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Regenerative medicine and the role of scaffold technology in bone scaffolding

Do a market study on bone scaffolds.

The market for bone scaffold is receiving significance from increasing cases for damages to tissues and defunctionalization and body of human or animals is getting inundated in self generation ability.  One of the basic concepts of regenerative medicines constitute of important elements such as scaffold. Core technology of regenerative medicines along with tissue engineering and stem cells are imbibed in scaffold technology. The key factor contributing to growth of bone scaffold is increasing need for bridging the gap between supply and demand of organs. In some region, there are companies producing and developing single products while in other parts of world, many companies are involved in commercialization and development of cells and cultured elements. Bone scaffold involves high risk in industrialization process and have long development period, hence this particular field is generalized worldwide by research and development support led by government (Giannitelli et al. 2014). The market data for bone scaffold is not sufficient for size and scope estimations and clear understanding.

Treatment of damaged organs or tissues among animals often faced with problems such as derived viruses, immune rejection response and lack of organ donors. The tissue engineering approach for effectively replacing damaged biological tissues or transplanting or substituting damaged bones among animals is facilitated by bones scaffolds. Bone scaffold is experiencing an increasing trend in light of some issues faced in regeneration of tissues and bones among animals. Countries worldwide and United States is experiencing an increasingly higher demand for functional bone grafts (Lee et al. 2014). Bone scaffolds intend to treat a large number of severe fracture types and thereby significantly reducing the complication rate and healing time. According to company officials in several countries, using bone scaffolds for carpal arthrodesis in animals is a breakthrough in companion animal’s surgery that provides many advantages (Dias et al. 2014). Therefore, advantages of bone scaffolds to animals would provide with many advantages to animal lost bone treatment and this would help in increasing the market for bone scaffold among animals.

Bone scaffolds have the price of nearly 100 US $. This price of scaffold, turnover and market growth is attributable to different economic region.

It has been ascertained by conducting research through various sources and websites of company Alibaba that several materials and equipment for scaffolds are being sold by company. Some of the scaffolds items that are sold on Alibaba are steel scaffolding joint connect pin, standard high quality scaffolding pin, durable and reliable scaffolding joints, scaffolding joint hot sales rings, galvanized scaffold accessory pipe clamp joints, powder coated ringlock scaffold metal deck joints, scaffolding joint pressed single putlog quick couplers. Prices of all types of scaffolds vary depending upon their functions and its usage in the bones scaffolding surgery. This particular tissue engineering involves use of many biomemetic materials that are designed to replicate one or more attributes of materials.  There are some other online platforms selling bones scaffold.  Regulatory aspects of use of refolding generative medicines in scaffolding of bones are being streamlined by government bodies (Cox et al. 2015). There is cracking down on clinics for addressing the concerns in relation to growing number of unproven therapies of stem cells.

Advantages of bone scaffolding to animals

The analysis of potentiality of bone scaffolding market is done in terms of cost, price and gross revenue. Analyses of all these points are done for companies, types and regions. China and Middle East are regarded as top key players in bones scaffolding industry.  Middle East countries can get influenced by China. Stem cell market of world is estimated to have an average growth rate of 11.38 billion dollars in year 2021. While, the expected market growth rate was 10.6% in year 2017 as against 6.877% in year 2016 and with world cell market of 2.715 billion dollars in year 2010 (Grandviewresearch.com 2018).  Bone scaffolding market is expected to account to largest share of global market due to their unique properties such as strength, biocompatibility, medial applications, and resistance to break. Highest growth is expected to be witnessed in Asia pacific region and the reason is attributable to the fact that rising cosmetic and plastic surgeries in India, new taxation policy in China, lucrative medical device industry and rising volume of hip and knee replacement procedures among humans and animals (Castilho et al. 2015). Some of the stakeholders in biomaterials market are healthcare service providers, equipment manufacturing companies, consulting and researching firms, community centers, venture capitalists, academic medical centers and teaching hospitals.

Lists of people working on scaffold industry all over the world are as follows:

Suren Uswatta- Biomedical, Chemical engineering and process

Contact- Matterhorn filter corp

University of Toledo

Carson, California

Falguni Pati

Assistant professor in the department of biomedical Engineering at IIT Hyderabad and IIT Kharagpur.

Contact- Hyderabad, India

Amir Hooshiar- Surgical innovation fellow, Vanier scholar and research assistant

Contact-Mc Gill University and Concordia University

Montreal, Canada area

Gary Blackburn- Managing director at absolute scaffolding Ltd

Absolute scaffolding ltd, Isle of Man College

Isle of man, United Kingdom

Shai Garty- R and D management, polymer chemistry and Medical devices

Massivit 3D printing technologies Ltd, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem

Israel

The market survey of bone scaffolding trend has been determined by asking several questions from the medical practitioners who are involved in tissue engineering that is bones scaffolding in human and animals. Survey has incorporated fifteen medical practitioners whom four questions have been asked concerning bone scaffolding (Rajzer et al. 2014). Questions have been framed in such a way that it helps in identification of overall bone scaffolding trend. Some of the questions that have been asked by respondents are listed below:

Majority of respondents have answered that bone tissue engineering is highly effective because of increasing defunctionalization, damage to tissues and organ failures.  Few respondents were indifferent and remaining was not acquainted with the concept.

What are the quality of materials used in bone scaffolding and the impact of materials on tissue reengineering?

Seven of fifteen respondents provided the answer that quality of materials used depends upon the suppliers

What are the various countries that have been witnessing increasing trend of bone scaffolding?

Respondents did not have any clear idea about trend of scaffolding and they were mainly concerned about their own respective countries.

Bone scaffolding products and pricing

Is the growth trend of bone scaffolding is likely to get influenced?

11 out of fifteen respondents provided with the answer that bone scaffolding is getting influenced by increasing decreasing of self regeneration ability of human and animals.

From the analysis of above questions, it can be inferred that market trend for bone scaffolding is increasing in many countries of world. Furthermore, analysis of market trend for bone scaffolding has been done by researching on secondary sources.

In year 2014, the market size of global tissue engineering comprising of bones scaffolding was valued to be around USD 4700 million. Demand for bone scaffolding of tissue engineered human equivalent is growing at rapid rate as the use of animal testing model has raised some ethical concerns.  One of the primary growth factors for bone soft tissue repair device market is attributable to the rise in strategic partnership for product distribution (Watson et al. 2015). The main focus of medical researchers is on development of gene therapy that would enhance usage of chondrogeneis in osteoarthritis. Growth of bone scaffolding is driven by growing gene therapy preference. Geographical presence forms the basis of competition between small vendors of bones competing with large vendors along with distribution partnership. It has been forecasted that there will be steady market growth of bone scaffolding at a compounded annual growth rate of 10% by tear 2021 (Cheng et al. 2014).

The analysis of therapeutic applications and market for technologies of bones scaffolding is done in terms of USD. Growth rate of bones scaffolding is expected to reach to US $ 94.2 by tear 2022 and is expected to register a compounded annual growth rate of about 23%. Technology market concerning scaffolding was valued at USD 610 million in year 2015 (Wu et al. 2014). Continuous evolution of tissue engineering and the application of engineering technique in biological substitute development for regeneration, replacement, restoration of defective tissues, organs and diseases are the reasons that are driving this particular sector. It can be ascertained that amongst researchers there is an increasing trend in the adoption of 3D cellular models for applying in etiology studies and explication of pathways underlying certain diseases (Romagnoli and Brandi 2014). It is anticipated that in coming years, the growth of bones scaffolding industry will decelerate due to emergence of scaffold free technology for culturing of multi dimensional cells.  

Ingredients of current bone scaffold involves scaffold materials, gas foaming, natural polymers, synthetic polymers,  solvent casting particulate leaching, fiber meshes and fiber bonding, melt molding, emulsion freeze drying and solution casting. Bone scaffolding involves materials that can be classified as ceramic, polymer, metal and alloy, nanocomposite and composite (Shrivats et al. 2014).

Veterinary schools and universities in China:

1) China Agricultural University

Website-https://ranking.cucas.edu.cn/reviews/China_Agricultural_University_Ranking.html

Contact- 3225337020

2) Yangzhou University

Website- https://english.yzu.edu.cn/col/col13997/index.html

Contact- + 86-514-87971870 and + 86-514-87352262

Veterinary schools and universities in Middle East:

1)King Saud University

Website- www.ksu.du.sa

Contact no- 9661467000

2)Qassim University

Website- https://www.qu.edu.sa/

Contact no- 966 63800050

3) King Faisal University

Website- https://www.kfu.edu.sa/

Regulatory aspects and the market potential of bone scaffolding

Contact- 966 3 5800000

Veterinary schools and universities in India:

1) Rajiv Gandhi College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences

Website- https://www.ragacovas.com/

Contact- Current Dean: Dr. B. Ramesh Kumar, Ph.D. (Veterinary Surgery)

2) Madras Veterinary College

Website- https://www.tanuvas.ac.in/mvc.html

Contact-  Dr. K.KUMANAN, Ph.D.

Dean, Madras Veterinary College

Chennai - 600 007

Tamil Nadu, India.

Phone: +91-44-2530 4000

Telefax: +91-44-2536 2787

3) Kerala Veterinary College, Mannuthy

Website- https://www.kvasu.ac.in/

Contact- Kerala, India

Veterinary schools and universities in Africa:

1) University of Pretoria Faculty of Veterinary Science

Website- https://www.up.ac.za/faculty-of-veterinary-science

Contact- +27 86 100 8387

2) University of Pretoria

Website- https://www.up.ac.za/

Contact- 27 12 420 4111

References list:

Castilho, M., Rodrigues, J., Pires, I., Gouveia, B., Pereira, M., Moseke, C., Groll, J., Ewald, A. and Vorndran, E., 2015. Fabrication of individual alginate-TCP scaffolds for bone tissue engineering by means of powder printing. Biofabrication, 7(1), p.015004.

Cheng, C.W., Solorio, L.D. and Alsberg, E., 2014. Decellularized tissue and cell-derived extracellular matrices as scaffolds for orthopaedic tissue engineering. Biotechnology advances, 32(2), pp.462-484.

Cox, S.C., Thornby, J.A., Gibbons, G.J., Williams, M.A. and Mallick, K.K., 2015. 3D printing of porous hydroxyapatite scaffolds intended for use in bone tissue engineering applications. Materials Science and Engineering: C, 47, pp.237-247.

Deepthi, S., Venkatesan, J., Kim, S.K., Bumgardner, J.D. and Jayakumar, R., 2016. An overview of chitin or chitosan/nano ceramic composite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. International journal of biological macromolecules, 93, pp.1338-1353.

Dias, M.R., Guedes, J.M., Flanagan, C.L., Hollister, S.J. and Fernandes, P.R., 2014. Optimization of scaffold design for bone tissue engineering: a computational and experimental study. Medical engineering & physics, 36(4), pp.448-457.

Fernandez-Yague, M.A., Abbah, S.A., McNamara, L., Zeugolis, D.I., Pandit, A. and Biggs, M.J., 2015. Biomimetic approaches in bone tissue engineering: Integrating biological and physicomechanical strategies. Advanced drug delivery reviews, 84, pp.1-29.

Giannitelli, S.M., Accoto, D., Trombetta, M. and Rainer, A., 2014. Current trends in the design of scaffolds for computer-aided tissue engineering. Acta biomaterialia, 10(2), pp.580-594.

Grandviewresearch.com. (2018). Scaffold Technology Market Trends, Analysis And Forecast Report, 2024. [online] Available at: https://www.grandviewresearch.com/industry-analysis/scaffold-technology-market [Accessed 1 Jan. 2018].

Gu, M., Liu, Y., Chen, T., Du, F., Zhao, X., Xiong, C. and Zhou, Y., 2014. Is graphene a promising nano-material for promoting surface modification of implants or scaffold materials in bone tissue engineering?. Tissue Engineering Part B: Reviews, 20(5), pp.477-491.

Lee, S., Kwon, T., Chung, E. and Lee, J. (2014). The market trend analysis and prospects of scaffolds for stem cells. Biomaterials Research, 18(1), p.11.

Ma, J., Both, S.K., Yang, F., Cui, F.Z., Pan, J., Meijer, G.J., Jansen, J.A. and van den Beucken, J.J., 2014. Concise review: cell?based strategies in bone tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Stem cells translational medicine, 3(1), pp.98-107.

Makris, E.A., Gomoll, A.H., Malizos, K.N., Hu, J.C. and Athanasiou, K.A., 2015. Repair and tissue engineering techniques for articular cartilage. Nature Reviews Rheumatology, 11(1), pp.21-34.

Rajzer, I., Menaszek, E., Kwiatkowski, R., Planell, J.A. and Castano, O., 2014. Electrospun gelatin/poly (ε-caprolactone) fibrous scaffold modified with calcium phosphate for bone tissue engineering. Materials Science and Engineering: C, 44, pp.183-190.

Romagnoli, C. and Brandi, M.L., 2014. Adipose mesenchymal stem cells in the field of bone tissue engineering. World journal of stem cells, 6(2), p.144.

Shao, W., He, J., Sang, F., Ding, B., Chen, L., Cui, S., Li, K., Han, Q. and Tan, W., 2016. Coaxial electrospun aligned tussah silk fibroin nanostructured fiber scaffolds embedded with hydroxyapatite–tussah silk fibroin nanoparticles for bone tissue engineering. Materials Science and Engineering: C, 58, pp.342-351.

Shrivats, A.R., McDermott, M.C. and Hollinger, J.O., 2014. Bone tissue engineering: state of the union. Drug discovery today, 19(6), pp.781-786.

Thadavirul, N., Pavasant, P. and Supaphol, P., 2014. Development of polycaprolactone porous scaffolds by combining solvent casting, particulate leaching, and polymer leaching techniques for bone tissue engineering. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A, 102(10), pp.3379-3392.

Wang, M.O., Vorwald, C.E., Dreher, M.L., Mott, E.J., Cheng, M.H., Cinar, A., Mehdizadeh, H., Somo, S., Dean, D., Brey, E.M. and Fisher, J.P., 2015. Evaluating 3D?Printed biomaterials as scaffolds for vascularized bone tissue engineering. Advanced Materials, 27(1), pp.138-144.

Watson, B.M., Vo, T.N., Tatara, A.M., Shah, S.R., Scott, D.W., Engel, P.S. and Mikos, A.G., 2015. Biodegradable, phosphate-containing, dual-gelling macromers for cellular delivery in bone tissue engineering. Biomaterials, 67, pp.286-296.

Wu, S., Liu, X., Yeung, K.W., Liu, C. and Yang, X., 2014. Biomimetic porous scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. Materials Science and Engineering: R: Reports, 80, pp.1-36.

Yousefi, A.M., James, P.F., Akbarzadeh, R., Subramanian, A., Flavin, C. and Oudadesse, H., 2016. Prospect of stem cells in bone tissue engineering: a review. Stem cells international, 2016

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