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Benefits and constraints of different networking systems types

Task 1

1.1 Discuss the benefits and constraints of different networking systems types in order to convince the management of the company.

1.2 Analyze and clearly identify the requirements of the system for this network.

1.3 Explain the different types of network topologies. Select your suitable network topology options for each section of your network design with reason

1.4 Discuss and justify appropriate network protocols for the company. Discuss how protocols enable the effective utilization of different networking systems.

Task 2

2.1 Critically discuss and select suitable network software and hardware components needed in order to create this network infrastructure by mentioning their functions.

2.2 Identify all the servers required for the company network and discuss the server architecture needed for this network.

2.3 Discuss network hardware you have chosen for all the company PC workstations.

Task 3

3.1 Design the network using diagramming software. In the design you should consider current and future provisions in terms of user requirements and the network infrastructure itself.

3.2 Critically evaluate how the design you have produced in the question 3.1 is validated in terms of user feedback and other key factors e.g. future provision and use of proposed technology.

Task 4

4.1 By means of simulation software, establish a network according to the design in task 3.

4.2 Test the functionality of the network to ensure that your developed network will operate seamlessly in a physical environment so that it can satisfy user requirements. List the results you have found contrasting them with your expected results.

4.3 Discuss how your developed network will cope with future changing needs. Your discussion should address possible enhancement of your network to satisfy needs of changing future environment.

4.4 Produce maintenance schedule to support the network system. Your maintenance schedule should address various factors like personnel allocation, backup and recovery policy, maintaining security & integrity; and general administration to support the users.

One approach to classify the diverse sorts of computer network  outlines is by their degree or scale. For recorded reasons, the networking industry refers to almost every sort of configuration as a area network.

A network  is a gathering of two or more PC frameworks connected together. There are numerous sorts of PC network s, including the accompanying:

Local-area networks (LANs): The PCs are topographically near one another (that is, in the same building).

Wide-area networks(WANs): The PCs are more distant separated and are joined by phone lines or radio waves.

Identifying requirements for the system and different types of network topologies

Home-territory network s (HANs): A  network  contained inside of a client's home that associate a man's advanced gadgets.

Campus-area networks (CANs): The PCs are inside of a constrained geographic zone, for example, a grounds or army installation.

Metropolitan-territory network s MANs): An information  network  intended for a town or city.

A LAN join  network  gadgets more than a generally short separation. An arranged office building, school, or home ordinarily contains a solitary LAN, however at times one building will contain a couple of little LANs (maybe one for every room), and incidentally a LAN will span a group of nearby buildings. In TCP/IP organizing, a LAN is frequently however not generally executed as a solitary IP subnet.

As the term infers, a WAN compasses a huge physical separation. The Internet is the biggest WAN, crossing the Earth. A WAN is a topographically scattered gathering of LANs. A  network  gadget called a router connects LANs to a WAN. In IP organizing, the switch keeps up both a LAN location and a WAN location.

New Site

Administration office: The administration office is a threestorey building and is going to be used for various departments.

  Top Floor => Management and directors sittings.

                          Total member at floor = 60 members

  Middle Floor => Human resource & purchasing department personnel’s

                        Total member at floor = 60 members

 Ground Floor => IT Staff

            Total member at floor = 60 members

  1. Design office: This is a 2storey building and is going to be usedin various departments.

 Top Floor => Engineering design staff

                          Total member at floor = 150members

 Ground Floor => Sales & Marketing

            Total member at floor = 75 members

  1. Stores office: The Stores is where all the components for the manufacturing are kept along with the completed equipment ready for dispatching. It is a fourstorey building with approximately five members of staff on each floor.

Top Floor => Store Staff

     Total member at floor = 5 members

Second Floor => Store Staff

                        Total member at floor = 5 members

 First Floor => Store Staff

            Total member at floor = 5 members

Ground Floor => Store Staff

                           Total member at floor = 5 members

  1. Manufacturing Plant: This is where the equipment is manufactured. It is a single storey building where about 120 production operatives will work. They are many different areas in this building since there are lots of different tasks that need to be performed. It includes a Machine shop where there are heavy electrical cutting machines and Arc welders. There is also a test bay where all the equipment is thoroughly tested before being shipped. The offices are for the Area managers.

Ground Floor => 120 production operatives with staff.  

It must be possible to have the following External access:-

  • General Internet access
  • Access to Suppliers Network
  • Access to Suppliers to restricted part of ELECTRONSRUS Intranet

Access for Sales & Marketing staff to the ELECTRONSRUS Intranet when they are remote from the site

The most mainstream designs, or topologies, incorporate the token ring, bus, point to point, star topologies.

With a bus design, every node/hub is joined consecutively along the  network  backbone. A node/hub is any equipment associated with the  network , for example, a printer, scanner or PC. Backbone is the term used to portray the primary links to which the  network  fragments are joined. At the point when one node/hub sends data to another node/hub through the  network , the data goes along the backbone until it achieves the wanted accepting node/hub.

Appropriate network protocols for the company and how they enable effective utilization of different networking systems

A Bus Topology

With a ring arrangement, every node/hub is joined successively along the  network  backbone. Be that as it may, not at all like the bus arrangement, the end of the network associate with the first node/hub, resulting in a circuit. Node/hubs on a token ring alternate sending and getting data. In the token ring topology, a token goes along the backbone with the data being sent. The node/hub with the token sends data to the following node/hub along the backbone. The getting node/hub peruses the data tended to it and afterward passes the token and any extra data to the following node/hub. This proceeds until the token and information make it back to the first node/hub in the  network .

A Token Ring Topology


With a star design, every node/hub is joined with a focal center point by means of  network  sections. At the point when one node/hub sends data to another node/hub, the data goes through the hub. The hub does not channel or course the data in any capacity; it just serves as a connector between  network  sections.


Point-to-point topology is the least complex of all the  network  topologies. The  network  comprises of an immediate connection between two PCs. This is quicker and more solid than different sorts of associations since there is an immediate association. The impediment is that it must be utilized for little zones where PCs are in close vicinity.

New Buildings premises



  IP address Subnet

IP address range

Name of the Vlan














Design Building


Engineering design




Sales and Marketing





Stores building














Manufacturing Plant





Operating Network

As the name propose LAN operating  network   is obliged to work on the LAN framework, deal with the colossal work load with various different sorts of server appended to it. It has fundamentally two perspectives (i) Work station Software (ii) Server Software. As instance of other multi client operating  network  , LAN operating  network   additionally encourage the sharing of expensive assets, for example, storage space, printer and so on among all LAN clients, gives security of information licenses associations with other  network .

There are different sorts of LAN operating  network s for instance Novel Netware, LAN server, omni met, PC Net, IBM PC LAN, Etherlik in addition to and so forth.

At the point when Ethernet was initially implemented, a great many people utilized a copper coaxial link. Notwithstanding, the most extreme length of this link was 500 meters, which was not sufficiently long for a few  network s. To address this issue,  network  designers utilized repeaters to join a few Ethernet portions.

Bridges give a Transparent ways to joining LANs. A bridge is a gadget that join physically isolated LAN fragments, (for example, diverse Ethernet links) into one legitimate LAN section. There are four classifications of bridges: source routing, Transparent, translating, and encapsulating.

Suitable network software and hardware components for creating the network infrastructure

Transparent extensions are utilized for Ethernet, though source routing bridges are utilized for token ring  network s. Encapsulating extensions unite two fragments of the same media, (for example, token ring to token ring) more than a medium. The accepting extension takes out the envelope, checks the destination, and sends the casing to the destination gadget.

LAN fragments joined by a switch are physically and intelligently separate  network s. Rather than a bridge, when different  network  sections are joined by a switch they keep up their different legitimate personalities ( network  location space), yet constitute an internetwork.

Switches determine the destination and course for every bundle, and they can be utilized to direct bundles and interconnect a mixed bag of  network  architectures. A noteworthy contrast between an extension and a switch is that the bridge recognizes bundles by source and destination address, though a switch can likewise recognize parcels by convention sort. Switches accommodate the interfaces to WANs.

Ethernet imparts over the  network  utilizing the Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection (CSMA/CD) process. A convention utilizing CSMA/CD screens, or listens to, the media for  network  movement, or data going through the  network  starting with one hub then onto the next. In the event that a hub does not sense any activity, it will send casings or bundles of data onto the media. A  network  edge is similar to a sent letter. The letter is put in an envelope that has an arrival location and the location of its destination. Information are similar to the letter and the casing is similar to the envelope. The information is put in the edge and the casing has the tending to data and lapse checking code

Server is a place that holds pipelines, tools, databases and numerous different applications where a sometimes clients or visitors could sign in and use them. There could be servers for various prerequisites some of them just holds data and encourage data exchange, yet does not permit clients to have direct cooperations, where as others permit clients to have direct collaborations. So one could discover mail servers, database servers, web servers, document servers etc. Servers basically serve a solicitation made by an tool, another machine or a client.

One of the real advantages of usage of LAN is sharing expensive assets, for example, printer, stockpiling gadget and so on this is accomplished through giving servers on the LAN. It is a committed PC that controls on or more assets. This contains both equipment & programming for LAN. Three noteworthy classifications of servers utilized as a part of LANs are

Identifying servers required for the company network and discussing server architecture

(i) File Server

(ii) Database Server

(iii) Web server

(iv) Mail Server

In a networking file server is utilized to share storage room for records. Alongside giving storage room to records in a LAN domain, it is utilized for talking periodical reinforcement, furthermore to give portal to different servers within & between LANs.

A database server is a PC program that gives database administrations to other PC projects or PCs, as characterized by the client–server model.

A web server is a data innovation that procedures demands through HTTP, the fundamental system convention used to disperse data on the World Wide Web.

Inside of Internet message taking care of administrations (MHS), a message exchange agent or mail exchange operators (MTA) or mail transfer is programming that exchanges electronic mail messages starting with one PC then onto the next utilizing a client–server application construction modeling. A MTA actualizes both the customer (sending) and server (getting) segments of the Simple Mail Transfer Protocol.

We requires two gadgets – transmitting and getting gadget to speak with one another, we need hardware's to accomplish that. We would be examining about the different hardware, for example,

  1. Sender and Receiver hardware
  1. Communication gadgets
  1. Communication channels

Taking after hardware are utilized for taking care of correspondence messages, information exchange and so forth.

Information correspondence is done utilizing different specialized gadgets and software products interconnected for data trade. The gadgets used to convey an information in correspondence system are called Workstations. These workstations may be PC, printer, terminal, phones and other specialized gadgets. Every workstation is joined with something many refer to as a Data Communication Network Mode.

As the name proposes, multiplexing is a type of information exchanging which are correspondence channels and is utilized for a few transmission. For e.g. the phone lines that we utilized for our day by day discussion can convey 100's and even 1000's of discussions utilizing multiplexing. As it were multiplexing is a kind of system which permits various basic, minimum cost terminals to share every correspondence lines presents no delay and obliges no uncommon PC programming projects.

A modem is a gadget that changes over information from advanced to simple flags so it can go over the general population exchanged phone system (PSTN) to its destination. When the sign achieves its destination, the modem changes over it back to computerized. As the PSTN was intended to convey voice (simple signs), it is not the best choice for conveying information. Computerized information systems (DDNs) are supplanting the PSTN. DDNs are utilized to transmit both information and digitized voice. Due to their moderate information transmission speeds, modems are no more utilized as a part of most business situation

Discussing network hardware for company PC workstations

What we are stating is that any organization ought to be seen as a system of activities with the worldwide objective of expanding the Throughput of the organization.

Any association grows normally as a system of related parts. What makes this system a framework, rather than a gathering of endeavors, is the definition (and the adherence to) a typical objective. At the end of the day, when individuals begin working together for a typical objective, the interdependencies important to accomplish it can be effectively characterized. The natural clash in any association is regardless of whether to receive a progressive structure. The various leveled structure fulfills the requirement for control yet falsely blocks the free stream of procedures and correspondence. By perceiving that any association is, actually, a system of ventures, an association can boost its potential and constantly move forward.

Wise Management and the Organization as a system of ventures

We can think about a various leveled association as being comprised of bunches whose centers are not associated with one another. This sort of association can move to a systemic system in which every hub is connected to some other hub through just a couple joins. The systemic approach in such a system would then backing the formation of interdependencies keeping in mind the end goal to permit rising properties to abbreviate the way toward accomplishing the objective of the system.

 How would we outline such a systemic system? Such systems must be constructed and planned through:

sharing a typical objective on the grounds that this permits the subordination of the single hubs to the objective

creating the right interdependencies among the hubs

identifying the right number of connections to be associated and anticipating how the framework will advance through the factual development of the system's properties

Just the objective of an authoritative system can empower the correct ID of the rationale with which the system must be composed, the heading in which the system needs to advance, and the option ways to follow in the event of "assaults" to hubs because of the natural variety of its procedures.

We can successfully oversee associations as unpredictable systems through the Decalogue technique. We do as such by perceiving that the Undesirable Effects (UDEs) of an association are truth be told emanant properties. By understanding the developing properties of an association we can discover numerous hints in regards to the structure of the system, its interdependencies and the outline of the association. Such properties permit us to surface:

Designing the network using diagramming software and evaluating the design

mistakes in associations and data stream because of an incorrect mapping of the connections

undesirable development of bunches that oblige the working of the system keeping it from working in a systemic manner

Just the objective of an authoritative system can empower the best possible recognizable proof of the rationale with which the system must be composed, the heading in which the system needs to advance, and the option ways to follow if there should arise an occurrence of "assaults" to hubs because of the inherent variety of its procedures.

What are the hubs in an association? They can be workers, machines inside of an assembling domain, or any undertaking as a feature of procedures inside of a hierarchical system. Gathering UDEs prompts the decision of a typical objective and the right formation of interdependencies among these hubs.

Thus, we have the capacity to see that the accomplishment of the objective of the creation system is constrained by a couple of hubs that have less limit than the others. Among such hubs we recognize one, which we call the imperative, which must be overseen legitimately and shielded from the characteristic variety of the framework.

The requirement is a hub whose limited limit is the most restricting element for accomplishing the fancied objective of the generation system. This hub decides the pace at which the system produces items and, as a result, is firmly joined with the pace of offers.

We can characterize the requirement as 'the hub with slightest limit that must be picked deliberately' in light of the fact that it speaks to the estimation purpose of the business system. Every single other hub are completely connected, inside not very many degrees of division, to the imperative hub in a manner that expands the system group coefficient and backings the systemic configuration.

From a Network Theory perspective, the imperative is the center point of the system and it is useful to manufacture the structure of the system itself around the limitation both so as to outline appropriately its mechanics and to model the system toward the objective.

Center points, the very associated (couple of) hubs at the tail of the force law degree dissemination, are known not a key part in keeping complex systems together, accordingly assuming a vital part in the heartiness of the system. They assume the critical part of connecting the numerous little groups of bunches into a solitary, systemically coordinated system.

Establishing a network according to the design and testing its functionality

The presentation of the idea of variety inside of a system empowers us to take a gander at the procedure of the yield of any framework and not singularly at its single hubs. Each procedure made up of the work of numerous hubs is influenced by a swaying because of the association and the development of the system.

Process Behavior Charts show all these neighborhood interfacing varieties of the single hubs as a procedure and identify as far as possible inside which the entire procedure can sway in an anticipated manner. This can be translated as a change of the consistency of the framework. This variance is called variety.

The conduct of procedures inside of a system turns out to be non-deterministic on account of collaborating frameworks. The resulting development of new properties is a critical trademark to be kept under factual control. In the meantime, being mindful of natural variety permits us to screen the advancement of the system, the measurable comprehension of which helps us foresee the new properties of the whole framework.

These two interrelated and repeating perceptions are basically executed by activities created from the infusions to the center clash of the association. Hence, recognizing the limitation and dealing with the inborn variety of the procedures happening in the organization by utilizing the routines for Statistical Process Control empowers us to make a systemic system.

The utilization of the calculation from the Theory of Constraints known as Drum Buffer Rope (see synchronized administration) and the natural variability of the framework empower the configuration of a scale free system made of center points that interface hubs in a systemic manner; supports will look into (and shield from) the inborn variety of the unpredictable frameworks. Such a system, accordingly, will drive its advancement toward a typical objective. A criticism framework will consistently bolster the system through a couple assigned connections that will spread the data all through the hubs.

The calculation utilized as a part of the Decalogue for overseeing undertakings is Critical Chain from the Theory of Constraints. A long ways past a procedure, Critical Chain speaks to the epitome of a dream of the association in view of pace of stream, individuals' contribution, and extraordinary accentuation on quality. Quality, association and stream are the fundamental philosophical mainstays of the systemic as organization.

VLANs are available on the CISCO Catalyst 6000 running CatOS 5.4 or later, on the Catalyst 4000, 2980G, 2980G-A, 2948G, and 4912G running CatOS 6.2 or later.

We are opting for CISCO Catalyst 2970 series. CISCO catalyst is layer 2 Series Switch used for Access connectivity in VLANs. I am selecting Cisco hardware as Cisco is known for its customer support as well as they keep bringing latest features on their products as and when required. These series switches have features like QOS, STP, etc. which can be required in the network as anetwork grows. There are vendors Like Alcatel Lucent, Summit, Juniper that offer similar hardware required for the network, but I am going in with Cisco Hardware.

Design For Network

Figure Cisco Catalyst 2970 series switches


The following two configurations comprise the Cisco Catalyst 2970 Series:

  • Cisco Catalyst 2970G-24TS-24 Ethernet 10/100/1000 ports and four small form-factor pluggable (SFP) ports
  • Cisco Catalyst2970G-24T-24Ethernet 10/100/1000 ports

Cisco catalyst 2970m series comes with Cisco Enhanced Image (EI) IOS ® Software .CISCO catalyst suports IGMP leave timer ,IGMP snooping querier,DSCP transparency , VLAN-based QoS1 and hierarchical policy maps on SVIs , Device Manager ,SSL Version 3.0,IEEE 802.1x, Flex Links , SFP module diagnostic management ,Smart ports Macros.

  1. Cisco catalyst 2970 series switches around 15 or more
  2. Router 2900 series around 3 in quantity.
  3. Connectors and cables
  • 10BASE-T ports: RJ-45 connectors , 100BASE-TX ports: RJ-45 connectors
  • 1000BASE-T ports: RJ-45 connectors,
  • 1000BASE-T SFP-based ports: RJ-45 connectors[3]
  • 100BASE-TX ports: RJ-45 connectors
  • 2-pair Category 3, 4, or 5 unshielded twisted-pair (UTP) cabling
  • 2-pair Category 5 UTP cabling
  • 1000BASE-SX, -LX/LH, -ZX, and CWDM SFP-based ports: LC fiber connectors (single-mode or multimode fiber)[3]
  • Management console port: RJ-45-to-DB9 cable for PC connections[3]
  1. Power connector RPS 675
  2. Internal power supply connector
  3. Environmental conditions
  • Operating temperature:32 to 113ºF (0 to 45ºC)[3]
  • Storage temperature: -13 to 158ºF (-25 to 70ºC)[3]
  • Operating relative humidity: 10 to 85 percent (noncondensing)[3]
  • Operating altitude: Up to 10,000 ft (3049 m)[3]
  • Storage altitude: Up to 15,000 ft (4573 m) [3]
  1. Contempora – 4(C4) Series Rack cabinet system
  2. Linux windows servers
  3. For VOIP Connectivity , require IP phones
  4. For Security , surveillance cameras(CCTV)
  5. Biometrics , card punching system
  6. Centralized Air conditioning

Ideally the network should be designed hierarchically in 3 layers (Access, Aggregation, and Core) but looking at the requirements I am proposing following guidelines:

Each building will have its layer twoswitches where they do would be isolated using VLANS. Vlanbe restricted Broadcast domain. We will call It as Access Laye

Private IPv4 Subnets would be assigned based on number of members per floor. We can go for IPv6 addressing, but that would make the migration cumbersome as of now.

We can plan for Migration to IPV6 if required once everyone is migrated to anew network

Aggregate traffic of these switches will be uplink to Core/Aggregate router that in our case would be one.

Each building would be connected to each other using Core router

We can have redundancy by having multiple Core routers as well Layer 2 Switch, but this would depend on customer investment and criticality both of which is still unclear.

Leased line would be purchased from Service provider and will be connected to any building core router that would act as a gateway.

We can have back up leased line as well from other service provider, but that would again depend on customer BCP.

Core router would be required to do NATTING in case of IPV4 address to access the internet as private range is not routable on internet


  1. Polydoros, "Digital likelihood processing and applications," in 6th International Workshop on Digital Signal Processing (DSP'98) Techniques for Space Applications, ESTEC, Noordwijk. The Netherlands, September 1998. 
  2. L. VanTrees, Detection, Estimation, and Modulation Theory Part I. John Wiley & Sons, 1968. 
  3. L. Weber, Elements of Detection and Signal Design, Springer-Verlag, New York, 1968. 
  4. Raheli, A. Polydoros, and C-K. Tzou, "Per-survivor processing: A general approach to MLSE in uncertain environments," IEEE Trans. Communications, vol. 43, pp. 354-364, Feb-Apr. 1995. 
  5. D. Forney, Jr., "The Viterbi algorithm," Proc. IEEE. vol. 61, pp. 268-278, March 1973. 
  6. M. Chugg and A. Polydoros, "MLSE for an unknown channel - part I: Optimality considerations," IEEE Trans. Communications, vol. 44, pp. 836-846, July 1996. 
  7. R. Bahl, J. Cocke, F. Jelinek, and J. Raviv, "Optimal decoding of linear codes for minimizing symbol error rate," IEEE Trans. Information Theory, vol. IT-20, pp. 284-287, March 1974. 
  8. M. Chugg, A. Anastasopoulos, and X. Chen, Iterative Detection: Adaptivity, Complexity Reduction, and Applications, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001. 
  9. Anastasopoulos and K. M. Chugg, "Adaptive Soft-Input Soft-Output algorithms for iterative detection with parametric uncertainty," IEEE Trans. Communications, vol. 48, no. 10, pp. 1638-1649, October 2000. 
  10. Wiberg, Codes and Decoding on General Graphs, Ph.D. thesis, Linköping University (Sweden), 1996.
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