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Perspective 1: Need to Collect and Store Personal Data for Security

Explain why you believe this (your case study) to be an issue where human dignity is a critical factor?

The essay highlights on the given topic “Human dignity and data privacy.” It discusses some of the key issues such as the need for maintaining human dignity and also privacy of personal data. The given case study focuses on some of the aspects related to the topic, along with three unique perspectives. The essay highlights on each of the perspectives along with their pros and cons. Privacy is considered to be a fundamental human right (Pincock, 2004). It is said to underpin human dignity as well as other values like freedom of speech as well as freedom of association. Privacy is a human right which is most difficult to define. As depicted in the various situations in the case study, each of the cases depict different pictures altogether. 

Perspective 1: In order to protect the dignity of all human life against forces that may threaten it (eg. terrorism and other threats to public safety), government agencies must collect and store large amounts of otherwise private data. The statement may be complied with to an extent where it concerns security of personal information of the people. Government agencies are quite empowered to resolve such issues. So the perspective may be supported to a great extent.

The improved sophistication of the sector of information technology along with its capacity of collection, analyzing, and dissemination of information upon individuals has led to the rise of urgency towards the demand for legislation ('Protectors of privacy: regulating personal data in the global economy', 2009). Computer systems connected together with great speed networks along with advanced processing systems can develop comprehensive dossiers upon any individual without using a single central system. Innovative technologies developed by the industry of defense are on the process of spreading to enforcement of law, private companies, and civilian agencies (Parhiala & Simango, 2014). As per opinion polls and that of the depicted cases in the given case study, concern over violation related to privacy has increased greatly more than ever before in the recent times. Also, population of each global nation express their fears regarding encroachment upon privacy, thereby prompting several nations to pass laws that particularly safeguard the privacy of the population.

As referred to in the case study, it is normal that power, capacity, and that of speed of information technology is increasing at a rapid speed. The level of privacy invasion has increased simultaneously. As per researches, several trends contribute towards privacy invasion such as globalization, convergence, and multimedia. These have impacts upon surveillance within developing nations (Moerel, 2010). In context to information and communication technology, the pace of policy convergence has been compressed. Throughout the surveillance spectrum, wiretapping, data mining, personal ID system, encryption controls all set a proscriptive pace. It has been rightly stated that government agencies must collect and store large amounts of otherwise private data. In fact governments of almost all developing nations nowadays depend upon the first world nations for the supply of technologies of surveillance like digital wiretapping equipment, scanners, deciphering equipment, bugs, computer intercept systems, and tracking systems  (McConnell, 2002). Thus, governments as well as citizens would immensely benefit from the plethora of information technology schemes that are implemented by the public as well as private sectors. Innovative projects of “smart cards” which bears client information is placed upon a chip in a card can streamline complex transactions. The availability of internet would revolutionize accessibility to basic information upon government services. Here in such cases, encryption may provide security as well as privacy to all parties (Richardson, 2003).

Perspective 2: Loss of Human Dignity Due to Online Sharing

In the current environment there is a rising need to protect data. Advancements in the computer technology, biotechnology, and medicine have resulted in the rise of personal data processing within different spheres of social as well as economic activities, imparting challenges of complex technology. On the other side, technological as well as electronic commerce progress renders convenience in the treatment as well as data exchange across international boundaries (Ismail, 2012). So, it is significant to protect every personal data while facilitating the continued information flow, electronic commerce, and advancements in technology. However, these initiatives would demand for a bold procedure having a strong legislative framework. If governments can suitably deliver the required framework would be dependent upon their willingness to attend the call of the emerging world digital economy as well as to recognize the need to incorporate a strong privacy protection (Fischer, 2014). As per some recent information, several schemes of access control have been introduced for controlling unauthorized propagation of data and information within the online networks. However, a need still exists to have a mechanism for evaluation of risk in the social networks. 

Perspective 2: In our internet connected society, the rise of “shamelessness” in the online community – whereby individuals share personal information (sacrifice privacy) in order to gain fame – and the voyeurism that accompanies it, results in a loss of human dignity. Dignity is then further compromised by the collection and storage of this personal data for later use.

As per the given perspective stated above, it is the most common phenomenon that is depicted. The trend of using internet among individuals of various ages has led to the excessive use of online social networks. It is true that this kind of social platform drives people towards the craze for being famous with some simple measures. In this process, often people tend to share their personal information (Shin, Ma, Kim & Kim, 2013). The information is further collected by various anonymous entities for respective gains. This is a form of harm to human dignity. The dominant persuasive role of social networking in the web has been turning human relations to conduits of data as well as information flow. This refers to the fact that the manner information which spreads within the web is determined to a great extent by human activities and decisions (Durante, 2011). As a result, information security rests upon the quality of the collective decisions taken by the users. As per some recent information, several schemes of access control have been introduced for controlling unauthorized propagation of data and information within the online networks. However, a need still exists to have a mechanism for evaluation of risk in the social networks. However, not always people provide personal information to the data processors. During online purchases, customers are inevitably required to provide some personal information even if they are reluctant. So, the perspective cannot be supported completely.

With increased number of online customers and association with social media requires them to share their personal information. This allows potential hackers to access as well as leverage the information to get financial benefits. It is very important that online customers adhere to a plan of cyber-security which involves the use of system restore as well as application control technology (Di Valentino, n.d.). The convenience of online purchases resulted in the rapid expansion of the market of e-commerce. Every time customers provide their credit card information and hence their financial security is at danger. This allows the hackers to get transactions occurring for stealing cardholder information and make illegal charges (Vorster, 2012). One of the key problems with the online communities is the lack of trust about any sort of personal or professional information relating to the question of identity or information reciprocity. Many a times, when information is shared with any user of an online community, one expects similar thing to occur by sharing equal information back ('Demographics: a guide to methods and data sources for media, business, and government', 2006). Normally, all online social networking sites require users to provide their personal data and information for accessing the services. Users are generally comfortable in sharing with their data in order to seek services. It is common phenomenon that for attaining fame, users tend to provide their personal information to the data processors (Völkel & Haller, 2009). This is a form of loss of dignity. Human dignity is further compromised when the shared information is utilized by firms and organization for financial gains. 

Perspective 3: Balancing Data Privacy and National Security

Perspective 3: It is vital to ensure the protection of personal data online, and that internet users are aware of how accessible their posted information is. The collection of individuals’ personal data could result in a loss of dignity, through personal profiling, pre-emptive judgments and the possible loss of presumed innocence. The perspective depicted in the above statement refers to the need to protect personal data on the web. The internet users must be aware all the time that their personal information that is posted on the online social networking site is easily accessible by others. When the information are collected by others, it results in the loss of dignity by means of personal profiling, possible loss of innocence, and pre-emptive judgments (Whitman, n.d.). Protection of data is regarded as a right to privacy which individuals possess against illegal use of personal data by any data processor. The main purpose of such a policy or regulation is to safeguard the human dignity of any nation, and prevent any sort of misuse of personal data. On one side, protection of data enables individuals to have greater control over the manner they share their personal information with data processors (Wong, n.d.). On the other side, it creates the obligations of data processors. The processors need to get the consent of the people prior to processing. They must also ensure measures to safeguard the integrity as well as confidentiality of the personal data obtained. In case of information share, it needs to ensure similar compliance from the third party regarding protection level.

In the present situation, identity theft has become a concerning area among customers in the recent years. With increased number of online customers and association with social media requires them to share their personal information. This allows potential hackers to access as well as leverage the information to get financial benefits (Yu, 2005). It is very important that online customers adhere to a plan of cyber-security which involves the use of system restore as well as application control technology. The convenience of online purchases resulted in the rapid expansion of the market of e-commerce. Every time customers provide their credit card information and hence their financial security is at danger. This allows the hackers to get transactions occurring for stealing cardholder information and make illegal charges (Zanfir, n.d.). Several businesses nowadays provide ability of storing payment records so that customers can make purchases quickly without giving card numbers and addresses again and again. This is helpful in providing greater effortless experience of online shopping though vulnerabilities also exist. Cybercriminals often infiltrate organizational databases to steal information.

With consideration of increased cost of payment as well as identity information theft with increase of frequency of breaches, it is quite common that businesses as well as individuals need to take greater pains in securing their personal data. As per a recent survey of 1000 Australians, it was found that almost 55% of them could not remember how many websites had their personal information. Only 27% users of social networking said they were aware of sharing personal information. In the current environment there is a rising need to protect data ('Data Watch: Most Youths Post Personal Information Online', 2007). Advancements in the computer technology, biotechnology, and medicine have resulted in the rise of personal data processing within different spheres of social as well as economic activities, imparting challenges of complex technology. On the other side, technological as well as electronic commerce progress renders convenience in the treatment as well as data exchange across international boundaries. So, it is significant to protect every personal data while facilitating the continued information flow, electronic commerce, and advancements in technology. However, the significance of personal life and that of the source of right to privacy of an individual vary as per policies of one nation to another (Cheung, n.d.). Hence, different rules as well as regulations are an urgent necessity to utilize personal information for ensuring involved fundamental rights.

The level of privacy invasion has increased greatly. As per researches, several trends contribute towards privacy invasion such as globalization, convergence, and multimedia. These have impacts upon surveillance within developing nations. In context to information and communication technology, the pace of policy convergence has been compressed. Throughout the surveillance spectrum, wiretapping, data mining, personal ID system, encryption controls all set a proscriptive pace. 

References

Cheung, A. Revisiting Privacy and Dignity: Online Shaming in the Global E-Village. SSRN Journal. doi:10.2139/ssrn.2010438

Data Watch: Most Youths Post Personal Information Online. (2007). Pediatric News41(5), 9. doi:10.1016/s0031-398x(07)70299-0

Demographics: a guide to methods and data sources for media, business, and government. (2006).Choice Reviews Online44(03), 44-1294-44-1294. doi:10.5860/choice.44-1294

Di Valentino, L. Medical Shadow: On the Privacy Protection of Personal Health Information Online in Canada. SSRN Journal. doi:10.2139/ssrn.2091855

Durante, M. (2011). The Online Construction of Personal Identity Through Trust and Privacy.Information2(4), 594-620. doi:10.3390/info2040594

Fischer, J. (2014). Diskussion: Human Dignity and Human Rights. Zeitschrift Für Evangelische Ethik,58(1). doi:10.14315/zee-2014-58-1-40

Ismail, N. (2012). Selected issues regarding the Malaysian Personal Data Protection Act (PDPA) 2010.International Data Privacy Law2(2), 105-112. doi:10.1093/idpl/ips005

McConnell, C. (2002). LEGAL BRIEF: Personal data protection. The Computer Bulletin44(6), 32-32. doi:10.1093/combul/44.6.32-c

Moerel, L. (2010). The long arm of EU data protection law: Does the Data Protection Directive apply to processing of personal data of EU citizens by websites worldwide?. International Data Privacy Law1(1), 28-46. doi:10.1093/idpl/ipq004

Parhiala, P., & Simango, G. (2014). Diakonia and Human Dignity. The Ecumenical Review66(3), 330-340. doi:10.1111/erev.12115

Pincock, S. (2004). Hospitals still don't do enough for patients' privacy and dignity. BMJ328(7442), 730-0. doi:10.1136/bmj.328.7442.730-b

Protectors of privacy: regulating personal data in the global economy. (2009). Choice Reviews Online,46(10), 46-5861-46-5861. doi:10.5860/choice.46-5861

Richardson, R. (2003). Human dignity. BMJ326(7398), 1077-1077. doi:10.1136/bmj.326.7398.1077

Shin, S., Ma, S., Kim, S., & Kim, B. (2013). Research on Factors Efecting Online Service Loyalty : Mediating Efect of Perceived Personal Information Protection. Journal Of Security Engineering,10(6), 695-710. doi:10.14257/jse.2013.12.02

Völkel, M., & Haller, H. (2009). Conceptual data structures for personal knowledge management.Online Information Review33(2), 298-315. doi:10.1108/14684520910951221

Vorster, N. (2012). THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN HUMAN AND NON-HUMAN DIGNITY.Scriptura104(0), 406. doi:10.7833/104-0-180

Whitman, J. The Two Western Cultures of Privacy: Dignity versus Liberty. SSRN Journal. doi:10.2139/ssrn.476041

Wong, R. Data Protection in the Online Age. SSRN Journal. doi:10.2139/ssrn.2220754

Yu, J. (2005). Electronic government and its implication for data privacy in Hong Kong: Can Personal Data (Privacy) Ordinance protect the privacy of personal information in cyberspace?. International Review Of Law, Computers & Technology19(2), 143-163. doi:10.1080/13600860500131564

Zanfir, G. The Right to the Protection of Personal Data (Dreptul la ProtecÅ£ia Datelor cu Caracter Personal). SSRN Journal. doi:10.2139/ssrn.1852623

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