a) You read about several different cases involving surrogacy. I want you to provide short summaries of 3 of these cases. Summarize the case involving Jennifer Cantor. Next summarize the case involving Dawne Dill. Last, summarize the case involving Cathy Hilling.
b) We discussed two different kinds of surrogacy in Week Two. Explain this distinction. Next explain the sort of surrogacy in the case with Jennifer Cantor. Be sure to provide textual evidence to support your view.
c) One worry we discussed in our readings on surrogacy involves the worry that surrogacy encourages women to develop a detachment from their babies and this is bad. Summarize this concern. In the Newsweek/Daily Beast article, the sort of issue comes up when the cases of Gernisha Myers and Stephanie Scott are discussed. As such, I want you to summarize the cases involving Gernisha Myers and Stephanie Scott. End by offering your thoughts on the strength of this concern with surrogacy.
d) Explain why some people object to surrogacy on the grounds that it leads to the exploitation of women, particularly the poor. This issue is touched on in the New York Times article. Given how surrogacy is currently practiced in the United States, and based what is said in the New York Times article, are poor women exploited as surrogates in the United States?
e) At one point in the New York Times article, it mentions a Roman Catholic priest who points out that the Church frowns upon babies produced through surrogacy. However, the New York Times article does not go into much detail explaining the reasons why the priest frowned upon this. Using our readings from Week Two, elaborate on the reasons why the Roman Catholic priest frowned upon surrogacy. The author of the New York Times article, Alex Kuczynski, who is the woman who hired the surrogate Cathy Hilling, makes a short response to the priest. What is her response? Do you think that her response is good? Why or why not?
f) One of the major issues in terms of the moral permissibility of surrogacy involves the issue of whether it involves baby-selling. Using our readings from Week Two, explain both sides of this issue in the case with Jennifer Cantor. Why might someone think that there was no baby-selling involved in the cases with Jennifer Cantor? And explain why someone might think that there was baby-selling involved in the cases with Jennifer Cantor? End by saying if you think baby-selling is or is not involved in surrogacy in the case with Jennifer Cantor.
g) End by offering up your own thoughts on the issue of surrogacy. Do you think it is morally permissible or not?
Dane Dill is a 32 year old woman with two sons, English teacher and married to Travis. She is now carrying a surrogate twin for anonymous European couple and the couple. One of the child of Dill is autistic and that is the reason she wants the money, for opening a gym for her son (Kuczynski, 2015).
In the case of Cathy Hilling, she was pregnant and gave birth to the child on May 11. She had three healthy children and her husband Mick, who was the vice president of a credit union. Cathy delivered a boy in New jersey last year. The money was needed for helping her sons in college (Kuczynski, 2015).
1. b) There are two types of surrogacy, the genetic surrogacy and gestational surrogacy (Alghrani, 2012). The genetic surrogacy involves the use of one egg from the surrogate and the child have genetic relation with the surrogate, whereas in gestational surrogacy, surrogate does not have relation with child, no egg is used from surrogate.
Jenifer Cantor had a surrogacy of gestational type, as no egg was used from her, and the child was not genetically similar to her.
1. c) Surrogacy influences a woman to be detached from the baby. In the case of Gernisha Myers, she was carrying the child of Karin and Lars, when asked about the attachment with the baby, she only said that, she know the baby is not her and she only feels like baby sitter, rather than a mother (com, 2015).
In the case of Stephanie Scott, she was deeply attached with the baby, as after birth of the child, she was unable to look at the child, and felt wired, though she was aware of these issues by agency (Newsweek.com, 2015).
The agencies tells about the issues regarding the surrogacy contract, but as the mother and child relation is the most beautiful relation in world, detachment with the baby hampers the mental status of the surrogate (Deonandan, Green & Van, 2012).
1. d) Surrogacy is becoming an exploitation of specifically poor woman. This is because it is seen in study of Parks (2010) that, poor needy women are exploited by provision of less fee with more labor, which is unethical. Therefore, the third world country people are in danger to be exploited in this issue.
1. e) The Roman Catholic priest frowned upon surrogacy because, the procedure is unacceptable to roman catholic and natural law of consideration, that replaces the natural process of marital intercourse, involving a third party, which is surrogacy (Stearns, 2012).
Alex responded shortly to the priest, he misguided her, but she thought child is a gift from god, and surrogacy brought her child, so this is not unethical practice.
1. f) Baby selling issue should be took in concern, it is not permissible, because some people thinks this is a baby selling process for getting money (Jadva et al. 2012). In Jennifer Cantor case, she was not as much attached with the child, and belonged from a well family, and the couple hired her treated good with her after delivery, so baby selling was not involved in this case.g) Learner thinks surrogacy is morally permissible if operated with ethical consideration, as it can bring happiness to an unfertile couple, and sometimes might help a needy woman (Chervenak & McCullough, 2011). However, the misuse and exploitation of woman for money is a major topic for dilemma.
From the viewpoint of Noonan, it is seen that, he thinks a fetus, after the third trimester have the right to live, and he supports the morale of personhood, which is being subjected to the argument. However, as being a person, fetus has the right to live, however, only if mother’s life is at risk, abortion can be permissible, because in that case, it act as self-defense.
On the other hand, Thomson thinks that, fetus has a right to live, while it is considered as a person, but for self-defense, it can be aborted. He explained her argument with three analogies, first, child growing in a house, supporting abortion for self-defense of mother, second, people seed analogy and the third one is Volinist analogy, supporting the fact of contraception failure and rape cases. In this cases, abortion cases are valid as it is against one’s wish.
Abortion is permissible in the cases of rape or risk of mothers, because it is related to human ethics and norms of society, but in contraception failure cases, abortion should not be permissible, in this case mother is previously known to the effects of sexual relationship, and a fetus having the right of life cannot be aborted only for one does not want to have it. Therefore, view of Thomson is stronger (Bailey, 2012).
1. b) In case 1, some babies having club feet, cleft lips and webbed fingers were aborted in England, which became a major public concern in 2003, when Jonna Jepson challenged Wst Merica police for not taking steps against doctors who did abortions, challenge failed. A question rose against the law, supporting rejection of fetus having minor disabilities.
Club feet is a condition foot when sole is not placed in flat ground. It is a condition having cleft on lips, includes feeding problem, opening of mouth is in nose.
The case 3 discusses the chances of abortion after knowing the fetus having Down syndrome. Sarah is an eleven years old girl having down syndrome and took [art in the campaign of hospital. The presidents supported their survival. Doctors recommend different tests for parent’s choice.
Down syndrome is a genetic disorder, having third copy of 21 chromosomes, generally has mental disorders.
Marquis view suggests that, the view fetus having FLO, killing a fetus is wrong, as the fetus is deprived of future value (Kaczor, 2011).
One can use Marquis view that a fetus has FLO, that is why it should not be killed, which supports that abortion is not permissible, on the other hand, Marquis’ view for pro-choice, is if an woman is forced to be pregnant, and in first stage of pregnancy, fetus is not feeling pain, so, abortion is ok.
Finally, Marquis position, abortion is not ok in these cases.
1. c) From the article, it is seen that, a woman becoming pregnant at college age, gets no support from education or social background, she is suggested to go through abortion. Educational system bears for abortion, but not for giving birth to her child.
Forster think abortion is a rarely free choice because most of the time woman are forced to be aborted, because of lack of support, society thinks the baby can ruin her life, she have to sacrifice educational, personal and professional life for the baby (Merino, 2012).
Foster claimed, abortion have the ability to harm an woman by introducing infertility, breast cancer, further miscarriages and death also. It also affects the mental status of an woman.
One should listen to a woman for reason of abortion, and then with a framework one should attempt to eliminate the major cause of abortion. Women should be engaged in education, technology, health care or business. Pregnancy care centers should highlight life-affirming choices (Karnein, 2012).
Alghrani, A. (2012). Surrogacy: 'A Cautionary Tale': Re T (a child) (surrogacy: residence order) (Fam). Medical Law Review, 20(4), 631-641. doi:10.1093/medlaw/fws032
Bailey, J. (2012). Abortion. New York: Rosen Central.
Chervenak, F., & McCullough, L. (2011). Respect for the autonomy of the pregnant woman in surrogacy agreements: An elaboration of a fundamental ethical concern. Women's Health Issues, 1(3), 143-144. doi:10.1016/s1049-3867(05)80119-7
Deonandan, R., Green, S., & van Beinum, A. (2012). Ethical concerns for maternal surrogacy and reproductive tourism. Journal Of Medical Ethics, 38(12), 742-745. doi:10.1136/medethics-2012-100551
Jadva, V., Blake, L., Casey, P., & Golombok, S. (2012). Surrogacy families 10 years on: relationship with the surrogate, decisions over disclosure and children's understanding of their surrogacy origins. Human Reproduction, 27(10), 3008-3014. doi:10.1093/humrep/des273
Kaczor, C.(2011). The ethics of abortion.
Karnein, A. (2012). A theory of unborn life. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Kuczynski, A. (2015). Her Body, My Baby ae” My Adventures With a Surrogate Mom. Nytimes.com. Retrieved 11 September 2015, from https://www.nytimes.com/2008/11/30/magazine/30Surrogate-t.html?_&_r=0
Merino, N. (2012). Abortion. Detroit: Greenhaven Press.
Newsweek.com. (2015). Retrieved 11 September 2015, from https://www.newsweek.com/curious-lives-surrogates-84469
Parks, J. (2010). Care Ethics And The Global Practice Of Commercial SURROGACY. Bioethics, 24(7), 333-340. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8519.2010.01831.x
Stearns, C. (2012). The Social Relations of Surrogacy. Symbolic Interaction, 35(1), 101-103. doi:10.1002/symb.8