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Qualitative and quantitative research methods

Qualitative methods aim to gain an in-depth understanding of a small number of cases, often using interviews or focus groups. Quantitative methods, on the other hand, involve gathering large amounts of data from a variety of sources to make generalizations or conclusions. The researcher has to understand how qualitative and quantitative methods can be used to study different aspects of research. For example, qualitative methods can explore a topic in-depth, while quantitative methods can provide a more general overview of the data. The Qualitative And Quantitative Research methods can approach social issues in different ways. Qualitative methods are often used to explore people's experiences and perspectives. In contrast, quantitative methods can measure things such as the prevalence of a particular social issue or the effectiveness of a particular intervention.

Social ideas can be determined by qualitative analysis, which looks at the thoughts and feelings of the people involved in a social issue. The quantitative analysis measures social issues based on numerical data. Social ideas can be determined by qualitative analysis, which looks at the thoughts and feelings of the people involved in a social issue. The quantitative analysis measures social issues based on numerical data. For example, both methods can analyze the impact of social issues on individuals, families, and communities (Ahn,2011). Quantitative analysis can look at surveys, polls, or other data that can measure the size and trend of an issue. Qualitative analysis can look at the thoughts and feelings of people involved in a social issue. Qualitative analysis can be done through interviews, focus groups, or other discussion forums. This type of analysis can help understand the issues and concerns people have about social issues.

Quantitative analysis can measure social issues based on trends and patterns entailed in various reports. Quantitative analysis can be done through surveys, polls, or other data collection forms. This type of analysis can help understand the size and trend of an issue. Quantitative analysis can also help identify how social issues impact different groups of people.

The research methods used to evaluate research reports can include statistical analysis, systematic reviews, and meta-analysis. Statistical analysis can determine the significance of the findings of a research report and identify any patterns or trends (Fine,2021). Systematic reviews and meta-analyses can be used to synthesize the findings of research reports and provide an overall assessment of the quality of the research. Additionally, secondary sources can be helpful when evaluating research reports. Secondary sources include journal articles, books, and other written materials (Hennink, 2020). These sources can provide additional information that can help evaluate the reports to determine conclusions. Finally, the use of personal experience can help evaluate research reports. People who have experienced a particular situation or phenomenon can provide valuable insight into the findings of research reports. Overall, using a variety of research methods can help evaluate research reports.

Strengths and limitations

The social research methods lecture outlines several methods for demonstrating critical understanding. One way to gain relevancy is to find instances where a research method was used in a particular context. For example, if an individual considers studying the relevancy of interviews in sociology, they could examine the ways interviews are used in research to understand human behavior. Additionally, students could examine different data collection methods and analyze their relevance to social research (Köhler,2022). By critically examining how different research methods are used and analyzed, students can better understand the various approaches to social inquiry. Finally, students could review specific cases in which social research methods were effectively used or not used. This engagement with research methods can help students develop a critical understanding of the various methods and their context within the social inquiry.

Journaling is another way to demonstrate a critical understanding of social research reports. By writing about a specific research report, students can form their thoughts and critiques about the work. Additionally, journaling can help students stay organized as they work through the material. Additionally, students could discuss their journal entries with a classmate to further develop their social research understanding. Overall, by engaging in various forms of critical thinking about social research reports, students can demonstrate an understanding of the methods used and the context in which they were used.

An example of a qualitative research report on a topic is "A study of the effects of social networking sites on adolescents' social lives."  

Ahn, J. (2011). The effect of social network sites on adolescents' social and academic development: Current theories and controversies. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 62(8), 1435-1445.

The purpose of this qualitative research report is to explore two specific areas:

  1. the effects of social networking sites (SNSs) on adolescents' social lives 
  2. teenagers' perceptions of SNSs.

A total of twenty-five participants were interviewed in-depth about their social lives and thoughts on SNSs. The data was analyzed using a purposive sampling method, and findings were presented in the form of general observations and specific quotes (Ahn, 2011). This was determined to understand teenagers' use of SNSs and the impact they have on their social lives.

The research found that teenagers are spending a lot more time on SNSs than ever before, and the majority of them believe that SNSs have a positive effect on their social lives. They also found that teenagers are more open to talking to people they meet online than in person and believe SNSs make it easier to build good relationships. On the other hand, teenagers also found that they were more likely to become friends with people they met online than with people they usually interact with physically. Social networking sites are changing the way teenagers socialize, and the impact of this is still being studied. Overall, this qualitative research report provides a snapshot of how teenagers are using SNSs and their impact on their social lives. The findings suggest that teenagers are spending a lot more time on SNSs, and the majority of them believe that SNSs have a positive effect on their social lives. They also found that teenagers are more open to talking to people they meet online than in person and believe SNSs make it easier to make new relations. 

Evaluating research reports

Whitcomb, B., & Bullock, G. (2019). Comparing Different Food Waste Reduction Strategies at College Dining Services.

 An example of quantitating research reports involves surveying a population of students to find out their opinions on on-campus dining services. The researcher would first need to identify all the campus dining facilities and compile a list of their contact information. Next, the researcher would send out a survey to all students at the identified facilities. The survey would ask students about their opinions on on-campus dining services and whether they have used them in the past (Whitcomb & Bullock,2019).). Data analysis would be conducted based on the responses to the survey to determine whether there are any trends or patterns that can be observed. This information would then be used to decide about future campus dining services, which are targeted toward student needs.

Qualitative research is often used to better understand a topic by examining the personal experiences of individuals. An example of qualitative research would be conducting interviews with students about their opinions on on-campus dining services. This would allow the researcher to understand better how students feel about the current offerings and whether any areas need improvement. After collecting data from interviews, the researcher would then use this information to recommend how campus dining services can be improved.

Both quantitative and qualitative research is essential to understanding how a basic report should be structured. Quantitative research involves administering a survey to a sample of individuals to collect data about their opinions and experiences (Patten & Newhart, 2017). On the other hand, qualitative research relies heavily on interviews to get a deeper understanding of a topic. Both types of research have their strengths and weaknesses, so it is essential to choose the type of research that will best suit the project's needs. Quantitative research is often used to gather data that can be analyzed statistically. This type of research helps determine any trends or patterns among the data.

Conclusion

There are a few assumptions that are typically associated with different research methods. For example, experimental research methods typically assume a cause-and-effect relationship between two or more variables. On the other hand, survey research methods often involve collecting data from a sample of people without necessarily knowing what the results will show. Another assumption is that all researchers operate under the same set of assumptions when conducting their research. For example, suppose a researcher is studying the effects of a specific type of marketing campaign on sales. The research methods section provides a more detailed overview of each type of research. For now, it is essential to remember that each method has its own set of assumptions that need to be met for data to be analyzed accurately.  

References

Hennink, M., Hutter, I., & Bailey, A. (2020). Qualitative research methods. Sage. https://www.worldcat.org/title/qualitative-research-methods/oclc/1153392954?referer=di&ht=edition

Ahn, J. (2011). The effect of social network sites on adolescents' social and academic development: Current theories and controversies. Journal of the American Society for information Science and Technology, 62(8), 1435-1445. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/asi.21540

Park M. (2016). Qualitative versus quantitative research methods: Discovery or justification? Journal of Marketing Thought, 3(1), 1-8. https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Qualitative-versus-Quantitative-Research-Methods%3A-Park-Park/f8825bba0d27b962084cfc9382d6181949d09b76

Whitcomb, B., & Bullock, G. (2019). Comparing Different Food Waste Reduction Strategies at College Dining Services. https://ojin.nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories/ANAMarketplace/ANAPeriodicals/OJIN/TableofContents/Vol-27-2022/No2-May-2022/Articles-Previous-Topics/Hospital-Food-Waste-Reducing-Waste-and-Cost-to-our-Health-Care-System-and-Environment.html.

Patten, M. L., & Newhart, M. (2017). Understanding research methods: An overview of the essentials. Routledge. https://www.routledge.com/Understanding-Research-Methods-An-Overview-of-the-Essentials/Patten-Newhart/p/book/9780415790529

Köhler, T., Smith, A., & Bhakoo, V. (2022). Templates in qualitative research methods: origins, limitations, and new directions. Organizational Research Methods, 25(2), 183-210. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/10944281211060710

Fine, M., Torre, M. E., Oswald, A. G., & Avory, S. (2021). Critical participatory action research: Methods and praxis for intersectional knowledge production. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 68(3), 344. https://psycnet.apa.org/record/2021-49352-007

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