Write to explain a marketing plan and cover below the topics :-
- Research Questions
- The need of the risk management and disaster management plan
- Earthquake Vulnerability Analysis
- Physical Vulnerability
- Structural Vulnerability
- Social Vulnerability
- Preparedness Measures
Write to report a State Government :-
A. Agriculture & Cooperation Department
B. Animal Husbandry Department
C. Civil Aviation Department
D. Education Department
Earthquake risk management plan for Gujarat, India: Risk assessment and its mitigation program.
1. To develop an understanding for the computed emergency management systematic plan so as to have the basis for the international standardization of all occurrence of hazards and vulnerability programs.
2. To conceptualize assessment base for the actions to be carried out in the environmental use the vulnerability.
3. To extend the partnership and helping aids for the regional approaches to be followed for the conservation of nature and land use.
4. To have reasonable amount of alternatives in order to reduce the concerned conflicts dwelling between the authorities dealing with the disaster reduction and its mitigation.
5. To conceptualize information that is based on the involvement of the participants and stakeholders in order to enhance the quality of the attached environment.
6. To work for the minimization of the losses of property infrastructure and developer mechanism in order to support the efficiency of the disaster management authority in the state.
- In what way the disaster risk management is responsible for the management of environment and the related sustainable development in reducing the disastrous risk?
Whether the prevention dividends are present in order to make the land use planning and development more sustainable towards the achievement of the disaster mitigation programs?
- Can prevention dividends be measured; and, how might the ability to estimate these added values enhance policy and program planning?
- Whether the mitigation programs are enough to control the loss of life and property?
- Are the monetary and fiscal measures adequate to support the mechanism of Disaster management Authority?
1. Roles and responsibilities of The Apex body are to be located for the efficient management of disasters and the coordination of their enforcement should be in such a way so as to make implementation as per the national disaster management authority in Gujarat.
2. The measures to be taken for the capacity building material preparedness prevention that should deal with the coordination of the execution of the Oversees program.
3. Organization of the preparedness measures and the mitigation policies and Standards to have the better understanding for the centralization of the funding of the projects and their phasing in program.
3. National committee should ensure the assistance of the discharge of the entire synchronization of the functions that should relate the monitoring program of the execution authorities and also co-ordinate with the events in response to the threatening hazardous situation.
4. Date of disaster management should work for the development and capacity building of for the training and documentation of the entire team of disaster management plan.
5. Disaster response force should also work for the specialization of those emergency situations that should work for the Rescue Team in the threatening disaster situation.
6. The Agencies which are working for the early warning information should keep in mind that the immediate responses are to be made for the state government during the occurrence of any cyclone or any other natural calamity so as to make the monitoring effort for the emergency situations and their forecasting.
1. To reduce the Global disaster mortality rate and also aim at lowering in the average level of the decadal mortality rate at the global level.
2. To reduce the direct and indirect economic losses which are caused in the property and infrastructural context and also to reduce the severe damages that are being caused to the life of the local residents.
3. To substantially increase the availability of the direct and indirect help and warning systems in order to reduce the disaster risk.
In case of earthquake, there is a major interplay of structural, physical, social and economic vulnerability. While physical vulnerability is related to geographical location, structural vulnerability is a function of social and economic conditions (Cutter, 2011).
Based on the classifications of Vulnerability Atlas of India (BMTPC, 1997), 19% of the total area in Gujarat lies in seismic zone with very high risk for earthquake, 13% area of the state is at a high risk for earthquake, i.e. seismic zone IV, another 66% area of the state is at a moderate risk for earthquake, i.e. seismic zone III and only 1% area of the state is at a low risk for earthquake, i.e. seismic zone II. Thus areas lying in seismic zone IV and V have high physical vulnerability to earthquakes compared to areas lying in other seismic zones (Cutter, 2011).
Structural Vulnerability is dependent on various factors like design of structure, type and qualityof material used, type of constructions, age of structure, etc. According to the Gujarat Hazard Risk & Vulnerability Atlas(2005), the bulk of earthquake risk to buildings in Gujarat is to residential buildings because of the large share (87%) of these building in the stock. The mean loss across all enduse categories is estimated at 11% with a concentration in the highly risk prone talukas of Kachchh, Saurashtra and major urban centers. The highest proportional loss is to RCC on brick buildings (38%) followed by tile on brick (17%), tile on earth (16%), CGI and ACC roofs (9%) and RCC on stone 8%) (Natural Hazards Review, 2010).
As per Census 2011, the material of roof and walls of housingvaries widely and include grass/thatch/ bamboo, mud/unburnt brick, wood, stone, burnt bricks, concrete, etc. Thus depending on the type of material of housing, structural vulnerability is further increased if the proper building codes and other safety guidelines have not been followed. Structural vulnerability is morefor areas with high physical vulnerability.Thus during development and planning of new infrastructure, geographical location of the site should also be considered along with other factors (Draft Disaster Risk Management Policy, 2015).
Social vulnerability is interplay of multiple factors like castes, religion, language, tribe, etc. Due to these factors, the socially vulnerable groups are often forced to live and work in conditions of compromised safety like unsafe and cheap housing, hazardous occupation, etc. Population residing or working or using unsafe or weak structures(housing, schools, offices, hospitals, old bridges, flyover, etc.) isvulnerable to building collapse in case of earthquake or otherwise too.
The state comprises of 40, 74,447 schedule caste persons and a total of 8,917,174 tribal populations as per Census 2011 (Natural Hazards Review, 2010).
Economically weaker sections of the society are forced to opt forcheaper housing, cheaper material and practices ofconstructionwhich adds to their structural vulnerability to building collapse and earthquakes (Burby et.al, 2010).
These groups include BPL and households. According to Census 2011, Gujarat has a total of 247.68 lakhs workers, out of which around 17.8 % are marginal workers.
Gujarat also has around 3.46 lakhs of slum households and around 1.4 lakhs of houseless population. All these groups are economically vulnerable and have limited financial capacity to recover from disaster loss (Dolcemascolo, 2014).
From the experience of 2001 Kutch Earthquake, thinking in management of disasters has undergone a quantum change in the state. As per the current thinking and policy of the state government, it is recognized that disaster management is a multi-agency, multi-department and multi-level activity. Now, the state government also pro-actively focuses on prevention and preparedness (Natural Hazards Review, 2010).
The key stakeholders at state level and the respective preparedness measures to beundertaken by them are discussed below-
The state government shall:
- Ensure that appropriate policies and guidelines are developedfor earthquake management
- Ensure that the State Administration and local authorities take into consideration the guidelines laid down by GSDMA and other authorities while planning its activities.Departments of the State Government (Aptekar, 2014).
- Formulate a trained team for assessing damage to crops, soil and other agricultural damage (Agyeman, 2015).
1.Prepare a database of veterinary hospitals, clinics and agencies working for animals
2.Identify source for procurement of fodder (Natural Hazards Review, 2010).
1. Ensure that sites for helipads are identified across the state as per the laid guidelines
1. Organize camps in school and colleges for awareness of do-s and don’t s for earthquakes
2. Ensure preparation of disaster management plans and first aid kits in all schools and colleges
Agyeman, Julian. (2015). Sustainable communities and the Challenge of Environmental Justice.
New York and London: New York University Press.
Aptekar, Lewis. (2014). Environmental Disasters in Global Perspective New York: G.K. Hall; Toronto: Maxwell Macmillan Canada; New York: Maxwell Macmillan International.
Burby, Raymond J., Deyle, Robert E., et. al, (2010). “Creating Hazard Resilient Communities through Land-Use Planning.”
Natural Hazards Review.(May 2010): 99-106.Burton, Ian,Robert W. Kates, and Gilbert F. White. (2013).The Environment as Hazard New York: The Guildford Press.
Cutter, Susan L. (ed.). (2011). American Hazardscapes: the Regionalization of Hazards and Disasters. Washington, DC: Joseph Henry Press.
Dolcemascolo, Glenn. (2014). Environmental Degradation and Disaster Risk. Prepared for the Embassy of Sweden/Sida Bangkok Asian Disaster Preparedness Center. https://www.sida.se/content/1/c6/03/03/92/Environmental%20Degradation%20and
Draft Disaster Risk Management Policy. (2015). Inter-American Development Bank. See also Preliminary Companion Paper to the Draft Disaster Risk Management Policy. (2015). Inter-American Development Bank.
Holistic Disaster Recovery: Ideas for Building Local Sustainability after a Natural
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