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External Environment Analysis

Discuss about the case study Management for SWOT Analysis.

Basically, for this research paper, Air New Zealand is selected as organization that is one of the major and leading domestic as well as international airline company providing transport and air passenger service within various nations including United Kingdom,  Australia, New Zealand, North America, Asia, South West Pacific etc. Additionally, in the context of this research paper, different strategic management tools including PESTLE, Porter’s five force model, value chain analysis, SWOT analysis is conducted in order to analyze and evaluate the strategic position of Air New Zealand’s organization. On the other hand, in this research paper strategic options are would evaluate to meet its objectives.      

In this section of the research paper, the external environment for the Air New Zeeland would be analyzed to know the external factors affecting the success of the organization.  

It is an essential tool that aides in investigating the political, economic, lawful, social, technological, and ecological components influencing the accomplishment of Air New Zeeland in the business.

Political: The political dependability in New Zeeland is entirely high that plays a considerable role in order to build up supportive as well as consistent policies and guidelines for Airline industry. Along with this, the supportive political environment is cooperative to Air New Zeeland in order to keep up flow in operations as a result of fair competition, and tax policies as well as trade tariffs (Capon & Hulbert, 2007). 

Economic: Recent monetary downturn at worldwide level has decreased the execution of a few organizations in the New Zeeland market. Ineffectualness of organization's business operations has incredibly lessened their liquidity, riches money related execution straightforwardly. In any case, GDP of New Zeeland had enhanced from the most recent three years and it expands the obtaining influence of clients that can build the interest of aircraft administration (Dobson, Starkey, and Richards, 2009).    

Socio-cultural: It is momentous for the Airline firms to think about way of life, and social as well as cultural qualities in business sector in order to meet up the needs of patrons.  in addition to this, diverse social along with cultural aspects for example, way of life, education as well as pay level, cultures, convictions, and so forth significantly affect inclinations of clients that may have an impact on the accomplishment of Air New Zeeland in the business (Carayannis, 2010).

Technological: By utilizing propelled advances, and information systems, Air New Zeeland can expand the client encounter and get development its administrations. However, at the same time, with a specific end goal to manage these technologies, there is need of skilled and practiced personnel that can spread out the expenditure of business operations of Air New Zeeland and decrease productivity (Drummond, Ensor, and Ashfor, 2007).

PESTLE Analysis

Ecological: At the present time, environmental forces of a company are evaluated by various associates, for instance, government, patrons, suppliers, and also local group. In any case, the organization has received a few supportability practices and CSR practices to conquer the issues.

Legitimate: After current money related downturn, the legislature of New Zeeland has executed strict standards as well as directions in diverse commercial ventures in order to manage different business activities of businesses. Along with this, legislative environment of nation is a bit strict and also involve momentous rules as well as regulation in order to control business activities in a systematic way. In this way, lawful variables may influence the accomplishment of Air New Zeeland in the business sector (Boone, and Kurtz, D.L, 2011).  

Porter’s five forces analysis firm strategic performance that is indicated requirement of changes in strategy for long-term business profitability. Moreover, Porter 5-forces apply in this paper to discover strategic changes effectiveness of Air New Zeeland (Evans, & Richardson, 2007).

Porter’s 5 Forces:

Rivalry among Competitors (High/ intense): The competition in the airline business is too high because of several reasons. For case, the main reason is that, at present the business is very active. Moreover, the business is in its mature stage in current. Along with this, in this industry, the number of competitors will remain the same in the long run. The profits are too high in this industry. So, business wants to stay in business for the long time period (Hill, & Jones, 2012).

Threat of new entrants (Low-Moderate): Threat of new participants is low for the airline business. Along with this, there are two aspects that may lift up the threat level for the industry.

First of all, there is very low switching costs and the second one is that there are no exclusive products as well as services in this industry. In spite of these two major aspects, the airline industry has low threat on the whole (Analoui, and Karami, 2003).

Bargaining power of suppliers (High): Airplane manufactures are the major supplier in the airline industry. The bargaining power of suppliers is high in this industry. Airline companies look like to separate with facilities. Along with this, airline companies have long-term agreements with their suppliers; and they cannot switch to other suppliers easily. 

Bargaining Power of Buyers (High): There is low haggling force of extravagance purchasers on the grounds that couple accessibility of rebates for extravagance products and negligible advancements by the organizations (Kim, Song, and Kim, 2009).

Porter’s 5 Forces Analysis

Threat of substitutes (Moderate): The airline industry has a medium substitute threat level. The main reason behind it is that there are numerous substitutes available in this industry. Along with this, patrons can opt for different form of transportation for instance train, an auto, bus, car, and so on to arrive at their end. But, the cost of transport may be a reason to switch in the industry (Faarup, 2010).

In this section of the research paper, value chain analysis is conducted for the company to analyze both intangible, tangible assets with regards to kills/competencies. Moreover, a clear understanding of the financial situation and core competences and competitive advantage would be developed by using value chain analysis.

Value chain is a strategic mechanism of internal investigation that is utilized to break down the adequacy of different essential exercises and steady exercises to get upper hand in the business sector. Value chain is broadly connected key apparatuses by associations to recognize their quality and shortcoming of worth chain. Value chain identifies with the majority of the capacities that are vital for conveying the items or administrations to the clients in the business sector. Value chain Analysis can be characterized as a critical and thorough procedure that assumes a key part to perceive the essential and also bolster exercises of a business association. Likewise, this investigation is additionally utilized by the association as a part of request to add the quality to the last results of the association. It likewise manages distinctive exercises that are more useful for the association to decrease cost and expand separation of the items in a powerful and legitimate way (Kliatchko, 2005). These exercises are clarified as beneath:

Value Cain Analysis:

Primary Activities: The Primary activities of value chain analysis are associated with the physical creation, sale, and maintenance as well as support of a product or service. These primary exercises include:

Inbound logistics: Air New Zeeland inbounds logistics operations are mind boggling and include the convenient conveyance of armada of planes, cooking items and an extensive variety of other on-load up items. The need to guarantee the freshness of sustenances and beverages served amid the flights further convolutes Air New Zeeland inbounds logistics essential exercises.

Operations: Generally, operations stage consists of arranging products as well as services to be sold to patrons. As the New Zeeland's biggest universal planned carrier, Air New Zeeland flies all around to more than 250 destinations. Consequently, the extent of its business operations is broad. Air New Zeeland Airways has a scale of upper hands in operations part of the business all the way through providing its clients enlarged security for their belongings, offering fast check-in services and recommending a number of services for instance ticket bookings as well as online booking of other services. Also, an abnormal state of customization of administration arrangement and a broad usage of advanced advances in an extensive variety of business procedures speak to strong hotspots for extra esteem for Air New Zeeland (Amason, 2010).

Internal Audit

Outbound logistics: These exercises disseminate the items and administrations to the client. Outbound logistics includes sending prepared items to clients for utilization. Air New Zeeland flies to airplane terminals in various nations overall including United Kingdom, North America, Australia, Asia, and South West Pacific. The aircraft determines esteem in outbound logistics essential operations through proficient treatment of things in the purpose of destination and using a propelled data and correspondence frameworks (Munizzo, and Musial, 2010).

Marketing & sales: These exercises elevate the clients to buy the items/administrations of a particular firm as look at its rivals. Air New Zeeland advertising methodology is coordinated at the correspondence of the promoting message to the objective client fragment. The showcasing message endeavors to relate the Air New Zeeland brand with effectiveness, unwavering quality, security and comfort (Pride, Hughes, and Kapoor, 2014).

Service: These activities assume an imperative part to keep up the estimation of the items and in addition administrations in the psyches of the clients. Air New Zeeland focuses on money related interests in a methodical way with a specific end goal to upgrade the different parts of its administration arrangement (Aaker, Kumar, and Day, 2008).  

Support Activities: The support activities bolster the elements of the essential exercises in a proper way. These Support exercises includes

Procurement: These activities are the securing of inputs and assets for the firm.

Human asset administration: These exercises are connected with the selecting, procuring, preparing, improvement, and so on of the representatives (Punj and Moon, 2002).

Technological development: These exercises include research and advancement, mechanization process and other imperative innovations that backing the quality chain exercises in a compelling way.

Infrastructure: This includes money, quality administration, authoritative and legitimate exercises to accomplish the focused exercises appropriately.

SWOT Analysis:

Summary of key issues and justification of internal and external analysis using Strategic Tool SWOT analysis:



Strong competition from foreign players and LCCs

Increasing Fuel cost

Increasing labor cost

Technological problem

Tax changes

Price changes

Increasing rates of interest

Brand mindfulness and number of destinations are lesser contrasted with worldwide mammoth

Restricted operations and piece of the pie because of overwhelming rivalry

Less efficiency

Little specialty units

Aggressive business sector

Absence of interests in innovative work



Vital organization together with Qantans will reinforce its position in the business

Chances to make a solid brand picture

Developing economy

Development rates and gainfulness

New acquisitions

New products as well as services

Pay level is at a consistent raise

Solid rivalry from remote players and LCCs

Expanding Fuel cost

Expanding work cost

Mechanical issue

Tax changes

Value changes

Rising rates of interest

Developing rivalry and lower productivity

(Air New Zeeland. 2016)

There are several strategic options are available for the Air New Zeeland Airline that must be used by the company to improve its position in the industry.

Option: 1 Develop new products for new market segments

Option: 2 Improve Market share and strategic Position by using innovative strategies

Among these two, the company should adopt the strategic option second. As indicated by this, the organization ought to receive cost authority procedure with a specific end goal to improve the level of piece of the overall industry and create more income. For instance, with the compelling utilization of this technique, the organization would have the capacity to get different critical upper hands in the business over its compotators. Then again, the organization ought to likewise concentrate on fulfilling the necessities and needs of clients by offering them amazing, quality and exceptional administrations at the most ideal expense.

Value Chain Analysis

For instance, the organization ought to have built up a solid client base of illustrious client by giving quality administration at the lower cost in the business sector. This vital alternative would help the association in creating more deal, income and productivity in a powerful and appropriate way. In addition, in today's globalized business era, the organization must embrace Ansoff network as a development procedure that attention on various parts of business operations (Reynolds, and Lancaste, 2013). This key choice would help the organization to break down, assess and get the development open doors in the different business ranges. These are talked about as beneath:

Market Penetration (Protect/Build): By embracing and considering this development system, Air New Zeeland ought to concentrate on enhancing its promoting methodologies and endeavors viably. For instance, the organization ought to lead inventive and dynamic promoting/publicizing program, dedication program, growing administrations (Aaker, Kumar and Day, 2008)..   

Product Development: according to this procedure, the organization tries to present new carrier administrations in the business to draw in the clients.

Diversification: Today, Air New Zeeland ought to be centered on enhancement to go into the new aircraft market


On the basis of above discussion, it can be accomplished that, it is essential for business organizations to analyze both internal as well as external business situation by using strategic tools in order to achieve competitive advantages and to improve market share in the marketplace in an effective and a more comprehensive manner.


Aaker, D.A., Kumar, V. & Day, G.S. (2008). Marketing Research (9th ed). India: Wiley-India.

Air New Zeeland. (2016). About Us. Retrieved From: 

Amason, A. (2010). Strategic Management: From Theory to Practice. UK: Taylor & Francis.

Analoui, F. & Karami, A. (2003). Strategic Management in Small and Medium Enterprises. USA: Cengage Learning EMEA.

Boone, L.E. and Kurtz, D.L. (2011). Contemporary Business. (ed.). UK: John Wiley and Sons.

Capon, N. & Hulbert, J. M. (2007). Managing Marketing in the 21st Century: Developing and Implementing the Market Strategy. Wessex Publishing.

Carayannis, E. (2010). Strategic Management of Technological Learning. USA: CRC Press.

Dobson, P.W., Starkey, K. & Richards, J. (2009). Strategic Management: Issues and Cases (2nd ed.). UK: John Wiley & Sons.

Drummond, G., Ensor, J. & Ashfor, R. (2007). Strategic Marketing. UK: Routledge.

Evans, C. & Richardson, M. (2007). Strategy in Action Assessing the Environment. British Journal of Administrative Management, 60, 1-3.

Faarup, P.K. (2010). The Marketing Framework. USA: Academica.

Hill, C. & Jones, G. (2012). Strategic Management: An Integrated Approach. USA: Cengage Learning.

Kim, Y.A., Song, H.S. & Kim, S.H. (2009). A new marketing strategy map for direct marketing. Knowledge-Based Systems, 22 (5), 327-335.

Kliatchko, J. (2005). Towards a new definition of Integrated Marketing Communications (IMC). International Journal of Advertising, 24(1), 7-34.  

Mason, R. B. (2007). The external environment’s effect on management and strategy: A complexity theory approach. Management Decision, 45(1), 10-28.

Munizzo, M.A. & Musial, L.V. (2010). General Market Analysis and Highest and Best Use. USA: Cengage Learning,

Pride, W., Hughes, R. & Kapoor, J. (2014). Foundations of Business (4th ed.). USA: Cengage Learning.

Punj, G. & Moon, J. (2002). Positioning options for achieving brand association: a psychological categorization framework. Journal of Business Research, 55(4), 275-283.

Reynolds, P. & Lancaste, G. (2013). Marketing. NY: Routledge

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