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Choose one of the media articles or case studies from the following list:

  1. https://www.scu.edu/ethics/focus-areas/internet-ethics/resources/students-and-sensors-data-education-privacy-and-research/
  2.  https://www.scu.edu/ethics/focus-areas/internet-ethics/resources/ai-death-and-mourning/
  3. https://www.scu.edu/ethics/focus-areas/internet-ethics/resources/chinas-social-credit-score/
  4.  https://www.scu.edu/ethics/focus-areas/internet-ethics/resources/targeting-a-broken-heart/
  5. https://www.scu.edu/ethics/focus-areas/internet-ethics/resources/data-collection-harvesting-personalities-online/

Use the title of the article/case study provided as the title of your essay, so that I will know which article you are analysing. Undertake further research about your chosen case, to assist you in analysing and discussing it in your essay.

In your essay, you are required to analyse your chosen article/case study from the perspective of four classical ethical theories including utilitarianism, deontology, virtue and contract. Your essay should present well-reasoned arguments for your assessments and recommendations.

Overview of University of Arizona's Data Collection Practices

The discussion will be made on University of Arizona by focusing on the ethical implications that can help to gather the data in context to the students for the overall research. The risks are also related with the ethical principles that help to maintain the risk related with the cyber-attacks. The University of Arizona has given Cat Cards to the students as it can help the students to enter into the campus. The overall data which is gathered by the university helps to retain the students in the college so that they can contact the students in the next year. The data which is collected by the college have the information of the students.

The information consists of the data of friends and also hangout places. It has been seen that when the research date is given then university also focuses on the information which is anonymous and also the private data can be given to the academic advisers concerned with the students. It has been seen that university is focusing on creating Wifi Hubs so that it can be easy to maintain the information privacy. It will also assist to focus on achieving proper results which will help to maintain the overall data collection. The data is gathered by the university when the students take admission in the campus and it is maintained by the university for long time (Blue, 2018).

By considering the information collection process, it has been seen that there are many students who have no knowledge and the university also do not provide option in context to this.  The discussion that will be made in this paper is related to whether it is ethical to collect the data about the students or it is necessary to consider privacy and issues related with security.  Also the focus will be given on the theories which are Utilitarianism, deontology, virtue and contract theories so that it can be easy to maintain the ethical dilemma.

This theory focuses on the particular part related to normative ethical concepts which assist to focus on the morality of the specific situation which is also concerned with the consequences.  The emphasis of this concept helps the people and entities to consider the greater good of the number of people (Attfield, 2015).  Also the focus on the theory can be given by considering the consequences which are related with the situation and also it determines that it is ethical or not. The university has the objective to collect the data of the students so that it can be easy to search the attrition rate of the students in the university. There are mainly 20 percent of the students who do not go in the second year so to analyze this it has been seen that information is collected.  The major consequence of the analysis can be related to disastrous as the third party can be affected by the entire activities (Vaughn, 2015). 

Also the data of the students is considered as anonymous which also show the overall academic advisers of the students. The privacy of the students is affected by not having information of the data of too many people. The main reason behind this is related with retaining the students which can also affect the utilitarianism approach as he people who are concerned to the greater good is not considered in the university. It can also be stated that consequences can be catastrophic of the data of student which is given out (Spiekermann, Acquisti, Böhme & Hui, 2015).  Therefore, it can be seen that this decision is considered as the unethical concept in context to this theory.

Utilitarianism Perspective

In this theory it has been seen that normative ethical framework is taken into consideration. In context to the perceptive, the morality of a person can be stated as the right or wrong and also it is related with the rules rather than any other consequences of the actions. The theory provide maxim and it focuses on the actions of the individuals which is right or wrong. The theory tells that, the research which is considered by the University of Arizona is unethical.

EDUCAUSE review also stated that ethical concepts should be maintained by the parties so that it can be easy to maintain the data. It has been considered that there are various concepts that give transparency to the third parties when they are focusing on maintaining or collecting the information.  It has also been breached by the university as it failed to maintain the representation in reference to the information which is collected by institution or the other companies. Also it has been analyzed that it is not successful to explicate the method in which the information is maintained (Raicu, 2018).

Also, the information is not reviewed by the university clearly at the time of governance.  The students also do not give emphasis on the research. So, by giving light on all these aspects it can be stated that the steps taken by the university are not ethical.

This theory emphasizes on the moral characters of the party rather than the acts which is considered at the time of analyzing the overall morality. It can be concerned with the character based approach that provides the people to achieve the virtue by considering the experience and also the practice. By considering the Aristotle’s approach it is necessary to focus on considering the good practice so hat moral character like honesty can be taken into consideration. By taking into consideration this case, the university has also not taken into consideration the good virtue which emphasizes on considering the important data which is unethical (Darwall, 2018). 

The university has also been failed to emphasize on honesty when the data is gathered and also transparency was maintained in the entire process. Also the integrity has been breached by not giving a good option to the students to conduct research but it is just a bad virtue the actions of the university are not considered as unethical.

In this theory there are specific set rules that should be considered as the rules affect the behavior in context to the society. The people have also made the ideal social contracts which emphasize on the behavior so that they can act in a proper manner (Koszegi, 2014).  By emphasizing on the principles, it can be seen that the decisions which are taken by the university is unethical. In social contract theory it is important to maintain the private information but the university failed to take into consideration the factors. So, the overall research is unethical which can also breach the overall social contracts (Fried, 2015). 

Deontology Perspective

Also according to the case study it has been seen that theory infers that individual of the society should consider the rules and policies so that it can be easy to allow the student to opt for the research option. All the information is gathered without any permission of the students and also transparency is important to be maintained by the university.  So, the university violated the moral obligations which have focused on breaching the social contract theory.

Conclusion

It has been seen that the objective of the research which is considered by the university of Arizona is to consider that why the students do not emphasize on focusing on the academic studies in the first year.  The method also stated that by the university which enhanced various ethical concerns. There are many individuals who are unaware about the data so the university do not focused on offering the choice to the students to safeguard the information to be accessed.

So, by considering the case it can be stated that University of Arizona should emphasize on the ethical concerns in relation to privacy and safety. The problem also increased just because of the transparency which is maintained by the university. So, it is necessary for the university to create various ethical aspects so that information can be maintained in a proper manner. By ethical aspects it can be easy to maintain safety and privacy of the people. It is important to maintain proper privacy and security of the students. 

As the main concern is highlighted in the case study it has been seen that transparency is important to be maintained. It has also been seen that there was no data offered to students and also the student do not have the option of jumping out the research which enhanced the question on the ethical concepts.  It means that the information falls into the wrong hands which affect the privacy of the students. It has been seen that university fails to be obliged by considering the standard ethics which can also result in the process of decision making. The university should also ensure the ethical obligations that should be considered at the time of doing the research and also the students should be informed about the information collection so that it can be easy to maintain the privacy of the students.  Also, it is essential to maintain the information so that privacy if the students with security problems can be maintained with the privacy invasion. It has been seen that ethical principles are also violated.

References

Attfield, R. (2015). Ethics of the global environment. Edinburgh University Press.

Blue, A. (2018). Researcher Looks at 'Digital Traces' to Help Students. Retrieved from https://uanews.arizona.edu/story/researcher-looks-digital-traces-help-students

Darwall, S. (2018). Philosophical Ethics: An Historical and Contemporary Introduction. Routledge.

Fried, C. (2015). Contract as promise: A theory of contractual obligation. Oxford University Press, USA.

Koszegi, B. (2014). Behavioral contract theory. Journal of Economic Literature, 52(4), 1075-1118.

Raicu, I. (2018). Students and Sensors: Data, education, privacy, and research. Retrieved from https://www.scu.edu/ethics/focus-areas/internet-ethics/resources/students-and-sensors-data-education-privacy-and-research/

Spiekermann, S., Acquisti, A., Böhme, R., & Hui, K. L. (2015). The challenges of personal data markets and privacy. Electronic Markets, 25(2), 161-167.

Vaughn, L. (2015). Doing ethics: Moral reasoning and contemporary issues. WW Norton & Company.

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My Assignment Help. (2021). Analyzing Ethical Implications Of University Of Arizona's Data Collection Practices In An Essay.. Retrieved from https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/itc506-topics-in-information-technology-ethics/applying-theory.html.

"Analyzing Ethical Implications Of University Of Arizona's Data Collection Practices In An Essay.." My Assignment Help, 2021, https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/itc506-topics-in-information-technology-ethics/applying-theory.html.

My Assignment Help (2021) Analyzing Ethical Implications Of University Of Arizona's Data Collection Practices In An Essay. [Online]. Available from: https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/itc506-topics-in-information-technology-ethics/applying-theory.html
[Accessed 16 June 2024].

My Assignment Help. 'Analyzing Ethical Implications Of University Of Arizona's Data Collection Practices In An Essay.' (My Assignment Help, 2021) <https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/itc506-topics-in-information-technology-ethics/applying-theory.html> accessed 16 June 2024.

My Assignment Help. Analyzing Ethical Implications Of University Of Arizona's Data Collection Practices In An Essay. [Internet]. My Assignment Help. 2021 [cited 16 June 2024]. Available from: https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/itc506-topics-in-information-technology-ethics/applying-theory.html.

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