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Describe the Laser Metal Deposition For Plastic Additive Manufacturing

Introduction to Additive Manufacturing

Additive manufacturing, also known as rapid prototyping process is a great technology that applies the principles of form fabrication. The additive manufacturing technology applied utilizes the computer-aided design model in the net processing. This model is of great benefit since it helps in repairing parts which are complex and that cannot be repaired by any other conventional models of a manufacturing process. There are various technologies that are involved in the process of additive manufacturing. These technologies include the direct metal deposition or better known as the laser metal deposition technology, which is widely applied in the various industries that apply the cladding techniques as well as the free form fabrication. The main concept in the laser metal deposition is cladding of the laser metal for the purposes of enhancing the process of deposition. (Bohandy et al, 2010)

The classification of the process involved in the additive manufacturing basically depends on the stage of an application during the whole process of manufacturing. Besides, the technology depends on the material used in coming up with the various parts including the metal sheet, metal powder, solid polymer, metal wire and the liquid polymer. Based on the raw materials that are used in the process,   the technology is divided into metal additive manufacturing and the plastic additive manufacturing. The picture below shows the discrete description of the process (Lewis & Shlienger, 2010) 

There are various process that the metal laser deposition undergoes. These process includes,  

This technology involves the extrusion of material from a tiny hole and thereafter repetitively creating a 2D layer which eventually generates a 3D layer. A fused filament fabrication and fused deposition model is applied in this technique as shown in the figure below. This technique has been widely used in the manufacture of the thermoplastics that are basically polymers in nature (Dinda et al, 2012).

Usually, at the heat nozzle,   a thermoplastic material is supplied and the material is melted in order to produce a two dimensional layer. The process is done recurrently and as this process goes on, it begins to form with the thickest layer being on the lower part.  At times, support material spool is required for the purposes of object stationary in the manufacture of the complex part of the entire process (Zhu et al, 2011).

The polymerization of vat can as well be referred to as the process of lithography and it operates on two dissimilar configurations. The first configuration being the upright while the second configuration is the reverse.  Two key elements are needed in this process: resin exposure for the purpose of allowing the regulation of spatial process on a single layer resin as well as the photopolymerization resin. For the first configuration which is the upright conformation, the whole plate gets formed and then it is put under the resin vat. This enables the product to form inside the resin.  For the second configuration which is the inverse pattern, the resins are maintained within an array and the part that has formed is placed in an opposite position as the layer that has been generated.  The diagram below shows how the process of vat polymerization is done.  (Graf et al, 2011)

Metal Additive Manufacturing

The process of material jetting is the same as the ink jet printing technique, which is applied in the printing of papers. In this process, the material droplets from the jetting head are deposited on a surface as shown below.

The material jetting technology is also applied in the support and model for the purposes of generating a three-dimensional model.  This is because of the high scalability in the model growth, material flexibility and model dimension as compared to the selective laser sintering and the extrusion of material.  The material jet has a wide range of material flexibility and multiple nozzles commercially.  The equipment used for the material jetting has the ability to print a variety of elastomer, plastic, waxes and rubber (Hong et al, 2011).

The process of laminating sheet is also referred to as the laminated object manufacturing. The process comprises of two technologies which are combined for the purpose of coming up with a three-dimensional model. The two technologies which are combined include the substantive steps and the combined additive. The principle of operation of the instrument is by an alternation of the bonding in the sheets through the use of pressure or heat, thereafter cutting the sheet of material in a certain desired manner. This process is done simultaneously. The diagram below describes the process of sheet lamination (Mohamood et al, 2015).

The application of heat or pressure industrially helps in enabling the additive steps. Besides, the adhesive steps can be accomplished mechanically by the use of an adhesive roller  or chemically by the application of a chemical substance. Additionally, an ultrasonically induced fabric can be applied in the place of the adhesive materials due to strong metallurgical bonds that it offers (Legget et al, 2012).

There are various technologies associated with the powder bed fission depending on the capability of the process, the characteristics of the as well as the condition.  Despite this, all these technologies operate on the same principle. The figure shown below shows how the fusion operates. The raw material being the powder is spread on the build plate with the help of wiper mechanism or a blade. The distance which exists between the built layer and the surface of the build plate, as well as the spreading mechanism as it changes position in the area of the built layer proves the thickness of the model.  

The maximum allowable height of the metal layer is 100 microns and for the three-dimensional printing id between 50 to 100 microns. Immediately that the layer gets formed, a laser beam or an electron layer is put on the powder layer purposefully for the formation of the three-dimensional layer. The developed product is mostly strengthened by this layer and in particular its strength, quality and its microstructure.  There exist two different types of variation in the metal powder fusion including the selective laser melting and the selective laser sintering. For the selective laser sintering, the metal powder is not completely melted but then it gets heated to a certain temperature of solid state (Guo and Leu, 2013).

Plastic Additive Manufacturing

This technology forms part of the additive manufacturing that eventually forms the model layer. Besides, this technique applies the laser beam for the purposes of generating the metal pool which gets supplied above the surface of the base plate. The metallurgical bond is generated by the melted powder and then the clad which is required either in the 2D or the 3D is obtained by the use of a computer-aided software such as solid works or the PTC to parametric. The laser technique incorporates the metal deposition technology. Below is the diagram showing the operating principle of the metal disposition process (Yadroitsey & Smurou, 2011). 

The process of laser deposition is one of the greatest technologies carried out by high industrial laser systems and that is focused on the deposition of a coating overlay.  The technology ensures that a metal powder is melted over the surface of a provided substrate for various reasons. It is usually done at lower speeds approximately 0.75m per minute. When the process is done at high speed, then a high deposition laser is tinted, i.e. ranges between 10 to 40 m per minute (Song et al, 2014).

 The major focus of this project is to come up with fresh parameters that will be able to simplify the laser deposition process. Besides, the project tends to focus on the effect of the height of cladding as well as its quality. Various peed ranges are applied including the powder landing height, powder flow rate and the height of the beam focus (Thompson et al, 2015).

As shown in the introduction section, the laser deposition technology operates on a variety of principles and in particular when it is in its development stage. This literature review part will cover most of the technologies that are involved in the laser metal deposition. The major topics that are covered herein includes additive manufacturing, cladding technology as well as laser metal deposition (Liu et al, 2011).

The major principle behind the additive manufacturing is the philosophy of material addition. The material is added after the layer and then shaped to some arbitrary configurations which in common cases are controlled by the help of a computer. The major focus of the additive manufacturing is to promote various fields of the profession such as biomedical industries, defense, automotive and aerospace by manufacturing shaped physical geometry such as composite materials, alloys and metals. The metallurgical nature of the laser additive manufacturing can either be mechanical or chemical and it is with regards to the material and the process.   

Laser Metal Deposition

The most famous technologies that are applied in the additive manufacturing are three and they include. Laser melting, laser sintering and finally laser metal deposition.  The main technology that is adopted among the above technologies is the laser metal deposition due to some of the various actors which have been discussed below (Peyre et al 2013).

The technology of additive manufacturing has been in existence for the past 20- 25 years, thus it is in mature stages of growth. The additive manufacturing process proves to be advantageous and faster as compared to the conventional method of eliminating material in the industrial process. Hence, it’s widely applied in the military, medical and aerospace sector where time and efficiency is a greater factor. Usually, whenever any conventional method of eliminating material in the industrial process fails, the additive manufacturing process is adopted.

 For instance, in the area of medical implant, there are some specific dimensions in terms of the specifications and size as well as weight, which should be taken into keen consideration. Hence, the preference of the additive manufacturing. The main areas of concern for the additive manufacturing include material science, laser technology, mechanical engineering, interdisciplinary as well as metallurgical data.  The application of the additive manufacturing ensures that unique microstructures, as well as high-performance metals, are achieved (Zhong el at, 2014).  

This technique is one of the laser manufacturing technologies which applies the concept of CAD model in order to achieve the component layer. Special arrangements such as pneumatic, robot or servo system are used together with the CAD model in generating the component layer. The raw material being composites or pure materials are used and the metal used is in powder form which gets injected into the near focal point rather than the laser path. The laser is responsible for creating the melt pool in between the base plate and the focal point which consecutively heats up the metal powder and solidify it into a thick layer.

This process is repeated to the point that the desired design is generated by the CAD software. This process has proved to be more flexible and results in low production of waste having high mechanical properties when compared to the product that has been developed by other methods of manufacturing. This technique can be directly applied in the rapid prototyping process without making any marks in the machining process. The advancement in the early stage has brought about different laser-assisted technologies. For instance, the laser engineered net shaping and the direct light fabrication  All these two processes take power into the laser focal point where melting and solidification into the layer is done. The diagram below illustrates the laser-assisted technology in a three-dimensional model.  

Polymerization of Vat

The model was developed using a computer-aided design tool which was directed by a robotic tool.  When an additional mechanism is brought on board, the flexibility of the process increases since the degrees of freedom will be robust (Dubourg & Archambeault, 2013). 

The process of laser-assisted metal deposition is done in certain environmental conditions for the purpose of reducing the levels of oxidation. During the process of manufacturing, various powders can be used concurrently depending on the specification of the powder. The control commands over the laser are provided by motion path as well as the feed rate and the motion system. The control commands help in ensuring that layers of beads that are generated are laid sideways with a desired amount of overlay.  For the thicker components, they are constructed using overlapping beads as shown in the diagram below (Song et al, 2014).

 The properties of the molten pool determine overall solidification of the layer. The thickness of the layer is also in relation to the poll size of the molten to generate the desired product.  (Cheng et al, 2014)

This technology has a variety of benefits as compared to the known technologies of cladding and welding. The purpose of cladding is for the enhancement of strength, corrosion, resistance as well as the hardness of the material. Various facilities are available which helps in making this possible. One major challenge with these technologies is that it has limitations in terms of the thickness of the layer which should not be exceeding 0.5mm. This technique helps in achieving a maximum thickness and besides, less amount of cracks and pores are realized when this technology is used and the technology is very flexible such that any material can be applied.

For instance, clad material, composite material or even an alloy. In addition, when a simple modification is done on some parameters such as distance to the laser metal technology, processing of some parameters are easily enabled. For instance surface treatment and welding. The same technique can be applied in the welding of parts that are made of aluminium. The new technology ensures that the feed material used for the laser welding is not the wire but laser powder. For instance, in the diagram below, the concepts of laser welding and laser cladding have been exclusively elaborated (Onwubolu et al 2010). 

For the success of the welding or the cladding process, the combination of the supplied powder and the focusing optics has been properly done such that the focal length that has been chosen is a bit higher. This higher focal length helps in ensuring that the diameter of the focused laser beam is also enhanced, which tentatively enabled easier processing of the uneven surfaces. In most cases, the focal length that has been settled on for both the cladding and the welding is approximated to be 300 mm, whereas the length of the quartz lens has been approximated to 140mm. For the purposes of transferring the powder, and the transfer is intended to be over long distances, a carrier gas has been necessitated. Some of the diagrams below indicate how the shielding gas influences the focusing of the powder (Cao et al, 2013). 

Material Jetting

The possible forming and direction of the guiding powder into the beam or the jet is aided by a specially designed nozzle. Special wires are applied in the thermal spraying. The special wires help in promoting high power efficiency and allowing easy access to positions which are generally not easy to access. The potential of the powder can be tested in the automobile sector where surface treatment and welding is frequently done (Davin et al, 2010).

Various materials which are manufactured based on the laser deposition have attracted all industrial applications and in particular, the fields of material and mechanical engineering. Prototyping and modelling of newer parts are made easier by the adoption of this technology. Despite having some beneficial industrial values, the laser deposition, on the other hand, has some of its shortcomings which are not limited to reduced efficiencies with regards to the energy ratio as well as comparatively lower rates of deposition, thereby making it difficult for the two-dimensional cladding.

This odd property of the laser makes it a bit impossible for application in some areas where it may be greatly needed. Hence, industries which are in search of highly efficient laser equipment would have to combine the cost, energy efficient parameters together with the acceptable quality which is an advantage of the laser deposition equipment. The production of best-shaped components by the help of the layered protocol creates a greater potential in terms of time and cost as compared to the conventional technologies such as shaping, forming, machining as well as shaping.  Nonetheless, material innovation helps in gradually generating a shaped microstructure having a three-dimensional form with respect l to the material properties.  

The reabsorption of the feed material determines the production of complete parts in the induced melt pool. The powder can be applied coaxially or laterally to the wire feed material. When it is applied coaxially, the powder first gets preheated with the help of a laser beam then it gets supplied to the melt pool. When it is applied laterally, the process becomes a bit complex and expensive but the benefit is that it comes along with high level of precision and accurac. (Moat et al, 2013). 

A computer-aided tool is to be used to perform the investigation of the inc-625 material.  A laser is used to add a layer on the existing substrate. The human error, as well as other errors, are eliminated by the use of pared manufacturing. In the manufacturing end, an extension of the 3-dimensional component is overlapped at a certain pre-known pattern. In this investigation, a touchy technique is employed to determine the effects of various parameters such as the scan speed, powder feed rate as well as the laser powder. Inconel-625 (INC-625) is a nickel-based alloy. It has some properties, for instance, being nonmagnetic, resistant to oxidation as well as resistant to corrosion.  

Sheet Lamination

Besides, the alloy exhibits toughness and good strength up to a temperature of 1093 degrees Celsius which is obtained from strengthening the effect. Nickel chromium combination provides the oxidation resistance whereas the non-oxidation resistance is achieved by the nickel-molybdenum combination. The applications of Inconel-625 (INC-625) includes shielding components from heat, combustion liner, gas turbine as well as furnace components. The method used for the evaluation of the various parameters has proved to be reliable. The orthogonal l9 array in the Taguchi methodology was used in determining the laser power effect, scan speed and the powder feed rate on the rate of deposition of Inconel-625 (INC-625 material. In the order of priority, the results were converted into a signal to noise ratio data which gave the depositing rate. Below is the equation which was applied to the conversion  

Where n represented the total; the number of the test

Y1= is the powder deposition rate

Various tests are done on the deposited component INC-625, including the   Metallurgical characterization, Non-destructive testing, tensile testing, hardness testing and impact testing depending on the laser parameters i.e. powder feed rate and laser powder (Manvaktar et al, 2014).

Laser metal deposition technique has unique abilities in the software of cladding, repairing and free shape fabrication. The improvement of the numerical model helps to improve the technology. Two extensive range of the researchers have developed specific models successfully in analyzing special aspects of the deposition process. A revision has been done to phase the deposition technique into individual sections, and mannequin them as separate blocks from the ultimate of the element of the process. One of the most prolonged exercises has been to detach the electricity movement analysis from the melt pool analysis.  

Most preceding works on electricity move modelling have not dealt with the interplay of practical powder with the substrate or the soften pool. The FLUENT code to improve one of the early fashions of the free-flowing powder stream, which dealt with the fuel as a diluted section within the fuel float and did now not account for particle collision with the nozzle or the substrate. There are different mannequins developed with the aid of a range of research such as powder move, the use of geometry of the nozzle on the foundation of the powder focal point and the power distribution. Some results had not been viewed such as particle drag or loss of momentum.  

Powder Bed Fusion

It can be considered that most works up to date have dealt with special factors such as the LMD procedure, as in different blocks, and as an end result, some at the same time influencing phenomena have not been captured. This can be better completed when calculations are made inside a single fully-coupled domain. This work affords a built-in model of laser deposition, which calculates concurrently the quintessential phenomena observed in the quite a number section of the process, from these going on at the deposition head up to those taking vicinity in the melt pool. The mannequin used in the CFD used to be thin wall cladding, so that can be compared with the experimental data (Horii et al, 2010).     
They used the coaxial nozzle for deposition tools as shown in the parent below. The powder furnished by a disk powder feeder at a constant price and the use of argon provider gas. The powder furnished from a coaxial nozzle at a regular glide of 0.0028 g/s. Under the condition used, the powder particles emerge from the nozzle having converged at a distance 8 and 10 mm under the nozzle tip. The performed focal point of the power stream, 2 mm is instead a pool. A direct assessment made between the modelled clad and deposition experiment, the use of the equal material and conditions.  

The quantity of fluid technique used in this work to decide the free flow of the clad. This technique ought to be used for simulating intricate shapes such as those found in clad with high wetting perspective or inter-clad porosity. This CFD is able to simulate depositions of the order of countless millimeters in length, on a computer, making it applicable for industrial application (Selcuk et al, 2011).

The methodology part generally focuses on the laser cladding, metal deposition and the various types of laser metal deposition technologies, various types of the materials that have been applied in the practical set up of the laser metal deposition (Monro et al, 2015).  

The laser technology has greatly advanced into the most preferred industrial technology which exhibits a higher level of accuracy as well as efficiency combined with a three-dimensional production model. This therefore, means that there are various parts which were developed in order to ensure that this becomes a success. For instance, the nozzle and various coating layers. It is due to this advancement that the laser deposition technology has attracted most industrial applications. For instance, in the fields of aerospace engineering, mechanical engineering, medicine, oil and gas industries as well as the automotive manufacturing industries.   

Laser Deposition Technology

The applications of the technology are in a wide range such as rapid prototyping, development of new parts besides the repair (Zietala et al, 2016). The introduction of the laser technology was first introduced at time that it was referred to as cladding process whereby, a wide range of material, for instance, alloy, composites, pure metal, ceramic and metallic materials were being applied for the purposes of the manufacture. Other types of the additive manufacturing begins from three-dimensional model which generally means that the laser potion is same as a rapid prototyping technique that is followed by sectioned cad models that are tentatively materialized through clad tracks which overlap. Immediately the first layer gets done, the process is stopped and the head is shifted in a horizontal manner, but in the upward direction same as the new layer which starts to form on the previous layer.  

This process recurs till the portion gets completely done and a three-axial positioning mechanism is necessitated. The axis should be in contrast with the bed technology which comprises of the selective laser melting, laser sintering. Major applications of the laser technology include fields such as medical, military, automotive industries, manufacturing of critical components, critical designs, prototyping as well as the material engineering among other users. One major advantage of the laser additive manufacturing is the fact that the process does not generate wastes and it can be recycled (Tan et al, 2010).

The main principle of the deposition is to melt an additional layer with a thin layer on top of a provided material by the help of a laser beam and thereby allowing the material to undergo the process of melting without any disturbance. After the material has undergone the spontaneous melting, it then leaves a track on the substrate provided. Once the material gets into the melt pool which is generated by the laser beam, the overall result is that there will be an increase in the volume as well as the rise in the melt pool above the surface of the substrate.

The heat transfer that is present just below the material cools the liquid down upon shifting of the laser beam. The shifting of the laser beam leaves a track and solidification of the material in a circular manner on top of the substrate. Once this is done, the deposition material is overlapped in a precise layer path. This helps in generating the three-dimensional geometry. The quality of the material is then taken care of by meting thin layer of martial once the new layer has been formed (Angelastro et al,2013).  

Advantages of Additive Manufacturing

There exist two types of material feeding in the direct metal deposition process depending on the form of the material supplied. The forms include powder method and wire method (Poprawe et al, 2013).

  • Wire method

 In this technique, a wire is used in the earlier stage of development as clad material. The major advantage of us using a wire is because it utilizes a 100% energy despite the fact that the process is not stable and consistent as a result of the energy being supplied. Besides, there is the disadvantage of the inability to control the feed rate accurately due to the inefficient energy in the coupling wire. The diagram below illustrates how the wire method is achieved (Pi et al, 2011). 

Advantages of the wire method include

  • The cost of Material needed is quite cheap
  • High efficiency
  • Higher building rate
  • Only little amount of waste material is needed
  • Powder method

  In this technique, a powder gets injected through a nozzle into a melt pool that is located near the focal lens. The location of the powder nozzle depends on many factors such as the deposition direction effects, melt pool, the efficiency of the powder catchment among other factors. In order to obtain maximum efficiency, the transverse section of the powder jet coincides with the melt pool surface. A very fine powder is used for the cladding purposes in an accurate manner which helps in increasing the deposition limits. When it comes to the delivery of the powder through the nozzles, various techniques are applied.

For instance, an ultrasonic vibration process can be used since it has the ability to gravitationally transport the powder through a thin capillary by minimizing the forces of adhesion existing between the walls of the capillary tube and the powder particle.  Besides, aerodynamic or mechanical devices can be well utilized in the pushing of the powder material. The diagrams below show a nozzle concept as well as the detailed deposition concept (Sun et al, 2014).

The application of a laser beam on a metal surface results into the absorption of electron present on the surface. Tentatively, the temperature of a micron surface gets heated as a result of the collision of the lattice ions and the electrons, which alternatively get shifted into the melt pool generated in the laser direct deposition. The processing parameters are selected with regards to the density of the powder and the time of interaction of the laser beam with the surface that has been provided. The height of the laser beam focus that is above the surface area determines the diameters of the laser beam as shown in the diagram below. The diameter of the beam affects the power supply to the powder which in turn affects the quality of cladding as well as the melting of the powder (Zhang et al, 2010).   


During the process of cladding, the laser movement plays a very significant role such that the movement should be more accurate and straight in a certain desired direction. Besides, once the movement of the laser is straight, there are increased chances of reduced porosity and the quality cladding. Hence, the movement of the laser should be as accurate as possible and the movement flexible enough to achieve this.  The rate of the feed relies basically on the method of the cladding, for instance, a single layer or multiple layer track. The size of the projected beam in the surface also determines the feed rate.

In this experiment, a simple rotary machine having an adjustable servo motor has been utilized to rotate the steel pipe while the movement of the nozzle is aided by the orbit system. Various parameters used in the lathe operation are used in calculating the feed rate such as the angular motion and the basic rotation of the lathe machine.  Key parameters include angular velocity, rotational speed, beam diameter, pipe diameter among others. These parameters also help in determining the linear speed of the robot and the required rpm of the pipe (Sharratt et al, 2015).  

A considerate amount of power is required in order to achieve the best cladding and high deposition rate which are essential in ensuring that dilution of a substrate material is kept as low as possible. The unstable flow of heat during processing may affect the rate of melting thereby affecting the overall expected results. Therefore, the process control is aided by a robot which has communication gadgets such as sensors and microcontrollers to regulate the movement. The robot is precisely calibrated to ensure that the movement of the laser is monitored and the flow rate maintained at constant value to regulate them and check the entire process, a high-resolution camera that takes record of the whole process as well as broadcasting the experiment live on a computer screen are availed (Prince et al, 2014).  

The moment that the process of cladding is completed, the object is cut into various sizes for the purpose of checking the quality of the clad, microstructure and the porosity by the help of a microscope. The microstructure examination should be done at the research and the development stage and also at the industrial level. The cross-examination should be in form of various testing, but most importantly should focus more on the non-destructive methods of testing materials (Pupa et al, 2015).

In any industrial process or any activity, safety becomes the first objective of the plan. The safety of the laser deposition process should be of key priority in order to ensure problems that may arise due to some factors related to the laser material never occur. For instance, while the process of deposition is ongoing, there are radiations which are mixed into the atmosphere and if these are not taken into keen consideration, it may result into a serious skin disease or even vision impairment. Besides, the laser used for the deposition is the class 4 type which is highly hazardous, more so when exposed to the human eye.  

These lasers have a power capacity of 500 milliwatts or more. In addition, there are parts which are heavy in weight, toxic, hot components and also the rotating part which must be taken into keen consideration. Thus, the remedy is to ensure that at all time the safety rules of the site is taken into consideration. For instance, at all-time those handling the operation should be putting on protective wear such as hand gloves, masks, and safety boots among others. Besides, the operation of the laser disposition process is highly efficient when it is operating under an enclosed condition and also when some environmental conditions are provided (Riveiro et al, 2014).   


In summary, we can conclude that cladding technique with the assist of laser steel deposition is influenced by quite a number of experimental parameter such as laser power, tangential speed, beam centre of attention and powder landing height.

Powder landing peak -10 mm and rest of the procedure we get lower clad top compared to low-speed deposition. Here, at some point of regulation velocity method, we bought top clad layer but we find material dilution in the base metal which might also have an effect on the structure of the base material and cladded fabric as nice due to a higher power supply.  

All the techniques completed the use of trial and error method some of the laser parameters gives appropriate outcomes while some of the parameters need to be accelerated to enlarge efficiency of the laser metal deposition technique. Here we used some constant parameters such as restore alloy feed powder, dimension and supply quantity of powder.  From the scan, we can additionally conclude that the beam centre of attention and powder centre of attention factor is important because the beam centre of attention generate soften pool between the supplied powder and the dimension of the melt pool is greater vital to soften the grant powder.

So to get true cladding we want to find appropriate powder focal point and beam centre of attention top which can absolutely soften the supplied powder that potential a hundred percent efficiency of the soften pool and laser beam. There is a win and lose situation for the duration of the test however nevertheless need to greater work on some primary thought parameters which influenced the manner and impact on the efficiency of a process. Laser cladding method broadly used in the industries such as the aerospace and automobile industries, however throughout the manufacturing procedure it takes too long time for pre-processing and post-process, so in future would possibly be innovation in cladding technology or development of high electricity device would possibly increase fine laser cladding process,  

Another important factor is the price fine strategies, by way of improving the deposition price and reducing processing time. The optimized solution is required for key process parameters and alloy cloth used in cladding process. Future works may additionally situation the improvement of developing desktop for the additive manufacturing method which can extend the restriction of the complicated phase development. Furthermore, development of Nano and micro science, which can help to develop microstructure through free structure fabrication. In the end, for cladding software, environmental friendly laser machines proposed for the future engineering applications, the use of various developed mechanisms and bendy systems (Balu et at, 2013). 


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