got wealth with the help of this engine such kind if changes were not seen by the world earlier (Fuhs, A. 2009). The social and cultural changes are the predictable result of the internal combustion engine. The internal combustion engine came into existence after various other inventions were done.

The car was considered as the most convenient vehicle for commuting from one place to another, but it has a major disadvantage that it pollutes the environment. The ecological balance of nature has been disturbed by these commuting vehicles. According the statistics available the pollution created by the transport sector is more than sixty percent as compared to the emission of toxic substances emitted by the other industry. The engine using the mechanism of the piston is still not replaceable by any other media as it is more economical in terms of money and dynamic. There are various departments that are run by governments of various countries to monitor the pollution level created by these combustion engine and also there are norms and prohibitions regarding their usage (Baubek, A. and Dolgov, M. 2012). All the data are being collected by various departments and their impact on the environment is studied in depth. There are various measures that are being taken by various scientists and practitioners to decrease the toxicity of the gases emitted by these internal combustion engines. The majority of the vehicles run in the world generally run on the fuel gasoline. The internal combustion engine which uses petrol as a fuel causes more hazardous to the environment. There is a need to shift from internal combustion engine which uses petrol as a fuel to liquified and natural gas (TULLOCH, D. 2015) . There is also need to build required number of filling stations of these liquified and natural gases.In recent years there is the major problem of pollutants emitted by the motor transport as all the growth that has happened in past years is achieved by the motor transport which causes problems with the atmosphere. All these are resulting in increase of pollution and the quality of air around us is decreasing (Baubek, A. and Dolgov, M. 2012). There is one alternative with which this problem can be solved that is the use of liquefied gas or compressed gas instead of gasoline or diesel fuel.Stocks of these liquified gases are exceeded as compared to the stock that is obtained by the oil and also the technology that is involved in processing of compressed gases are quite simple than the technology involved in extraction of diesel or gasoline from the oil (Taylor, C. 1993). Moreover, for converting to gaseous fuel it is not necessary to make productive modification to the combustion engine. Also the gaseous fuel does not have any compounds of the harmful elements like lead and sulfur. The concentration of oxides of harmful components like carbon and nitrogen is less in the case of  the Internal combustion engine  as compared to the gases which are exhausted in the case of petrol  The Internal Combustion Engine The gases used in  The Internal Combustion Engine have benefited as it properly get mixed with the air and also properly distributed in the cylinders that are attached to the engine. It ensures that the fuel used is completely burnt and best benefit from the fuel used. The cracking gas, which is used as an alternative fuel of gas and is obtained from gasoline directly has the above mentioned advantages before the liquid fuel (Baubek, A. And Dolgov, M. 2012). There are chances that the national economy may decide to make use of gaseous energy carriers, which are received directly  by  the automobiles like a car as a motor fuel. For showing functional working capacity of petrol ICE expansion of an innovative energy supply system would be the primary decision.

History of Internal Combustion Engine from Creation to Present

The Technology of Internal combustion engine has seen a great deal of growth over the years or rather centuries. This growth is due to the fact that there are quite a few benefits of  the Internal combustion engine over other competitive technologies such as the External combustion engine. As the time has, progressed the internal combustion engine has become compact and lighter, which in turn is a big advantage when it come to its use in the small car sector. The size and lightness have not reduced its effectiveness, which means the internal combustion engine has evolved over the time. The other aspects of internal combustion engine are that it is very safe as compared to external combustion engine (Mathew, J. 2011). The evolution is this technology  meant that the time taken to start any internal combustion is very less and that is the reason that this technology can still survive competition from newer technologies. The other point which has revolutionized the use of internal combustion engine is its effectiveness. The Internal combustion engine is considered more effective in comparison to external combustion engine it is about 40% efficient as compared to steam engine which is just 20%.

The future of this internal combustion engine is very huge. As the new vehicles which are operated by the batteries are estimated to exceed ten percent of the total vehicles sold by 2020 according to the CEO of Nissan named Carlos Ghosn. It is estimated that in the coming four years there are four new models of electric cars introduced in the market. The major drawback of such kind of electric vehicle is its cost (DALBY, W. 1922). It is estimated that alone the battery of the car cost around $20,000.So for getting these car proper places in the market, there is need to do more work on the electrical batteries and also there is a need to reduce the cost of these so that everyone can afford it. According to the CEO of Renault and Nissan the internal combustion engine would power 90 percent of vehicles by the year 2020. The CEO of Toyota named Koei Saga also emphasized on the internal combustion engine. The internal combustion engine that is working nowadays would be different from the combustion engine used after five years, as the norms are getting strict day by day so to get more efficiency, it is necessary to make changes in the internal combustion engine (Wong, V. 2002). The standards are getting difficult by the thirty five percent in the next five years. There are various technologies with which the efficiency of internal combustion engine can be improved. One of the technology is spraying fuel in the gasoline engine  chamber directly in place of  the intake port. This technology has been applied in various places like in manufacturing of Mitsubishi Galant a Japanese vehicle and ME 109 german fighter which was used in World war II. In  year 1996, the Japanese Mitsubishi manufacturing used first time the technology of spraying fuel directly in the engine with the combination of computer controlled injections (Csere, C. 2010). This technology has an advantage as the fuel is directly injected into the cylinder during the compression stroke.The compression ratio has improved a lot.Earlier the compression ratio was 12:1 and now with this technology the results are 10:5:1.This alone has improved the efficiency by 2 to 3 percent. The present day The Internal Combustion Engine technology is way ahead of its competitors in many ways. Firstly the cost of production is very low and even the operational cost is very less as compared to its competitors (Serra, J. 2011). Next is the advantage of long distance driving before it needs to be refueled and has an excellent performance which would make sure that this technology which stand the testing times and stiff competition.

7.0 References

Blythe, N, 2003, Design, application, performance and emissions of modern internal combustion engine systems and components: American Society of Mechanical Engineers, New York, N.Y.

DALBY, W. 1922, 'The Internal Combustion Engine', Nature, 110(2751), pp. 122-124.

Environmental problems of the engine internal combustion 2012, Baubek, A. And Dolgov, M., Viewed 7 Apr. 2015, <https://www.culturaldiplomacy.org/academy/content/pdf/participant-papers/2012-04-emr/Environmental_problems_of_the_engine_internal_combustion_Dolgov.pdf>.

Fuhs, A. 2009. Hybrid vehicles and the future of personal transportation,CRC Press, Boca Raton

HerleÌ€a, A., Kranzberg, M., Voronkov, J., Schutt, H., García-Diego, J., KELLER, A., Buchanan, R., Goupil, M., Nieto-Galán, A., Emptoz, G., Janetschek, H., Wächtler, E., Lewis, W., François, P., Torrens, H., Cazenobe, J., Le Guet Tully, F., Stranges, A., Giebelhaus, A., Butrica, A., Braun, H., Alain, P., Hacker, B., Mounier-Kuhn, P., Milner, P., Strbánová, S., PAYEN, J., Combe, J., Gire, P., Tachoire, H., García Tapia, N., Escudié, B., Porta, L., Pennaneahc, M., Guilly, J., Carpenter, G., Guillerme, A., PICON, A., Ribeill, G., Cote, M., Mohun, A., Vasquez de Parga, R., Levin, M., Williams, J., Sarasola-Martínez, A. & Rose, M. 1993. Science-technology relationships,San Francisco Press, San Francisco.

Hiereth, H. & Prenninger, P. 2007. Charging the internal combustion engine, Springer, Wien.

Holt, D. 2005. 100 years of engine developments: Society of Automative Engineers. Warrendale, PA.

Hörler, H. 2003, 'Internal combustion engine with a porous combustion chamber', MTZ Worldw, 64(2), pp.12-13.

Internal Combustion Engine 2006. Forrester, R, Viewed 7 Apr. 2015: <https://www.rochelleforrester.ac.nz/internal-combustion-engine.html>

Membrane Technology 2001,'Intake system for an internal combustion engine', (140), p.12.

Mathew, J. 2011. Engineering asset management and infrastructure sustainability, Springer, London.

Nature 1931,'(1)Power and the Internal Combustion Engine (2) The High-Speed Internal-Combustion Engine', 128(3239), pp.886-888.

Nature 1941,'The Internal Combustion Engine', 147 (3729), pp.487-488.

Olney, R. & Lindblom, S. 1982. The internal combustion engine: J.B. Lippincott, New York.

SCHAFER, A., HEYWOOD, J. & WEISS, M. 2006, 'Future fuel cell and internal combustion engine automobile technologies', A 25-year life cycle and fleet impact assessment. Energy, 31(12), pp.2064-2087.

Schauperl, Z., Nikšić, M. & Kolednjak, D. 2012. Impact of Fuel Type on the Internal Combustion Engine Condition, PROMET, 24(4).

Schmidt, F. 1965. The internal combustion engine: Chapman and Hall, London.

Serra, J. 2011. Electric Vehicles: Taylor & Francis, Hoboken.

Taylor, C. 1993. Engine tribology, Elsevier, Amsterdam.

The Future of the Internal-Combustion Engine - Feature 2010, Csere, C, Viewed 7 Apr. 2015,<https://www.caranddriver.com/features/the-future-of-the-internal-combustion-engine>

The Social Influence of the Internal Combustion Engine 2015, Macmillan,Viewed  7 Apr. 2015.< https://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v112/n2810/abs/112350a0.html >

Thiel, C., Perujo Adolfo & Mercier, A.2007, Cost and CO2 aspects of future vehicle options in Europe under new energy policy scenarios.

Will a viable alternative to the internal combustion engine exist within the next decade 2015.TULLOCH, D, Viewed  8 Apr. 2015 <https://www.scienceclarified.com/dispute/Vol-1/Will-a-viable-alternative-to-the-internal-combustion-engine-exist-within-the-next-decade.html>.

Uzkan, T. 1995. Engine modeling: American Society of Mechanical Engineers. New York.

Wong, V. 2002. Design, application, performance, and emissions of modern internal combustion engine systems and components: American Society of Mechanical Engineers. New York, N.Y.

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