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Roles defined by Henry Mintzberg

Discuss about the Introduction to Management for Henry Mintzbery Defined Ten.

Henry Mintzbery defined ten managerial roles that include (Mintzberg, Ahlstrand & Lampel, 2013):

  1. Role of the figurehead
  2. Role of the leader

iii. Role of the liaison

  1. Role of the monitor
  2. Role of the disseminator
  3. Role of the spokesperson

vii. Role of the entrepreneur

viii. Role of the disturbance handler

  1. Role of the resource allocator
  2. Role of the negotiator

He further divided the managerial work in three categories that is described as follows:

Category

Roles

Interpersonal

Figurehead

Leader

Liaison

Informational

Monitor

Disseminator

Spokesperson

Decisional

Entrepreneur
Disturbance Handler
Resource Allocator
Negotiator

The role of figurehead will help in improving image, reputation and behavior of the manager in the present scenario (Rananaware, 2015). The role will also enable the manager in cultivating empathy and humility, thereby setting as a good example at the workplace and be a role model.

The role of the leader will enable the manager with a thorough understanding of his current abilities. It will also enable him in learning on how to be authentic as a leader and earn the team’s respect. Through the role, the manager will be able to improve his/her emotional intelligence

A manager should develop his liaison skills by working on the professional techniques of networking. To hone his skills, he might also register into various networking courses.

This role helps the manager in learning how to overcome the information overload in the present scenario (Dean & Gottschalk, 2013). The role also enables the managers in using effective strategies for thorough and quickly processing the materials and keeps them updated with the industry news.

This role teaches the manager in effective sharing of outside views and information in the present scenario thereby implying better communication skills. Through the role, the manager also learns to share information during team briefings and improve the writing skills.

In the present scenario, the role enables the manager to represent the organization in a conference and deliver great presentation whenever required (Howard, 2013).

The role helps in building the change management skills of the manager in the present scenario and at the same time learn how to implement the necessary change. The role also enables the manager in adopting the creativity and problem solving skills.

This role enables the manager in handling team conflicts and excels in conflict resolution. The role also teaches him to manage the emotions of the team (Glick, 2013).

Through this role, the manager is able to learn the ways of managing a budget, prioritize and cut cost thereby ensuring the best use of resources in the present scenario. 

The role enables the manager in improving his negotiation skills through learning about the distributive bargaining and the win- win negotiation in the present scenario (Kumar,  2015).

Description of the roles

Power refers to the force of authority and influence. Most of the leaders wield the power but the means of its manifestation differs between the leaders (Goleman, Boyatzis & McKee,   2013). There are various kinds of power that impacts a person’s leadership abilities and also the success of its role. The five sources of the power to leader distinctly come from the different sources and these include:

Expert Power: The leaders possessing significant domain knowledge possess such power. This type of power develops from one’s skills, experiences or knowledge (Bolman & Deal, 2017). The experience in the particular areas allows one in becoming the thought leaders in the areas thereby gathering the expert power that is often utilized for getting others in meeting one’s goals. For instance, the manager who possesses expertise in solving the challenging problems will ensure that the project stays on track as per the present scenario.

Positional Power: The power represented when the leader legitimately holds the authoritative position (Blau, 2017). In other words, the positional power is determined by the role of a person within the organization. Many organizations use the grading system in determining the employee position. Positional power thus represents the function of someone’s formal authority. For instance, the highest positional power is possessed by the CEO of the company of the present scenario.

Reward Power: This power becomes evident when the leader is able to take away or give. Although it acts as an effective mechanism of motivation but it must be used in a careful manner in the present scenario (Antonakis & Day, 2017). This is because what might be thought of as an motivation can lead  to opposite outcome in the form of  resentment or jealousy from the followers who do not receive the awards thereby leading to the creation of greater problems within organization. For instance, a leader in the present scenario can influence the employee behavior through bonuses or perks.

Coercive Power: This happens when the leader is able to create perception of threat. Coercion is not bad and it remains quite instrumental in the organization with the implementation and upholding of certain regulations or standards (Lasswell, 2017). For instance, the leaders possess coercive power if the followers believe that he /she is able to initiate necessary disciplinary action in the present scenario.

Personal Power: The influence of the power is gained through persuasion and is created through building stronger relationship between the followers and the leaders. This kind of power represents the potential influence that a leader might possess due to the quality of the bond which is the product of the trust and the affiliation (Read & Shapiro, 2014). Personal power is the outcome of the rapport and relationship between two or more people. The more a follower is able to view the goodness in the leader’s actions, the more the personal power a leader would possess over the followers. The personal power remains synonymous with the aspect of the friendship. This power comes in play when the leader is able to influence the follower through conversation. A mere exchange of the words in the form of request is enough even when the follower do not necessarily agree or understand with the decision or request. Personal power represents an optimal way for making progress and it not available at a price. The leader should however work hard in maintaining and building such relationship. For instance, in the present scenario the manager might have to rely on nothing but only a formal thank you or please to the employees for performing the task.

Sources of Power in Leadership

The concept of situational leadership puts forward that there exists no leadership model considered as most effective. Hence, determination of the style of the leadership depends upon the situation (McCleskey, 2014). According to this theory, best leaders considered those who can adapt their leadership styles by taking cues from the actions around them. This might involve the type of the task, the group’s nature or the other contributing factors that determines the factors that helps in getting the job done. Dr. Paul Hershey and Ken Blanchard developed this theory and hence it is also known as the Hershey-Blanchard Situational Theory of Leadership.

The theory helps in defining four leadership styles:

Telling: Here the leaders tell the people on what needs to be done and how to get it done.

Selling: Here the leaders try to entice people into the process of buying 

Participating: Here the leaders’ tries to offer lesser direction thereby allowing the people in undertaking an active role in trying to make decision.

Delegating: Here the leaders follow hands –off approach and remains less involved

There are also four level of development according to the Hershey-Blanchard Leadership theory mentioned as follows:

D1 (Lower competence, higher commitment) - This represents the leadership approach that finds application in the situations where the followers although committed lacks competence. The situation requires the leaders in showing them the way in doing something.

D2 (Competence, lower commitment) - This is when the followers have low competence but lacks commitment due to inexperience. Here the leaders must adopt the coaching style that will help in boosting the confidence and the morale.

D3 (Higher competence, variability in commitment) – This explains the ideal style for the followers who lack the motivation and the confidence. Through this style a leader is capable of sharing responsibility with others in solving problems and in making decisions. 

D4 (Higher competence, higher commitment) – This is the style followed when there exists higher levels of commitment and confidence and is one of the perfect styles to be put to use. Here the followers express their will to work with minor intervention and little supervision. 

The authority of a leader over the group members should be considered. Some of the leaders possess the power conferred by their position that allows them to hire, fire, reprimand or reward the subordinates (Thompson & Glaso, 2015). There are leaders, who gains power through employee relationship in terms of gaining respect, offering support and involvement in the process of decision-making. The situational leadership is applied in the present scenario by the following means.

  1. Having an acute awareness of the strengths related to leadership and the areas for the development that is vital skill set within the organization
  2. Starting an extremely effective coaching conversations through identification of the ideal time in using the specific approach of leadership
  3. Maintaining consistency and flexibility for influencing, up, down and across organizations
  4. Through speeding up the process of development through creation of productive teams most effective for the new task
  5. Ensure the involvement of committed and engaged followers or staffs through the recognition of the performance dynamics
  6. Effectively driving the behavioral results and change by undertaking communication through practical and common language of leadership 

References: 

Antonakis, J.  & Day.D.V ( 2017). The nature of leadership. Sage publications. Retrieved May30, 2018, from https://books.google.co.in/books?hl=en&lr=&id=Syk0DwAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PP1&dq=Antonakis,+J.+%26+Day,+D.V.+eds.,+(2017).+The+nature+of+leadership.+Sage+publications.&ots=tY2BAOh8Ty&sig=XNvQlsyQxqMjEYWVvG-blFkRudg&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=Antonakis%2C%20J.%20%26%20Day%2C%20D.V.%20eds.%2C%20(2017).%20The%20nature%20of%20leadership.%20Sage%20publications.&f=false

Blau, P. (2017). Exchange and power in social life. Routledge. Retrieved May30, 2018 , from https://www.taylorfrancis.com/books/9781351521208

Bolman, L. G., & Deal, T. E. (2017). Reframing organizations: Artistry, choice, and leadership. John Wiley & Sons. Retrieved May30, 2018 from https://books.google.co.in/books?hl=en&lr=&id=lCAlDwAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PR9&dq=Bolman,+L.+G.,+%26+Deal,+T.+E.+(2017).+Reframing+organizations:+Artistry,+choice,+and+leadership.+John+Wiley+%26+Sons.&ots=uRr_57nHD1&sig=nIYvotWM3J0m2q3DVATyuNZMpBM&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q&f=false

Dean, G., & Gottschalk, P. (2013). Police leadership roles: empirical study of management attitudes. International Journal of Law and Management, 55(4), 304-317. Retrieved May30, 2018 from https://www.emeraldinsight.com/doi/abs/10.1108/IJLMA-06-2012-0016

Glick, M. B. (2013). The development of an instrument for measuring role perceptions of US chief executive officers. Modern Management Science & Engineering, 1(1), 58. Retrieved May30, 2018, from  https://www.scholink.org/ojs/index.php/mmse/article/viewFile/52/88

Goleman, D., Boyatzis, R. E., & McKee, A. (2013). Primal leadership: Unleashing the power of emotional intelligence. Harvard Business Press. Retrieved May30, 2018, from  https://books.google.co.in/books?hl=en&lr=&id=ibQTAAAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PR7&dq=Goleman,+D.,+Boyatzis,+R.+E.,+%26+McKee,+A.+(2013).+Primal+leadership:+Unleashing+the+power+of+emotional+intelligence.+Harvard+Business+Press&ots=Rt3OzsFHs-&sig=lx8deK4TBQYw8hIF9fI9wMtCpDo&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=Goleman%2C%20D.%2C%20Boyatzis%2C%20R.%20E.%2C%20%26%20McKee%2C%20A.%20(2013).%20Primal%20leadership%3A%20Unleashing%20the%20power%20of%20emotional%20intelligence.%20Harvard%20Business%20Press&f=false

Howard, J. L. (2013). Managing the natural environment: The role of park rangers and the skills they need. Rural Society, 22(3), 242-250. Retrieved from May30, 2018, from https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.5172/rsj.2013.22.3.242

https://books.google.co.in/books?hl=en&lr=&id=Syk0DwAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PP1&dq=Antonakis,+J.+%26+Day,+D.V.+eds.,+(2017).+The+nature+of+leadership.+Sage+publications.&ots=tY2BAOh8Ty&sig=XNvQlsyQxqMjEYWVvG-blFkRudg&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=Antonakis%2C%20J.%20%26%20Day%2C%20D.V.%20eds.%2C%20(2017).%20The%20nature%20of%20leadership.%20Sage%20publications.&f=false

Kumar, P. (2015). An Analytical study on Mintzberg’s Framework: Managerial Roles. International Journal of Research in Management & Business Studies (IJRMBS), 2, 12-18. Retrieved May30, 2018, from https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/1f7c/ea733dffd67d7451dc7134b9fd0c5ce73213.pdf

Lasswell, H. D. (2017). Power and personality. Routledge. Retrieved May30, 2018, from https://www.taylorfrancis.com/books/9781351497473

McCleskey, J. A. (2014). Situational, transformational, and transactional leadership and leadership development. Journal of Business Studies Quarterly, 5(4), 117. Retrieved May 30, 2018 , from https://search.proquest.com/openview/e03631119c37d022b66d4ea5fe176e3f/1?pq-origsite=gscholar&cbl=1056382

Mintzberg, H., Ahlstrand, B. &  Lampel, J.B. (2013) Management? It's not what you think!. Pearson UK. Retrieved May 30, 2018 , from https://books.google.co.in/books?hl=en&lr=&id=3aIDAAAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PT10&dq=Mintzberg,+H.,+Ahlstrand,+B.+%26++Lampel,+J.B.+(2013)+Management%3F+It%27s+not+what+you+think!.+Pearson+UK.+Retrieved+May+30,+2018+,+&ots=EoPU9ODHKX&sig=ArvdFEszZBc4oQLajtdD3Z7L9ww#v=onepage&q&f=false

Rananaware, V. S. (2015). Leadership roles: Application of Mintzberg’s leadership roles to the church leadership. Intercontinental Journal of Human Resource Research Review, 3(11), 23-37. Retrieved May 30, 2018 , from https://icmrr.org/nov_2015/IJHRRR/200511104.pdf

Read, J. H., & Shapiro, I. (2014). Transforming power relationships: Leadership, risk, and hope. American Political Science Review, 108(1), 40-53. Retrieved May 30, 2018 , from https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/american-political-science-review/article/transforming-power-relationships-leadership-risk-and-hope/4A76BDF67544B6074C42B2538EC30652

Thompson, G., & Glaso, L. (2015). Situational leadership theory: a test from three perspectives. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 36(5), 527-544. Retrieved May 30, 2018 , from https://www.emeraldinsight.com/doi/abs/10.1108/LODJ-10-2013-0130

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