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Wireless Sensor Networks and Privacy Concerns

1: Sensor networks set economically successful solutions for various applications. Detection of pollution, instrumentations, freeway traffic and integrity in buildings are possible. Home and office environment security is also a preferable application that is being offered by the smart networking, embedding technology, providing information in precise format ("The Cloud Security Ecosystem", 2017). However, beneficial it is, still it poses certain limitations on the security and privacy levels. Improvement relative to hardware and software networking might be addressed in various possible methods but other challenges would require development in technologies. Sensor nodes concept reflects a compromise. Each of the nodes poses a potential attack point, resulting in an impractical measure to imply any protection, logically. Large area coverage provides the attackers with chances to reprogram the nodal networks (Fortino et al., 2013). The potential hackers might obtain their own community of nodal networks, initiating an induction to acceptance of their control into legitimate nodes. Similarly, they can reform multiple addresses for an altered point source. This ultimately, would result in discrepancies leading to diverse forms of attacks. This limitation needs to be addressed technological solutions.

Likewise, another issue surrounds the wireless sensor network communication, any adversary capable of gaining access to personal and important information resulting from potential overview of transmission of data from node to node can eventually be adversely harmful to one’s private space. Encryption of the nodal compromise can subsequently provide solutions to the eavesdropping phenomenon but then again there is a requirement of exchange and distribution system (Radi et al., 2012). The system development should be feasible to all the limited hardware involved this must be capable of maintaining secrecy in the remaining nodal connections if any adversary compromises on few nodes and expose the secret keys. The large amount of communicating nodal connections makes it nearly impossible for the end-to-end encryption as this system has a limitation of storing large number of unique secret keys (Alamri et al., 2013).

Sensor networks serves as a tool to collect all possible available information in the radar. This is capable of displaying and mainly in sighting the information through detection. An adversary occurring can eventually gain the access to the private information as pre mentioned through eavesdropping (Liu, 2012). These adversaries can potentially collect innocuous data, affecting the sensitivity of the information. Through various technical supports, an adversary hacking both the indoor and outdoor sensors of a community, mainly comprising of building blocks, isolation of in and out-bound noises can help the controllers to have direct access to the information shared by the occupants, completely personal. Well, however this is a major issue, one of the prime concern lies surrounding the fact that these information can be collected via site surveillance, which  are in volumes and can be collected by simple remote control. Hence, allowing the adversaries to monitor over these volumes of private activities without even the need of any physical presence, making it impossible to detect the intruder. Ensuring encryption of data and correct parties, controlling the access should be of ultimate concern.

Smart Plans and Sensor Networks as Wi-Fi Boxes

A) Having discussed the major challenges posed to the privacy of inhabitants of a certain country or place, addressing this query, in view of a visitor to Singapore, in almost relative to the pre-discussed points (Yu, 2014). As visitor, one just wants to spend quality duration in a place away from the daily chores and being monitored all the time. The given condition for me would really have been interference and rather intruding in my personal activities not directly or indirectly related to state issues. Any disposal, decision or rejection is constantly recorded and monitored which of no use to government. I feel, this as a disallowance of basic privacy each one deserves.

B) As a resident of Singapore, I would like to sate that sensor networks are a persuasive technical method that would definitely affect a lot in our daily lives (Yu, 2014). This is a critical technology, providing enough support to the state issues, but without ensuring the background of the control party, the security and privacy challenges is a matter to bother people. Living a daily life, constantly being monitored is robotics. This is a hamper to ones basic right to privacy.

2: Smart plan implying the sensor networks as Wi-Fi boxes is a sure implication to benefit the organizations and people of the country proving free access to the web information (Borges, Velez & Lebres, 2014). This is beneficial for the population as majority of our professional life now days depend on the web technology, be it data transmission or updates about work and social life too. This measure again can be a methodology of malicious use of the sensor networks. The proliferation of the associated nodal networks can prove extensively beneficial for criminals with illegal purposes.

A) This is in important ways beneficial to me as a visitor to Singapore, as the plan offers a free access to all the major updates one may remain unaware of during a visit to other stations. Data plans available in one place are diverse from the other, adjustments relating to that is a real issue (Pantazis, Nikolidakis & Vergados, 2013). Accordingly, this is a mess-free approach to maintain the social and professional updates. Online transport availability, booking and reservation updates would really be easier for me, as a visitor, not knowing the country entirely. The prime concern of security would still prevail. The uncertainty of whether the network available is complete secured or else wise it could be harmful (Noor,  & Hassan, 2013). Wireless extensively a public utility, henceforth, this interface is prone to risk of hacking and unauthorized access. The purpose of transmission of data using this wireless network, as a visitor, especially about the bank details, investigation agencies or even legal data would have a chance of public record. Any adversary would prove to be difficult to manage and report from one station to another especially surrounding an unauthorized control. The unauthorized is a challenge in wireless networks. Without ensuring about the platform, this advantage would rather seem to be a risk.

Visitor's Perspective: Advantages and Risks of Smart Plans

B)The induced plan is a real life-changing platform for the residents, exposing our daily lives, simultaneously to benefits and risks. As a daily dweller in a country one makes sure life is productive and easier, in relevance to this the Wi-Fi sensor system proves to be a great support, towards professional and personal circumstances. The initial effect on me would be the advantages it offers as likely, the convenience of wireless network would allow the public to access facilities from any location as the plan is providing the end-to-end allocation of network, portable systems gain benefits from this. Another advantage would be the productivity, as affiliation to web in a consistent way would be provided; an employee can utilize this to ensure higher percentage of productivity (Brinskelle, 2014). A sudden expandability of various services can be witnessed. Even if it is a government measure, total reliability is too much to ask for, from residents concerning the security of such system. Being a public infrastructure again, this is prone to various risks as a wide range of people gain access to such networks. Similar to any radio frequency transmission scheme, a complex propagation of the signals is involved beyond the control of any administrator (Noor & Hassan, 2013). Accidental and intended unauthorized access can harm any basic private data with a chance of being recorded is present. The prime approach from a personal side would be entirely ensuring the platform having the control is properly an authorized sector. A modernized life need the support of technologies so as a resident would definitely approach the facilities in a secured system.

C)  Such smart plans should be launched with the support of technologies comprising a detector. This detector should not only site the presence of any hostile networks in the area but simultaneously should have the potential to differentiate between any propagation of authorized and unauthorized sensor networks or other devices. Accordingly, the reporting of any adversaries would be easier, which is a prime concern, if relatively any sensitive and not-sharable data is viable in our systems. As any unauthorized sensor-control would have the potential of extraction of personal details and security codes like passwords. This is a critical technology, an infrastructure for public, in which reliability is a prime context of doubt. Wi-Fi sections utilize various encrypting facilities (Szott et al., 2013). The various unauthorized access namely, malicious association, accidental association, denial of service and non-traditional networks. Users like me, in cases might even be unaware of the emerging point of the signals they are utilizing, resulting in an accidental association to unauthorized sectors. In similar cases, if any intruder with an illegal or unethical motive hacks the system by accessing the passwords, all the private information not meant to be shared is it bank details, legal, professional and more importantly personal would more easily be leaked out causing serious harm to people. Another issue regarding the denial of service attacks, the safety-critical applications uses much of the sensor networks; the damage concerning operational disruption is significant. The systems aiming for the destruction of functionality of networks rather than using the sensed information is extremely difficult to defend. Thus defending against issues concerning private activities is of prime importance and difficulty (Mota et al., 2013). With the launch of such plans, proper cyber security technologies should also be launch with precise measures. Eventually, with the availability of protection, the plan would prove to be beneficial.

Resident's Perspective: Advantages and Risks of Smart Plans

3: Digitalization globally is the trend of today and is advantageous in major methodologies. The digital world has introduced us to digital identity, which can prove to be beneficial personally, educationally, professionally and likewise. Digital identity is a digital form of information about a person available online thus helping in identifications (Rao, & Yip, 2014). The digital identity sure has advantages in maintaining privacy. Few reasons are discussed in the upcoming sections.

As a prime advantage of digital identity is that it allow the creation of bogus profiles and blogging anonymously is enabled. This provides the advantage to remain private yet simultaneously provide opportunities to explore varyingly. There are many possible reasons to remain anonymous or even in cases pseudonymous. This proves to be beneficial in many ways, primarily, to hide the identities and eventually the data remains safe and secured.

The verification protocol assisting the digital identities prove beneficial as this scheme generate codes ensuring a double protection towards the security level of the provided information by the user. This becomes user-centric; one can use the privacy settings to customize the way one wishes. The customized information thus can help a person not to disclose any highly-sensitive data even if tricked or the system is hacked. Even if an adversary has a purpose, it gets restricted at a level. The security codes send messages to different systems you are associated with so that one can be certain about the accesses that mention his/her name. Ensuring the activities are authentic or else wise can be determined more easily. The determination of IP addresses and henceforth, the tracking can be done more efficiently.

The allowance of pseudo identities and associated verification protocols available on the different social platforms allowing access to the world eventually protects from the entire disclosure of personal details even in a sensor-active environment, as not all the sensed data even if used or tracked might cause as much harm as a true personal data would (Wessels, 2012). So factually, in a Smart Plan as such without any technical back-ups for protection as discussed previously, digital platforms providing a digital identity is more advantageous than real-time platforms.

4: Digital identity is a sure step towards an advanced and intellectual world to access the right to explore about various fields as well as to blog your thoughts. Maintaining this, one important step remains on hold at times that is the ways to enhance the privacy in one’s system to prevent any unauthorized control or unethical pursuits using one’s personal information (Liang et al., 2014). Utilization of mobile phones, to be precise the smart phones, needs a prior protection and a secured measure as theft regarding identities stored in smart phones in big-cities is a increasing exponentially (Gawron, 2017). Studies and analysis show that smart phone users are at 33 percent more risk of identity theft than usual people are. While there are some suggestive and implied steps to secure our smart phones that, I would in a definite way, follow (Roman, Zhou & Lopez, 2013).

The Need for Detectors and Encryption Measures

Firstly, each one of our phones should have a password-protected lock. This one of the most obvious steps one should imply to protect the access in the first step. Reports relative to this suggestive method have already shown, large number of people fail to do so. However, it is not entirely realistic; to believe that having a home screen password would completely restrict the hack still it proves to be a barrier making it more difficult for the intruders to hack the system.

Secondly, it is essential to be very cautious while connected to public wire-less networks, especially one like the sensor Wi-Fi boxes. Wi-Fi hotspots might prove to be of convenience but they potentially has the capability of jeopardizing your privacy, as most of them are not secured, which means other people is more likely to hack into accounts and access the device. Two suggestive methodologies to protect our devices from Wi-Fi hackers could be, not to connect to easily available hot spots or to connect only to secured networks. Especially in systems where the passwords are posted publicly, you are high-level risks (Ghazizadeh, Zamani & Pashang, 2012). Next way to protect your device would be to use only the encrypted sites, these sites are always difficult to hack as these are formerly coded.

Thirdly, never attempt to save passwords in your phones. It becomes easier to login into our accounts with those saved gems but it also becomes easier for the intruder to hack all the personal information and make illegal or unethical post under your name.

Finally, register your device with the ‘find my phone’ application. This application helps in tracking down the location details in relevance to your device. Simultaneously, this application also erase out all the stored memory in the event that it is lost or stolen.

References:

Alamri, A., Ansari, W. S., Hassan, M. M., Hossain, M. S., Alelaiwi, A., & Hossain, M. A. (2013). A survey on sensor-cloud: architecture, applications, and approaches. International Journal of Distributed Sensor Networks, 9(2), 917923.

Borges, L. M., Velez, F. J., & Lebres, A. S. (2014). Survey on the characterization and classification of wireless sensor network applications. IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials, 16(4), 1860-1890.

Brinskelle, J. E. (2014). U.S. Patent No. 8,683,052. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.

Fortino, G., Giannantonio, R., Gravina, R., Kuryloski, P., & Jafari, R. (2013). Enabling effective programming and flexible management of efficient body sensor network applications. IEEE Transactions on Human-Machine Systems, 43(1), 115-133.

Gawron, K. (2017). 6 Advanced Security Steps to Protect Your Digital Privacy. Piwik PRO. Retrieved 5 September 2017, from https://piwik.pro/blog/security-measures-protect-digital-privacy/

Ghazizadeh, E., Zamani, M., & Pashang, A. (2012, December). A survey on security issues of federated identity in the cloud computing. In Cloud Computing Technology and Science (CloudCom), 2012 IEEE 4th International Conference on (pp. 532-565). IEEE.

Liang, X., Zhang, K., Shen, X., & Lin, X. (2014). Security and privacy in mobile social networks: challenges and solutions. IEEE Wireless Communications, 21(1), 33-41.

Liu, X. (2012). A survey on clustering routing protocols in wireless sensor networks. sensors, 12(8), 11113-11153.

Mota, V. F., Macedo, D. F., Ghamri-Doudane, Y., & Nogueira, J. M. S. (2013, November). On the feasibility of wifi offloading in urban areas: The paris case study. In Wireless Days (WD), 2013 IFIP (pp. 1-6). IEEE.

Noor, M. M., & Hassan, W. H. (2013). Wireless networks: developments, threats and countermeasures. International Journal of Digital Information and Wireless Communications (IJDIWC), 3(1), 125-140.

Pantazis, N. A., Nikolidakis, S. A., & Vergados, D. D. (2013). Energy-efficient routing protocols in wireless sensor networks: A survey. IEEE Communications surveys & tutorials, 15(2), 551-591.

Radi, M., Dezfouli, B., Bakar, K. A., & Lee, M. (2012). Multipath routing in wireless sensor networks: survey and research challenges. Sensors, 12(1), 650-685.

Rao, K. R., & Yip, P. (2014). Discrete cosine transform: algorithms, advantages, applications. Academic press.

Roman, R., Zhou, J., & Lopez, J. (2013). On the features and challenges of security and privacy in distributed internet of things. Computer Networks, 57(10), 2266-2279.

Szott, S., Gozdecki, J., Kosek-Szott, K., ?oziak, K., Natkaniec, M., & Tinnirello, I. (2013, July). The risks of wifi flexibility: Enabling and detecting cheating. In Future Network and Mobile Summit (FutureNetworkSummit), 2013 (pp. 1-9). IEEE.

The Cloud Security Ecosystem. (2017). Google Books. Retrieved 5 September 2017, from https://books.google.co.in/books?hl=en&lr=&id=meycBAAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PP1&dq=cybercrime:+risks+and+responses+in+hong+kong,+singapore++Lau.,+Y,+2015&ots=E74pE07COq&sig=cVcMKDKSHVpJylvsSAj3iFh01nc#v=onepage&q&f=false

Wessels, B. (2012). Identification and the practices of identity and privacy in everyday digital communication. New Media & Society, 14(8), 1251-1268.

Yu, E. (2014). Singapore unveils plan in push to become smart nation. Retrieved from ZDNet: https://www. zdnet. com/sg/singapore-unveils-plan-in-push-to-become-smartnation-7000030573.

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