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Theoretical Perspectives Regarding the Skill Areas

Discuss about the Managerial Skills for Communication Power.

The considered report has the purpose to evaluate some key theoretical concepts and models of communication skill in terms of management. The present assignment is considerably the counterpart of the first assignment, which have concentrated on to establish an action plan to achieve firm hold on communication. Hence, the present report has been constructed to identify convenient theories related to the individual plans developed in the action plan prepared earlier. Nevertheless, on the later part of the discourse deals with measuring and assessing the possible outcome of the action plans considering the evaluated theoretical aspects.

Communication power is an effective and essential aspect of a successful manager through which it becomes easy to assign task, control others and motivate subordinates in terms of gaining quality production (VanPatten,  2015). On the other hand, communication skill is an important attribute that helps in collaborating or fruitfully working with others. In this context, the discourse preferred to analyze theoretical concepts of Tuckman and Fisher keeping in mind about the plan to become better instructor and to work in small groups. On the other hand, the report addressed the theoretical model of Westley and Maclean to monitor the effectiveness of the plan to become a good communicator.     

Prior to understand the theoretical prospects in detail, it is important to examine the distinct plans portrayed in the previous action plan again. The initial scheme of the action plan is to improve those particular sections of communication, which are flawed. The plan therefore shifts on to achieve confidence to face issues through convenient communication. The action plan thereafter focuses on the essentiality of communication to work and collaborate with other. Alongside, the action plan attempts to sharpen the communication skills to enable the power of giving instructions. However, the action plan concludes with the scheme to judge the effectiveness or credibility of the entire action plan for communication. Instead of evaluating theories of Tuckman, Fisher, Westley and Maclean, considering the action agendas, interactive and communication model of Lasswell seem significant too to evaluate.

The basic concept of interactive model of communication is to exchange ideas, messages and expression with others. According to the concept of the model, exchange of idea and point of views can be pursued through both verbal and nonverbal way (First & Adoni, 2015). Interactive model is distinctively composed with the correlation among an encoder, decoder and the source. In this context, it is important to keep in mind that the communicational relation between an encoder, decoder and the source rely chiefly upon message, feedback and the experience field. Source is the person who originates an idea; the source thereafter turns as an encoder, which sends the message to a particular one (Barak, Braverman, Chen & Rao, 2013). In the later part, the encoder turns as the decoder who then responsibly receives the feedbacks.

Interactive Model of Communication

Hence, the rudimentary concept of this model regarding communication starts with a new idea then encode the message or send the message to the receiver and then decodes or receives back the feedback against the encoded message. A prosperous management cannot be achieved if there is lack of involvement of an encoder, a decoder and a specific source. The theory is therefore strongly relevant for the plan to address management attributes like solving problems and giving instructions.

The communication model of Lasswell is reckoned as one of the influential model of communication that acts as the action model for management purpose. The model is comprised with certain steps, which include a sender, a message, a medium or channel, a receiver and ultimately a feedback. These five components act like powerful tools in terms of having an in-depth evaluation of the process and elements of a convenient communication. In the words of Sapienza, Iyer & Veenstra (2015), an effective communication can be conducted through forming questions with each of the five components. Significant enough to mark that this communication model proves favourable for interpersonal mode of communication.

The model can be followed effectively when the five individual steps will be covered through five analytical perspectives. The preliminarily perspective is the control analysis, which provides power to the senders. The following perspective, which is content analysis, is the process of representing various groups in political manner and identifying the particular aim of the message (GREEN & COBB, 2012). The next phase is called media analysis that recognizes an individual media for communication for exercising maximum power. The audience analysis phase thereafter moves to identify the target population, which is ultimately concluded with the effect analysis that is responsible for predicting the possible effects of the messages.

Content analysis, control analysis are part of a well-constructed management and in management communication always finds a distinct way to be carried away. Therefore, the concept of Lasswell sounds pertinent in terms of developing communication skills for management. 

Communication in terms of management perspective is essentially related with the need to form an efficient group with subordinates. In the words of Seck & Helton (2014), Tuckman’s team development model points out that a team is developed with maturity and the capability to establish a convenient relationship. Tuckman established that a leader or an administrator of a group possess the responsibilities to give priorities towards different circumstances and therefore to bring change in the leadership style. An effective group development as per Tuckman can be achieved through four distinct stages, which are forming, storming, norming and producing or performing.

The Communication Model of Lasswell

Based on Hall (2015), the introductory phase or the forming phase is the level when subordinates highly depend on the decisions of the leader. However, the unfortunate part of this period is that individual accountabilities stay less rigid and ambiguous for the members of the team. Alongside, the leaders find enormous pressure to provide answers or clearing the objectives of the team to the team participants. The next stage focuses on the complications, which emerge frequently among the team member in case of establishing individual’s opinions with other (Dozier, Grunig & Grunig, 2013). In this, certain phase most of the team members encounter challenges, which their leaders as uncertainties still rest inside the team purpose.

In the following stage of norming, all the possible challenges come to the point of mitigation as in this period the leaders take the initiative to facilitate team agreement and commitment through effective communication skills. In the performing stage, which is supposed to be the endmost, yet potential phase the particular team becomes aware of the assigned task and share vision with each other. The focus to achieve goal through sharing vision is acquired through strong communication skills, which is supposedly one of the chief responsibility of management (Stacks & Salwen, 2014). It is necessary to acknowledge that this particular theory is relevant for the plan to deal with problems and work in a group conveniently as per the action schedule.

According to Wenger (2014), a small group most frequently does through rapid decision changing. Frequent decision change along with accomplishing a particular activity through        having a good number of stages. In this context, it is significant to remember that decision making which becomes a responsibility of every group member can be obtained through firm communication skills. Specifically, in the group the decision making process includes agenda setting and reflective thinking. As per Aherne & Thornber (2013), the decision-making through strong communication power involves six chief guide steps through which a decision turns to be a standard agenda. The steps start with problem identifying phase in which a particular issue is recognized and the reasons of the problem is diagnosed.

This is further followed with the analysis of the problems and recognizing the forces that affect on the entire group. Thereafter, in the words of (Fujishin, 2013), standard agenda is pursued through selecting goals for the final decision and generating solution. The entire process sums up with evaluating or selecting ideas for mitigation as criteria and finally implementing them. B.Aubrey Fisher believed and pointed out that generally mode of interaction changes in terms with the formulation of the group decision. Based on Fisher's words, the decision making process is sometime recurring and inconsistent and hugely dependent upon the communication way through which the decision is being proceed. Hence, as argued by Myers & Shimotsu (2013), Fisher's model exists with four key stages to build a correspondence among the group which are stages of orientation, conflict, emergence and reinforcement.

Tuckman’s Theoretical Aspect of Team Development

The initial stage of orientation when people start to know each other, suffers through lack of the power of communication. On the part of knowing each other, the occurrence of agreement, interpretations take place and most of the time members of the group tend to share problems. On the phase of conflict, an individual issue is diagnosed and each of the group individual tries to get to the solution by expressing their perspectives (Sana, 2015). Communication among groups is here the key through which individual response increases and enforces individual participation. As per (McQuail & Windahl, 2015), in stage three, group tasks emerge though uncertainty arises. Instead of having different responses among the group members, individuals attempts to reach to the level of unanimity. However, the final stage mainly focuses upon making a lengthy group communication through which the final decision stands up by the assemblage of individual viewpoints.

The theoretical model of Fisher is an apt concept in context to management and specifically to communication as the model prescribes stages to establish decisions through having discussions in a group. Therefore, this particular model guides to polish communication skills as well as management practice (Cobley & Schulz, 2013). Most significantly, the model addresses the skill of giving instructions and working together which is a major part of the proposed action plan.

In the words of Dozier, Grunig & Grunig, (2013), the communication model of Westley and Maclean is applied in interpersonal context as well as in mass communication purpose. However, the main difference between the purposes of this model in term of these two aspects is feedback. In other words, whereas the feedback is easy to gain and comes in a direct way in the interpersonal context, in mass communication aspect feedback is slow and comes in an indirect way. Based on Kar, Moura & Ramanan (2012), Westley and Maclean believed that communication is the process through which a person responds rather than the process through which people starts talking. Therefore, the communication can be called as the relation between responses and the procedure of communication.

The model is hence indicative of the fact that communication starts right after a person receives any information or message and thereafter the process pursues through the receivers initiatives to send response based on the orientation object. The model may sound less applicable for managerial purpose though the basic concept of communication can help forming a manager’s way of providing response to the subordinates (Manca, 2015). Without firm communication skills, it is hard to receive message from outside as well as to respond back against the sent information. If a manager or leader possesses less communication powers, then the entire process of responding, instructing and conveying information would not work.

Model of Minor Group Communication by Fisher

The initial agenda of the action plan has been to improve the communication skill, for which I have explored the areas of my weakness and intended to work on them based on the feedback I will get from the quiz I have taken as a measurement of pre-test. In this purpose, I have followed the interactive model of communication that is comprised with an encoder and a decoder to send message and improve based on feedback. On the part of the encoder, I have sent my response to the quiz competition and my improvement process further pursued through the feedback I got from the quiz competition.

As per the feedback of quiz, I have less speed in sending response as soon as the questions have been sent. Thereafter I have started practicing on managing time and preparing myself to take less time to understand and receive a particular message or information. To judge my improvement, I have taken help of one of my companions to ask me questions in a particular time limit. Fortunately, I have realized that almost 70% of the answers I have in a quick manner and as per my companion, I have given more importance upon to answer the question and have not concentrated upon my behavior to complement my responding technique.

My next plan has been to deal with problems and encounter any difficult situation properly. In that case, Lasswell’s communication model and Tuckman’s theoretical aspect has helped me to reach desired to the desired outcome. The proposed plan has been to communicate with students and face difficult situation. Following these two theoretical aspects, I have chosen the content topic of Olympic for debate to converse with the students and have chosen face to face talking. I encountered problems in time when students started arguing with each other about the performance. With the help of Tuckman’s model, I started to norm the students to further engage them in the performing stage with my verbal and non-verbal communication skills. As a result, I find that, my non-verbal communication skill or my expression work favorably to control the students. It is indicative of the fact that my verbal powers have not sharpened to a high level.

However, my next two plans, which have been to give instructions and work with the groups, have been influenced hugely by the theoretical concepts of Fisher, Tuckman and specifically of Westley and Maclean. In case of strengthening my communication power for making decisions and working in groups, I have strictly followed the Fisher’s model as I have assigned to work in a small group of students. For these two tasks, I strongly considered Westley and Maclean’s concept that communication is the relation between respondent and the communication process. The consequence have been probably the most successful as most of the group members have shown active participation and most of them have even replied that my instructions have been convenient enough. From the outcome I can realize that my skill to respond fast and instruct with my both verbal and non-verbal communication have worked aptly. Moreover, the achievement indicates that I need to work on my non-verbal communication skills to give a more convenient leadership in future.

My final plan to revise and evaluate my outcome specifically denotes that my verbal skills need to find a more firm edge and in terms of getting feedback and work on them, all of the evaluated theories have guided me well. It is significant to mark that evaluation of the feedback from the quiz have been pursued again as I have participated again in that same competition. The final one has been much more fruitful as near about 75% of the answers have been sent correct and in a less time limit.   


The above report has analyzed some key theoretical concepts of Tuckman, Fisher, Westley and Maclean, which have assisted to accomplish the action plans and evaluate the feedbacks. The concepts of Tuckman and Fisher have specifically helped to work in a group, making decisions and giving instructions. On the other hand, the interactive model and Lasswell’s concepts have guided to improve upon pitfalls based on feedback. Nevertheless, the report indicates that in time of giving instruction the non-verbal skills and decision making method have proved most successful, whereas the feedbacks of the quiz remarked that time consumption is a potential flaw.


Aherne, P., & Thornber, A. (2013). Communication for All: A Cross Curricular Skill Involving Interaction Between" Speaker and Listener". Routledge.

Barak, B., Braverman, M., Chen, X., & Rao, A. (2013). How to compress interactive communication. SIAM Journal on Computing, 42(3), 1327-1363.

Cobley, P., & Schulz, P. J. (Eds.). (2013). Theories and models of communication (Vol. 1). Walter de Gruyter.

Craig, R. T. (2013). Constructing theories in communication research. Theories and models of communication, 1, 39-57.

Dozier, D. M., Grunig, L. A., & Grunig, J. E. (2013). Manager's guide to excellence in public relations and communication management. Routledge.

Dozier, D. M., Grunig, L. A., & Grunig, J. E. (2013). Manager's guide to excellence in public relations and communication management. Routledge.

First, A., & Adoni, H. (2015). An Interactive Model for Analyzing the Development of the Communication Discipline: Israel as a Case Study. Journalism, 5(7), 324-340.

Fujishin, R. (2013). Creating effective groups: The art of small group communication. Rowman & Littlefield.

GREEN, M., & COBB, L. (2012). Theories of Communication. Functional Communication: Analyzing the Nonlinguistic Skills of Individuals with Severe or Profound Handicaps, 1.

Hall, T. B. (2015). Examining the Relationship Between Group Cohesion and Group Performance in Tuckman's (1965) Group Life Cycle Model on an Individual-Level Basis (Doctoral dissertation, REGENT UNIVERSITY).

Kar, S., Moura, J. M., & Ramanan, K. (2012). Distributed parameter estimation in sensor networks: Nonlinear observation models and imperfect communication. IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, 58(6), 3575-3605.

Manca, L. (2015). A Hypothesis about the Role of Gateopener in the Westley-MacLean Model. Interdisciplinary Essays on Environment and Culture: One Planet, One Humanity, and the Media, 69.

McQuail, D., & Windahl, S. (2015). Communication models for the study of mass communications. Routledge.

Myers, S. A., & Shimotsu, S. (2013). Understanding Work Group Dynamics: Effectively Getting People to Work Cohesively in Small Groups. Workplace Communication for the 21st Century: Tools and Strategies that Impact the Bottom Line [2 volumes]: Tools and Strategies That Impact the Bottom Line, 1, 243.

Sana, M. (2015). Critical Analysis of Mass Communication Theories.Scholedge International Journal of Multidisciplinary & Allied Studies ISSN 2394-336X, 2(4), 19-24.

Sapienza, Z. S., Iyer, N., & Veenstra, A. S. (2015). Reading Lasswell's Model of Communication Backward: Three Scholarly Misconceptions. Mass Communication and Society, 18(5), 599-622.

Seck, M. M., & Helton, L. (2014). Faculty Development of a Joint MSW Program Utilizing Tuckman's Model of Stages of Group Development. Social Work with Groups, 37(2), 158-168.

Stacks, D. W., & Salwen, M. B. (Eds.). (2014). An integrated approach to communication theory and research. Routledge.

VanPatten, B. (2015). Communication and Skill. Routledge.

Wenger, E. (2014). Artificial intelligence and tutoring systems: computational and cognitive approaches to the communication of knowledge. Morgan Kaufmann.

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