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Questions
Part 1 Research Questions
1. Research and summarize what considerations should be included when creating a dessert menu for a restaurant or commercial catering organisation.
 
2. Evaluate and distinguish at length why it is important to use standard recipe cards when producing a variety of desserts, cakes, breads and pastries. 
 
3. Explain what environmental factors you must consider when storing ingredients for and displaying desserts, cakes, pastries and breads; to ensure food safety and optimise .
shelf life 
 
4. Explain how flour should be stored to ensure optimum freshness?
 
5. Select and appraise a number of points to consider when assessing the quality of fruit used for garnishing desserts .
 
6. Explain in detail five (5) hygiene or food safety requirements relating to:
Preparing 
Decorating
Handling and 
Storing desserts. 
 
7.  Explain the following methods, and what they achieve in relation to the pastry section 
a) Whisking 
b) Folding 
c) Piping 
d) Spreading 
e) Reducing 
f)  Kneading 
 
8. Analyse what are some classic and modern fat free desserts that are low in kilojoule that could be served to clients with special diets? Why is necessary to have a range of different desserts available in relation to intolerances .

9.  Recommend which soy products be used to replace some dairy products? Give examples.
 
10. Research classical specialist cakes, pastries and breads and the occasion they may be suited for.
Discuss the way that these occasions have influenced modern food trends
 
11. What are a number of accompaniments for desserts that can enhance taste and texture, explain how new technology and equipment has affected the way we garnish modern desserts? 
 
12. Evaluate what thickening agents are commonly used in sweet sauces, which are best for certain products and why they are used. 
 
13. Explain the term proofing , how is this related to yeast? Discuss the 2 different types of yeast and the best ways to use both in relation to bread making
 
14. Point out some factors which influence gluten development in pastry making
 
15. Why can’t we serve cakes, pastries, desserts and breads on chipped crockery?
 
16. Explain why is it important to rest pastry before rolling or moulding it?
 
17. Explain why some pastry recipes require an initial hotter temperature in the oven (E.g. 220 degrees Celsius) before reducing the temperature. 
Part 2 – Cookery Methods

Instructions: Using the table below describe the following cooking methods, and provide two (2) examples of suitable desserts you could cook using each method.

 
Cookery methods
 
Describe
 
Dessert 1
 
Dessert 2

 

Baking

 

 

 

 

Chilling

 

 

 

 

Flambe

 

 

 

 

Poaching

 

 

 

 

Stewing

 

 

 

Assessor feedback:
Part 3 – Chocolate

Instructions: Research and identify four (4) different types of chocolate that are available on the market.

 
 
Types of chocolate
 
 
Main uses
 
Menu example

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Assessor feedback:
Part 4 – Sugar

Instructions: Research and identify six (6) sugars that are used in pastry/dessert making, give a brief description of each, and provide one example of a suitable menu item.

 
 
Name of Sugar
 
 
Description
 
 
Usage
 
 
Menu item example

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Assessor feedback:
Part 5 – Cakes, Pastries and Breads

Instructions: Research all cakes, breads and pastries below and complete areas.

 
Type of Cake. Pastry or Bread
Appearance – colour, consistency, taste, shape, texture
 
 
Nutritional value
 
 
History

Meringue

 

 

 

Genoise Sponge

 

 

 

Fruit Cake

 

 

 

Swiss Roll

 

 

 

Gateaux St Honore

 

 

 

Linzer Torte

 

 

 

 

 

Cherry Strudel

 

 

 

 

 
Type of Cake. Pastry or Bread
Appearance – colour, consistency, taste, shape, texture
 
 
Nutritional value
 
 
History

Croissant

 

 

 

Baguette

 

 

 

Bath Buns

 

 

 

Matzo

 

 

 

Chapati

 

 

 

Assessor feedback:
Part 6 Sweet Pastry Faults

Instructions: Research and identify four (4) areas where short/sweet pastry has faults, explain the reason the faults occur.

 
 
Type of fault
 
 
Reason

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Assessor feedback:

Part 7 – Desserts

Instructions: Research and identify the desserts below and give a description, menu item and key points when producing

 
 
Dessert
 
 
Description
 
Suitable menu item with filling and garnish
 
 
2 Key points when producing

 

 

Bavarois

 

 

 

 

 

Flan

 

 

 

 

 

Fritter

 

 

 

 

 

Sorbet

 

 

 

 

 

Souffle

 

 

 

 

 

Parfait

 

 

 

 

 

Crème Caramel

 

 

 

 

 

Sabayon

 

 

 

 

 
 
Dessert
 
 
Description
 
Suitable menu item with filling and garnish
 
 
2 Key points when producing

 

 

Crepes suzette

 

 

 

 

 

Crème Chantilly

 

 

 

Assessor feedback:
Answer:
Part 1 Research Questions
1. While summarizing what should be included when creating the dessert menu the list can be explained as dessert list should be less with maximum three flavours, options should be both hot and cold; seasoning can be attractive for some. Traditional sweets gets into the heart of the buyer    
 
2 Standard recipes will provide consistency and eventually it will increase the customer satisfaction. It provides the consistent quality and the products when each time of equipment and ingredients are used.
 
3. While storing ingredience for desserts, cakes one should consider cold environment as the food self-life can be stabilize by the cold environment and scientifically it is proven that microbes are less of  the concern while keeping in the cold temperature (Sims, 2016).
 
4. Flour should be stored in an airtight jar or container because flour can absorb moisture from the surrounding. It should be stored at room temperature. High temperature can ruin the flavour of the flour. This should be done to keep the flour fresh.
 
5. While garnishing any food items the quality testing of the items are very important, the garnishing item should be edible and natural and fresh. All the ingredient should derived from natural ingredient and stored in well balanced place. 
 
6. Preparing- Raw and ready to eat food should remain separated otherwise it will be contaminated. While decorating the food- artificial food or the artificial garnishing should be avoided. While handling the food- the cook should use hand gloves or wear proper apron or clothing. And while storing desserts- the temperature should be checked at first. The temperature should be monitored at regular interval of time
 
Research the main intolerances that are common in today’s society and the impact not adhering to the standard guidelines about declaring all relevant information to customers can have on a business
 
The food guideline law evaluate the main problem arises when the food intolerance occurs. Many of the customers have different type of food allergies. It is the duty of the restaurant to declare all the food items used in any dishes. The customer can know what they are eating and raise objection if necessary (Capozzi et al., 2015).
 
7. a) Whisking is a process to blend the food mixture until it is smooth and in order to incorporate air into the food item (Joao & Spano, 2017). 
b) Folding is done with rubber spatula to gently incorporate the food as it falls through the wires.
c) Using pipes it can be easy to decorate the cakes and pastry without any mixture.
d) Spreading is required to spread any garnishing items and add on on the food to enhance the taste.
e) Reducing is process to thickening the food items.
f) Kneading is a process to warms and stretching of bread flour to create elasticity.
 
8.  Analyse what are some classic and modern fat free desserts that are low in kilojoule that could be served to clients with special diets? Why is necessary to have a range of different desserts available in relation to intolerances 
 
9. Soymilk can be a healthy substitute to the dairy product.
 
10. There are variety of cakes and pastries are for different occasions. The examples of the cakes which are used for different purposes are birthday cakes, wedding cakes, Halloween cakes, cakes for the first communion and the Christmas cake. 
 
With the innovation of these food it can cause changes in the food habit of the people. People uses cakes or pastries in every occasions. In order to celebrate a small happy moment the people uses cakes or pastries. Cakes or pastries also cause immense pleasure to the brain activity by secreting dopamine inside the brain. It can also cause energy to the body.  
 
11. The accompaniments for dessert are Creame anglaise, Dessert syrup, custard, pastry cream.
 
12. The thickening agents that are used in the sweet sauces are egg yolk, arrowroot, roux, and starch. Egg yolk can be considered as best for thickening the products because the proteins present in the egg can denature and coagulate over a wide range of temperature.  
 
13. Proofing can be defined as the final rise of the shape of the dough before baking. There are two type of yeast, one is fresh yeast which needs proofing and another is powder yeast which usually does not need proofing (Wong, 2016).
 
14. There are some factors which influences gluten development in pastry making. Type of flour, quantity of water, way of mixing the components and the presence of fats are the main factors that can affect the gluten formation
 
15. We can not serve cakes and pastries on achipped crockery as this can break the cakes into crumbles, smooth surface is always preferable while serving cakes and pastries as they provide smooth base to the dessert (Shtilerman, Ragoza & Wall, 2017).
 
16. While making pasty it is important to rest the pastry because during resting the gluten relaxes and become elastic which makes the rolling easier and prevents the pastry from lessening.
 
17. It is preferable to put the the pastris on a higher temperature before reducing it as putting the temperature on high can reduce the hydration of the pastry and that can make the cake fluffy and crispy.
Part 2 – Cookery Methods

Instructions: Using the table below describe the following cooking methods, and provide two (2) examples of suitable desserts you could cook using each method.

 
Cookery methods
 
Describe
 
Dessert 1
 
Dessert 2

Baking

 
Baking is a method of cooking food that has a requirement of prolonged dry heat specially in the oven (Ooms et al., 2016).                                              
                                           

Cake    

Pastry

Chilling

Preserving the food in lower than 0 degree is known as Chilling (Deligny & Lucas, 2015)`   
                                           

Creamy fruit tartlets

Lemon Angel food Dessert

Flambe

Flambe means to ignite the dessert items which have liquor added in it for dramatic effect.

Alaska dessert    

Mango Flambe

Poaching

To ensure poaching dessert there are need of fruits. In boiling water syrup poaching is used (Turbin-Orger et al., 2016).

Pink pepper poached pears

 Lynton tapps saffron poached peer

Stewing

Stewing is boiling the solid food items in water in order to provide gravy

Barbecued Fruit Dessert

Fresh Fruit Baked Cobbler

Assessor feedback:
Part 3 – Chocolate

Instructions: Research and identify four (4) different types of chocolate that are available on the market.

 
 
Types of chocolate
 
 
Main uses
 
Menu example

 Milk chocolate                             

   It contains fiber and lowers the blood pressure.   

 Milk chocolate Tart with the Pretzel 

Dark chocolate    

 It is one of the best sources of antioxidant in the plants.

Matcha- chocolate chip cookies                   

White chocolate    

It can be used as a source of calcium and also it contains high in saturated fat. 

 White chocolate cheesecake topped with cranberry reduction  

Ruby chocolate     

 It can be used as a wide range of culinary uses.  

Ruby chocolate strawberry and cream desert.

Assessor feedback:
Part 4 – Sugar

Instructions: Research and identify six (6) sugars that are used in pastry/dessert making, give a brief description of each, and provide one example of a suitable menu item.

 
 
Name of Sugar
 
 
Description
 
 
Usage
 
 
Menu item example

Fructose

 found in fruits and honey.

Preserving

Pancakes

Galactose

found in milk and dairy products

Icing

cakes

Glucose

found in honey, fruits and vegetables.

Caster, Icing

Pastries and cakes

Lactose

found in milk, made from glucose and galactose.

Preserving

Sweet pickles

Maltose

found in barley.

Preserving

sweets

Sucrose

made up of glucose and fructose and found in plants.

Icing

Cakes and pastries

Assessor feedback:
Part 5 – Cakes, Pastries and Breads

Instructions: Research all cakes, breads and pastries below and complete areas.

 
Type of Cake. Pastry or Bread
Appearance – colour, consistency, taste, shape, texture
 
 
Nutritional value
 
 
History

Meringue

Colour is white. Whipping should be continued until egg white become white.Taste is much sweeter,It should be shinny, smooth and glossy

Calorie- 388.7, protein-4.7g and carbohydrate- 91.8 g 

Meringue was invented in Swiss Village of Meiringen and it is improved by the Italian chef.

Genoise Sponge

white or yellow. the eggs using a base. It is leavened naturally with Sweet  

Tender texture

Calorie- 297 per 100 gm

It is originated in 19th century. It is named for the Italian port city of Genoa.

Fruit Cake

It can ranges from white, red to golden colour. Batter needs to be heavier in weight.

Tastes like fruit. Featherlight structure or rough strcuture             

324 calories per 100 gm

Fruitcakes were not common untilRomans began to mix pine nuts, raisins,

Swiss Roll

Purple, blue, balck and teal. Eggs and flour should be maintained. Jam can be used in large amount. Tastes like jam. Roll like structure and coarse                                               

Sodium 150mg, carb-38g, Fibre- 1gm         

Origin is still not cleared. Cake believed to originated in Europe

Gateaux St Honore

Brown, yellow, white It should be whipped well. Tastes like pastry Soft in the structure

Calories 419gm per 100 gm

Origin is in France. Invented in 1847

Linzer Torte

Yellow and brown It should be hard so that it donot fall apart. Taste like filled with jam.It has nutty texture and round in shape

57gm will give 200 calories.

It has Austrian origin named after then city of Linz

Cherry Strudel

Mixture of brown, white and yellow. Enough milk is needed for consistency . Tastes delicious with whipped cream and white cream.
  

Calorie 430 in 100 gm

The word came from Germany which means eddy or whirlpool. It originate from  Hungary

 

Type of Cake. Pastry or Bread
Appearance – colour, consistency, taste, shape, texture
Nutritional value
History

Croissant

buttery, flaky

It has a high calorie as it contains saturated fat.

Crescent-shaped breads have been made since the Renaissance inn Australia.

Baguette

This bread is mainly made of basic  lean dough.

 It has high calories 

It has high calories

Bath Buns

The Bath bun is a roll contains yeast dough with crushed sugar spread on top after baking. 

Light, shaped bun, often fruited or highly sugared high calories bread.

Bath buns was first made from 1763.

Matzo

Matzo meal is made by finely grinding matzo crackers into a breadcrumb-like consistency It is made with flour and water. 

Light, fresh, and totally addictive.

Matzo is an unleavened biscuit-type bread which is traditionally eaten at Passover Passover is a commemoration of the exodus from Egypt

Chapati

Chapati  is an unleavened flatbread from the Indian Subcontinent

Highly nutritional values meal with carbohydrate.

The Indus valley is known to be one of the ancestral lands of cultivated wheat. Chapati is a form of roti or rotta.The carbonized wheat grains learned at the diggings at Mohenjo-daro are of a similar variety to an endemic species of wheat still to be found in India today. 

Assessor feedback:
Part 6 Sweet Pastry Faults

Instructions: Research and identify four (4) areas where short/sweet pastry has faults, explain the reason the faults occur.

 
 
Type of fault
 
 
Reason
Tough pastry  or Hard pastry

It can happen due to lack of moisture and too much heat production

Soft and crumbly pastry

It can occur due to excessive water and self-raising flour used instead or plain

Shrunk pastry

It can occur due to too much stretching of the dough.

Soggy pastry

This type of fault can occur if too much moist filling are incorporate in the cake.

Assessor feedback:

Part 7 – Desserts

Instructions: Research and identify the desserts below and give a description, menu item and key points when producing

 
 
Dessert
 
 
Description
 
Suitable menu item with filling and garnish
 
 
2 Key points when producing

Bavarois

Milk

Egg

Gelatin

Flan

Milk

Egg

Caramelized Sugar

Fritter

Milk

Egg

Apple

Sorbet

fruit

Sugar

Flavoring

Souffle

Egg

Vanilla

Flavor

Parfait

Egg

Cream

Sugar

Crème Caramel

Egg

Caramelized sugar

Milk

Sabayon

Egg

Sugar

Wine

 

 
 
Dessert
 
 
Description
 
Suitable menu item with filling and garnish
 
 
2 Key points when producing

Crepes suzette

    
    beurre Suzette 
 

Crêpes

Powder sugar

Crème Chantilly

Whipped Cream 

   Powder sugar 

  Vanilla

Assessor feedback:
References:

Capozzi, V., Garofalo, C., Chiriatti, M. A., Grieco, F., & Spano, G. (2015). Microbial terroir and food innovation: the case of yeast biodiversity in wine. Microbiological research, 181, 75-83.

Deligny, C., & Lucas, T. (2015). Effect of the number of fat layers on expansion of Danish pastry during proving and baking. Journal of Food Engineering, 158, 113-120.

Joao, R. A., & Spano, M. A. (2017). U.S. Patent No. 9,668,304. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.

Ooms, N., Pareyt, B., Brijs, K., & Delcour, J. A. (2016). Ingredient functionality in multilayered dough-margarine systems and the resultant pastry products: A review. Critical reviews in food science and nutrition, 56(13), 2101-2114.

Santi, F. (2015). U.S. Patent No. 9,120,584. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.

Shtilerman, M., Ragoza, R. T., & Wall, R. (2017). U.S. Patent Application No. 15/615,145.

Sims, A. P. (2016, April). Regulation of glutamine metabolism in fungiwith particular reference to the food yeast Candida utilis. In Botany: Proceedings of the Fiftieth Anniversary Meeting of the Society for Experimental Biology (p. 247). Elsevier.

Turbin-Orger, A., Shehzad, A., Chaunier, L., Chiron, H., & Della Valle, G. (2016). Elongational properties and proofing behaviour of wheat flour dough. Journal of Food Engineering, 168, 129-136.

Wang, Y. C., Kao, K. P., & Chu, J. F. (2015). U.S. Patent Application No. 13/944,889.

Wong, S. W. (2016). U.S. Patent No. 9,345,364. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.

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