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For this essay, you should not limit yourself to the unit lecture contents only. In addition, you are expected to conduct a reasonable amount of literature review that requires a critical analysis of a series of scholarly articles to answer the question:

You are not expected to conduct primary research for this essay. Rather, you are to use academic (scholarly articles) and grey literature (produced by organizations outside the traditional academic publishing channels) to build your argument.

Identify the attributes of a smart city

Draw out connections between your chosen technology and the smart city, through a case study or studies

Reflect on the opportunities and challenges for planning smart sustainable cities through your chosen technology.

Smart energy

IOT is making the internet larger by providing much easy access to large number of devices like camera, monitoring sensor and lastly vehicle. IOT in smart cities can be defined as complex as it comes up with much large number of devices than present (Arasteh et al. 2016). Smart city idea is making an improvement in old infrastructure in the given city. The whole idea of smart city is making a large number of changes in the current development of policies of urban development. At present, there are large number of technologies in most of the urban cities like internet, Bluetooth and Wi-Fi. Smart city focuses on making minimum use of resources which is done by improving the quality of services and minimizing the overall cost (Centenaro et al. 2016). The main goal of IOT in urban areas is all about providing some easy access to all the public resources. It is mainly done so that there can be better utilization of various resources along with optimization of surveillance of transport. It also emphasizes maintaining the public areas which need to be achieved (Anagnostopoulos et al. 2015). The whole idea of smart cities can be used for improving the transparency along with public bodies for understanding the need of the public.

In the coming pages of the essay, an idea has been provided regarding the key attributes of the smart city. After that, a connection has been established between IOT and smart technology with the help of case study. The last section of the report mainly deals with the various opportunities and threats for planning of smart cities with the help of IoT (Internet of things).

The ultimate goal of smart city concept is all about improving both the quality live of large number of citizens. It focuses on increasing the efficiency, utilization of resources and reducing air pollution, crime, and lastly nuisance (Zanella et al. 2014). Smart city comes up with a unique need for internet of thing design system. IOT based system is required to be used to by large number of smart city based application. It mainly focuses on large quantities of data which is being generated. It is considered to be quietly different from common IOT based system which can easily provide support to single application (Urbieta et al.., 2017). Data which is traced from GPS can be easily collected from various smartphones and video image from various camera of city. It can be easily used by government of city planning, allocation of transport operator and lastly routing of various buses and trains. It mainly emphasizes on logistic business in making optimization of delivery packages. The commuters can easily manage themselves for trip planning. Various kind of information can be easily collected and can be used for treatment for various commodity. It provides information with respect to processors, seller and lastly consumer use. Smart city application mainly emphasizes the various ordinary user (Khanna and Anand, 2016). It does not reveal about all the layer of IOT based device like structure and function. In it, all the processed data and related service can be easily stored for delivering required service to user. The top six attribute of smart city are smart energy, smart data, smart transport, smart infrastructure, connected device, and connected mobility.

Smart data

Smart energy: Both kinds of building that is residential and commercial are considered to be energy efficient. It makes use of less amount of energy and so it can be easily used for collecting data all the required information (Strohbach et al. 2015). Both intelligent works and smart street light can easily mark the entrance of the smart city as it makes use of LED lights which are profitable. Smart meters for electricity and gas connection can be easily installed in different homes. IOT aims in making contribution for management of network in much better way. Apart from all this, it focuses on optimizing the level of production and energy distribution. At management level, a network which is intelligent can be considered to be helpful in detecting any kind of failure, collection of data and recovery at the time of disaster (Rathore et al. 2016). Both field operation and related technique can be considered to be helpful in making all necessary kind of upgrading in the network.

Smart data: Smart city tends to collect large amount of data which can be easily analyzed speedily. It focusses on providing information to all the residents. An individual can easily make use of online portals which is needed for publishing city data (Perera et al. 2014). The published data can be easily accessed from any location. It is all about making use of predictive analysis which helps in understanding the upcoming models.

Smart transport: Smart city can easily focus on reducing the overall traffic of vehicle. It can easily facilitate the transportation of goods and people through various methods. It ultimately helps in reducing road accident (Mohanty, Choppali and Kougianos 2016). Apart from this, it will ultimately help in reducing the level of pollution which is needed for avoiding congestion of traffic and promotion of healthier lifestyle.

Smart infrastructure: Analysis of large volume of data helps in proactive maintaining and much better planning which is needed in future (Ejaz et al. 2017). Infrastructure which is intelligent focus on proper kind of integration of various kind of technology that is Big data and IOT. Collected data is considered to be helpful in making administrative changes.

Connected devices: IOT devices are considered to be the most vital part of smart city.  In these devices, there is integrated device which is needed for gathering useful data. Collected data can be easily used for obtaining all the relevant information (Toenjes, Kuemper and Fischer, 2015). In the real-time, there will be free exchange of information among the complex urban system. After the integration of data analysis, the number of accidents can be easily reduced.

Smart transport

Connected Mobility: It is considered to be important for moving data with any kind of interruption through administrative system and municipal (Krishnamachari et al. 2018). It is mainly needed for building smart city. Data should be allowed to freely flow between system, providing emphasize on attention to large number of problem of property and lastly protection of security and privacy.

In the scenario, GreenIoT idea has been implemented which focus on incorporating both smart sensing and technologies of cloud computing (Balsamo et al. 2017). It mainly focuses on providing interactive and much better response to city administration by the help of both public and private parties. GreenIoT focus on providing platform support for large number of application like monitoring of environment (Medvedev et al. 2015). Apart from all this, it focuses on optimization of process and security of home. It also enables in third-party innovation for upcoming IOT based service. Uppsala is the fourth largest city of Sweden and the concept of green IoT has been supported by the municipal body of this city. GreenIoT in this city focus on supporting and monitoring of air pollution and proper planning of traffic. The pollution level in this city can be easily exceeded on occasional basis so the main objective is all about reducing it (Cheng et al. 2015). This can be done with the help of active monitoring, management of traffic and planning of city is much better way.

The current IOT based technologies come up with huge amount of contribution to various hardware, design protocol and lastly software (Anagnostopoulos, Zaslavsky and Medvedev, 2015). A major kind of challenge can be seen in IOT is all about understanding how valuable information can be easily extracted from all the devices. The greenest focus on providing solution which can be incorporated in cloud computing (Sanchez et al. 2014). It is mainly needed for incorporating intelligent data management along with integration of GreenIoT network. It comes up with proper kind of sensing technology which is needed for providing support for energy efficient and proper operation (Ahlgren, Hidell and Ngai 2016). GreenIoT in this city will be totally based on certain number of open standard. It is mainly required for providing support for industry testing of their sensing products (Mehmood et al. 2017). Data from sensor can be easily generated by the help of smart device in the provided platform which is required for development of certain number of innovative application and services.

Smart infrastructure

                                                  

                                                                                                 (Source: Sanchez et al. 2014)

The ultimate goal of this particular project is all about integration of large number of solution which is needed for environment sensing system. It mainly enables proper kind of experiments where various application and another kind of service can easily make use of open environment data (Ahlgren, Hidell and Ngai 2016). It mainly focuses on sustainability for urban and transport planning. The sensing system of this city is built with the help of unique technology. It aims to provide open interface which can be used at different levels and energy resources (Mehmood et al. 2017). This smart city will be designed in such a way that it can support simulation for smart city and can integrate with various kind of sensor data. This is mainly done so that it can be for real-time feedback. Both the tested and open data help the various parties for developing and making experiments on new sensing products and services (Cheng et al. 2015). It is mainly done so that new products be easily exported to various international markets.

For understanding, the needs to users’ various kind of advanced tool can be used for both city planning as well as novel application (Balsamo et al. 2017). It mainly focuses on making use of sensor data to large number of citizen. Data which is given by smart networks can be used for delivering it with the help of sensor-based gateways (Anagnostopoulos, Zaslavsky and Medvedev, 2015). It is generally used for both storage and processing which can be managed by various cloud service for sensor data. Sensor makes use of some publish and subscribe protocol which is needed for establishing communication through a broker (Arasteh et al. 2016). It is mainly done for storage and processing of data in cloud or any kind of direct use of various application and related service.

Sensor data can be easily retrieved by the help of certain tools and application which is done with the help of API (Application programming interface). Sensor data which is stored in the cloud provides request for both raw data and pre-processed data of sensor. Pre-processed data can be used for describing a grid of application which is needed for understanding the geographical location. Here the values can be easily calculated from the various data which is produced by various sensor in that particular region (Centenaro et al. 2016). A large number of processing types can be easily identified like interpolated data and daily leverage.

Connected devices

Implementation of IoT in smart city is considered to be very much complex method. It mainly requires proper kind of planning and a small number of finances (Anagnostopoulos et al. 2015). It is done due to fact that internet of things comes up with large number of components. At the time of implementing each and every component comes up with various kind of challenges along with this (Zanella et al. 2014). It requires to have a complete idea regarding the full kind of complexity which has divided internet of things into various aspects like sensor, action, standard and lastly action.

Standard: It is mainly applied to the method of data collection by various kind of sensor in the given ecosystem (Urbieta et al.., 2017). Standard comes up with method of storing data, handling and its processing. Standardization ultimately helps in improving the value of collected data. If the given system needs to have big data, then it needs to be frequently updated and asked on sufficient basis. Then it becomes much easier in analyzing the given data and gathering proper data from it (Khanna and Anand, 2016). Method of data compiling can be easily done with the help of various standard and another kind of thing which has complicated method. It totally depends on various kind of application that comes into use.

Network: As IOT based system comes up with large number of sensor, it can be easily used for establishing communication with the given main server. Data can be easily transferred and carried out to the given network (Strohbach et al. 2015). The whole communication is empowered by the help of various technologies which ranges from Wi-Fi and Bluetooth to WiMAX.

Sensors: IOT ecosystem comes up with collection of data which is used by both passive and active sensors (Rathore et al. 2016). It is all due to development of this technology, IoT based organization comes up with large variety of application of smart and cheap sensor (Medvedev et al. 2015). There is large number of challenges which come up with the various sensors used in the given IOT based system.

Smart city technologies can easily make the cities more effective and efficient in nature. It is mainly required for having a proper kind of understanding with respect to protection of rapid growth in the upcoming years (Perera et al. 2014). A large number of investment are being made in smart city-based technology. IOT in smart can easily provide a large number of benefits for various operation. The extensive research and work help in carrying out research and developing certain number of technological plans (Krishnamachari et al. 2018). The biggest benefit of IOT in smart cities is data-driven decision making, improving citizen and engagement of government, safe communities, reduction of environmental footprints, improving transport, digital equity, and new economic development.

Connected mobility

Data-driven decision making: Development in big data technology and various kind of connected devices can easily help the cities (Mohanty, Choppali and Kougianos 2016).  It will help them in getting access to large number of information which was not available on earlier platform.

Improving the engagement of citizen and government: At present, citizens can easily expect the fact that various smart cities can deliver services which are robust and user-friendly in nature (Ejaz et al. 2017). There is large number of collaboration tools which can be used by modern and intuitive based website.

Safe community: A smart city is considered to be much safer (Toenjes, Kuemper and Fischer, 2015). Advancement of technology and public partnership will ultimately help in reducing various kind of criminal activity.  

Conclusion

From the above pages of the essay it can be easily stated that is it all IoT in smart city. IOT (Internet of things) can be stated as the application zone for both mobile and computing. Internet of thing is also defined as internet of objects can be stated as a wireless network between object and the network. In the above pages three most important aspect that is key attribute of smart city has been discussed in details. After that a connection has been established between IOT and smart city. The last part of the essay mainly deals with various benefits and drawbacks of IOT in smart city. As the implementation of IOT based infrastructure can easily provide large number of benefits. First, it can provide a large number of useful application of IOT based infrastructure This particular technology can be used for improving the various kind of useful application. The given technology can be used for improving the functionality of various web-based devices.

References

Ahlgren, B., Hidell, M. and Ngai, E.C.H., 2016. Internet-of-Things for Smart Cities: Standards and Opportunities.

Anagnostopoulos, T., Zaslavsky, A. and Medvedev, A., 2015, April. Robust waste collection exploiting cost efficiency of IoT potentiality in smart cities. In Recent Advances in Internet of Things (RIoT), 2015 International Conference on (pp. 1-6). IEEE.

Anagnostopoulos, T., Zaslavsy, A., Medvedev, A. and Khoruzhnicov, S., 2015, June. Top--k Query Based Dynamic Scheduling for IoT-enabled Smart City Waste Collection. In Mobile Data Management (MDM), 2015 16th IEEE International Conference on (Vol. 2, pp. 50-55). IEEE.

Arasteh, H., Hosseinnezhad, V., Loia, V., Tommasetti, A., Troisi, O., Shafie-Khah, M. and Siano, P., 2016, June. Iot-based smart cities: a survey. In Environment and Electrical Engineering (EEEIC), 2016 IEEE 16th International Conference on (pp. 1-6). IEEE.

Balsamo, D., Merrett, G.V., Zaghari, B., Wei, Y., Ramchurn, S., Stein, S., Weddell, A.S. and Beeby, S., 2017, September. Wearable and autonomous computing for future smart cities: Open challenges. In Software, Telecommunications and Computer Networks (SoftCOM), 2017 25th International Conference on (pp. 1-5). IEEE.

Centenaro, M., Vangelista, L., Zanella, A. and Zorzi, M., 2016. Long-range communications in unlicensed bands: The rising stars in the IoT and smart city scenarios. IEEE Wireless Communications, 23(5), pp.60-67.

Cheng, B., Longo, S., Cirillo, F., Bauer, M. and Kovacs, E., 2015, June. Building a big data platform for smart cities: Experience and lessons from santander. In Big Data (BigData Congress), 2015 IEEE International Congress on (pp. 592-599). IEEE.

Ejaz, W., Naeem, M., Shahid, A., Anpalagan, A. and Jo, M., 2017. Efficient energy management for the internet of things in smart cities. IEEE Communications Magazine, 55(1), pp.84-91.

Khanna, A. and Anand, R., 2016, January. IoT based smart parking system. In Internet of Things and Applications (IOTA), International Conference on (pp. 266-270). IEEE.

Krishnamachari, B., Power, J., Kim, S.H. and Shahabi, C., 2018, June. I3: An IoT marketplace for smart communities. In Proceedings of the 16th Annual International Conference on Mobile Systems, Applications, and Services (pp. 498-499). ACM.

Medvedev, A., Fedchenkov, P., Zaslavsky, A., Anagnostopoulos, T. and Khoruzhnikov, S., 2015, August. Waste management as an IoT-enabled service in smart cities. In Conference on smart spaces (pp. 104-115). Springer, Cham.

Mehmood, Y., Ahmad, F., Yaqoob, I., Adnane, A., Imran, M. and Guizani, S., 2017. Internet-of-things-based smart cities: Recent advances and challenges. IEEE Communications Magazine, 55(9), pp.16-24.

Mohanty, S.P., Choppali, U. and Kougianos, E., 2016. Everything you wanted to know about smart cities: The internet of things is the backbone. IEEE Consumer Electronics Magazine, 5(3), pp.60-70.

Perera, C., Zaslavsky, A., Christen, P. and Georgakopoulos, D., 2014. Sensing as a service model for smart cities supported by internet of things. Transactions on Emerging Telecommunications Technologies, 25(1), pp.81-93.

Rathore, M.M., Ahmad, A., Paul, A. and Rho, S., 2016. Urban planning and building smart cities based on the internet of things using big data analytics. Computer Networks, 101, pp.63-80.

Sanchez, L., Muñoz, L., Galache, J.A., Sotres, P., Santana, J.R., Gutierrez, V., Ramdhany, R., Gluhak, A., Krco, S., Theodoridis, E. and Pfisterer, D., 2014. SmartSantander: IoT experimentation over a smart city testbed. Computer Networks, 61, pp.217-238.

Strohbach, M., Ziekow, H., Gazis, V. and Akiva, N., 2015. Towards a big data analytics framework for IoT and smart city applications. In Modeling and processing for next-generation big-data technologies (pp. 257-282). Springer, Cham.

Toenjes, R., Kuemper, D. and Fischer, M., 2015, December. Knowledge-based spatial reasoning for iot-enabled smart city applications. In Data Science and Data Intensive Systems (DSDIS), 2015 IEEE International Conference on (pp. 736-737). IEEE.

Urbieta, A., González-Beltrán, A., Mokhtar, S.B., Hossain, M.A. and Capra, L., 2017. Adaptive and context-aware service composition for IoT-based smart cities. Future Generation Computer Systems, 76, pp.262-274.

Zanella, A., Bui, N., Castellani, A., Vangelista, L. and Zorzi, M., 2014. Internet of things for smart cities. IEEE Internet of Things journal, 1(1), pp.22-32.

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