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Basic principles of java

Discuss the principles, characteristics and features of programming in Java.

The report is about the designing a software solution for the university by that information of students can be kept and displayed. The insertion and deletion with update records as well. The report is started with basic principles of java and its features as well. The design solution is discussed to give overview of solution generation and implementation would explore while detailed structure with demonstration of modules individually. The test and documentation describes cases and user documentation. The software is based on java technology and designed on IDE. The Tool is also described with proper description and screenshots are attached with every activity step by step execution. The following point is about the java principles. Each one is described in its extent with example.

Java is purely object oriented programming language and it follows majorly four principles inheritance, polymorphism, encapsulation etc. The main principles are discussed below:

Encapsulation is the principle of object oriented programming that enables binding of data with methods. It enables the data hiding feature and also provides security of data. It prevents unauthorized users to access the confidential information. It is implemented by using access specifires for example private, protected and public. The encapsulation is applied in java using classes; a class is the whole structure of program and binds the methods with data. Each class is represented by object and the class members can be accessed by this object only.

Inheritance is the most powerful design principle of object oriented programming and it is described as inherit the functionality of parent class into its child class. The feature of extending functionalities of paternal class into child class increases the reusability of code. It is the most powerful feature in java and maximum used in coding. Without using inheritance in programming every object need to be described again and again. It saves time and space both while using single object in multiple places. Inheritance also uses encapsulation like subclass objects are bind with superclass objects.

Polymorphism is the capability to use one function in many forms. As the name suggests it self that poly means many and morph means forms. It helps to design generic interface grouped with components. The polymorphism can be implemented in two ways runtime and compile time. Runtime polymorphism is called overriding and compile time polymorphism is called overloading. Both the approaches are used to apply new definition to already declared functions. Overriding is applied by defining the function again.

  • Java programming is very easy to read as well as to write.
  • Java has adhesive features in itself which make it easy to understand and to learn it.
  • Java is a simple language for getting it as its concept is mostly taken from C++.
  • Java is secure because it is not harmful for the other system in computer.
  • Web application in java to access is much secure.
  • It gives a secure way of creating an Internet application.
  • Java supports all types of platform like Windows, Linux, and Mac.
  • Throw internet java program can be easily transferred.
  • Java can be also called as JVM as it is a run-time system and it can execute everywhere.
  • It provides the features somewhat like C++ i.e. Object Oriented.
  • Java language can also be called as OOP.
  • It is an Object Oriented Programming Language.
  • Java is that type of programming language which is error free which help the user to work with it.
  • Java is a user friendly programming language.
  • In the multithreaded programming it makes a link support. Multithreading is the feature that gives multiple program running simultaneously.
  • The multithreading enables multi program running and one program can enable more than one thread.


  • JVM help to interpret the bytes code. Interpretation of java code into byte code. Byte code consists of half machine code and half language.
  • Faster execution takes place over here through JVM.
  • Over here Byte code is enhance.
  • Java can be broadcast over internet.
  • Java allocated with scattered environment.
  • Java gives runtime information of a program and which can also be verified and solve easily.
  • Java enables dynamic programming by run time polymorphism that is called overriding.

Java runtime environment is the environment provided by java to run the code and it consist of two main components and they are java runtime machine and garbage collection. Java virtual machine is use to implement the language. The traditional compiler changes the high level language into class file and once the code is converted into class file it can be run on any machine. This makes java platform independent compile once run anywhere. Java virtual machine does the execution work and converts class file into executed file.

Garbage collection is the mechanism to allocate and reallocate memory space. In java automatic garbage collection is done to allocate memory. Garbage collector does the memory reallocation at the time of memory wastage. Java supports memory revocation at the time while memory leak. Therefore there is no memory leakage in java. Automatic garbage collection is supported in java.

The given scenario is based on student information record. The student information should be inserted, updated, deleted and displayed. The student information’s are First name, Last name, DOB, Student ID, Mobile, Address and Course enrolled. For the solution to this problem proposed program is to be executed and components are used to write as follows

  • J Frame
  • Swing Components
  • J Table

The above components are used in the interface design and each one has its own significance. The java frame is used in designing the whole structure of solution and java table is used to display the information. The swing components are used to add labels, textboxes and buttons. The program is written using NETBEANS Integrated development environment (IDE).

NETBEANS is the IDE which provides java based components integrated in it and java based programming can be done. The data structure is used for the displaying purpose is table and there are three functionalities has given to user as insertion, deletion and update.  It is the desktop application because it is developed using java standard edition. The windows programming is followed to design this solution. The designing structure is prepared using the form structure and information taken from normal input. The next point is about the implementation of design solution using design tool and programming is done using core java.

  • Java SE Technology
  • NETBEANS Design tool

The proposed design solution is implemented by writing code in above mentioned IDE that auto corrects and provides suggestions for further design. The design implementation would be shown in following screenshot. The solution is designed in modules and they are as follows



The page design is done using swing components and the design structure would be shown in the next screenshot.

Swing Components & Design

The design coding is shown in above method as could be seen that label and text fields are added. Design implementation structure is shown in next page.

Design Implementation Structure

The above screenshot is described the designing and how would the page would be look like. The table structure would be shown in other module information and also the coding would be attached with each page activity.

The very first module in the proposed software implementation is inserting information into table and the information is taken manually. As shown in above diagram there is a list attached for course enrollment and four options are given. The address field is taken with text area so that if address is in long form can be managed easily. The screenshots are as follows:

Page code is shown in this screenshot


The insertion activity would be seen in below screen shots:

The information is collected and shown in the table below so in this manner insertion is done.

The second main feature of this application software is to update the inserted information. And first the row is selected by clicking method and for this purpose mouse click event is implemented in coding that would be shown in below screenshot.

In this picture the row has been selected to be updated. Now the Course selected would be changed in below picture

As can be seen in above picture record has been changed. The coding of this update page is also attached.

The last module for the design implementation is to delete the selected row from the table. For this purpose the function is written on the action command of delete button. The function contains a simple command and executed after pressing the button.


Now the demonstration is being shown using next picture.


In the next picture the selected record would be deleted.

In this manner the module implementation is done the above screenshots are attached to make an understanding to the demonstration of software. All above mentioned functions are working properly. The next points cover error handling and object utilization.

The proposed solution does not contain any error handing because the classes implemented in the coding does not throw any critical exception. The control flow structures are used in mouse click event function and executed successfully. The error handing is the main feature of java because it handles the system errors by java runtime environment. It gives java unique feature to run the program and makes it more dynamic. The below screenshots would clear the idea of using it in proposed solution.

The error handling in java can be done using different statements as follows

  • Try catch statement
  • Throw key word
  • Throws keyword

All three methods of handling the exceptions in java are applied on specific requirement places. For this program the throws exception clause is used so that main function automatically throws it.

Test of software is done at the user extent and the solution is tested from its design to its execution. The white box testing is implemented in this kind of software solution because white box testing is umbrella activity and it runs with each activity of software. The design documentation can be done in two ways first is user and other is technical review. The user can use the proposed solution as shown in screenshots and all activities run independently therefore functions run one by one. The design of software is done to implement different modules as already discussed in detail at the beginning of the report. The technical document contains technology is used in it java and tool for designing the interface and coding as well.

The best part of unitizing the IDE NETBEANS is that one should not need to apply effort on the design interface rather the tool provides facility to drag and drop components directly to frame. This approach saves time and effort both.   


The software solution is developed according to given requirements. The solution to problem is attached with implementation step. The steps are clearly mentioned and described using live running frame. The proposed solution is helpful in small scale record and displaying it but the future scope is vast because the essential information can be utilized in future as well. The solution provided includes detailed information of each module with its demonstration also. The screenshots are attached to demonstrate the software and comments are mentioned to check the functionality described using functional code. The code pages are also attached in the files and each image is described with comments. The goal is achieved so far but if any requirement is not fulfilled than it would be covered in full version to this project. The report is about the design and implementation of principles of java in the program developed and so far all are utilized in it.     

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