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1. Discuss the important features of the following as they relate to products and processing


a. Marketing options and advantages

b. Economic, social and sustainability implications of products and processes

c. WHS and other regulatory requirements

2. How might you identify and evaluate the features and functions of the plant, facilities,services and process layout associated with the manufacturing process?

3. Briefly explain each of the following common modern manufacturing technical and work organisation processes:

  1. a. Volume production using transfer lines
    b. Cellular manufacturing
    c. Jobbing
    d. Metal shaping processes, such as casting, forging and machining
    e. Metal assembly, fabricating and joining
    f. Plastic and rubber product manufacturing, including various types of moulding and assembly
    g. Surface finishing based processes (e.g. Electroplating)
    h. Process transfers and materials handling
    i. Packaging
    j. Warehousing, stores, and provision for logistics and transport

    4. What are the factors you will need to assess so you can determine the labour and skills distribution requirements of plant and processes?

    5. What are the concepts and processes of asset maintainability and reliability?

    6. What are the options that could be used in the workplace for process automation and control?

    7. Explain the following techniques that are suitable to use for process improvement:
    a. Material and product flow measurement and improvement
    b. Feedback on product manufacturability for possible product modification
    c. Feedback from maintenance and life cycle costs for plant
    d. QA, QC and SPC feedback
    e. Customer feedback on cost, quality, delivery and reliability

8. Outline maintenance management systems, including their compatibility with manufacturing processes

9. What are the information flows and software options that could be used for process measurement and control?

10. What steps might you undertake to complete budgeting and costing processes?

11. Briefly explain each of the following:
a. WHS
b. Risk management
d. Work permits
f. Codes of practice
g. Regulations
h. Standards
i. Regulatory requirements

Lean Manufacturing

This report brings out the description, evaluation, and analytical process of manufacturing. Although every industry follows a same type of check and conducts the process but the focus of this report is more on metal manufacturing. It discusses the complete material flow from ores and mine to final destination where the goods are produced.    

In order to increase the operational abilities, a manufacturing manager feature and function the process through new initiatives such as agile and lean manufacturing. Lean manages to eliminate all forms of waste that also includes time and it implements a level schedule. Whereas, agile manufacturing requires the use of market knowledge and virtual corporation to use the profitable opportunities for a volatile market place.    

In a competitive market, any product can have advantage and uniqueness through strong marketing plan. It acts as an angle and a tool of success by meeting the particular expectation of customers.  

Factors needed to assess the labour and skills distribution requirements of plant and processes

There are several factor needed to be assessed on the part of labours. Labours should have expertise skills in operating machines of plant and manufacturing such as using of lean manufacturing methods.

b). Economic, social, and long-term implication of product and process

While conducting the evaluation of the manufacturing process, an organisation derive a clear understanding economic, sustainability and social implication of processes. Implication of economic factors has been extended to feasibility and viability of product in both internal as well as external market. There is a range of social effects that an organisation use to structure and form its product. It includes perception of consumers for a product, inclusive and healthy options, altering markets, and following the current trend. A sustainable impact includes financial sustainability, impact on environment, maintaining the quality to main the demand, and impact on resource efficiency. 

C). WHS and other regulatory requirement

Criteria of WHS and regulatory requirements have to be accomplished while processing the product. It may include risk management, consumer safety, meeting the compliance requirement of Australian standards, and provide a safe chemical and food processing.      

Common and modern manufacturing organisation processes can be repetitive, job shop, process (continuous), discrete and process (batch). Moreover, in case of metal manufacturing process, it includes casting and molding, joining, shearing, machining, and forming.  

Organisation processes-

a). Volume production by using transfer lines

Most prevalent process of manufacturing used in the process includes transfer lining. In this type of manufacturing system, a range of machines is connected in a sequential order to create an automated production line.     

Agile Manufacturing

b). Cellular manufacturing

Cellular manufacturing is engaged in lean and just in time manufacturing, which uses wide range of technology. This cellular approach follows a manufacturing pattern of producing similar products through machines. These cells are arranged in manner which is U-shaped that can help to apply various operations on a product. This method of organising the machine operations is used to maximise the value addition and minimise waste. Moreover, a lean manufacturing approach helps the companies to build a variety of products that can satisfy customers and minimise the waste. 

c). Jobbing

Jobbing is a streamlined manufacturing process that produces custom products but it can be lesser in amount than the mass standard production. It is also known as job production. It focuses on producing either one-off product for a particular customer or small batch of work less than mass-market goods.  

d). Casting, machining, metal assembly, joining, and fabricating forging for metal shaping process

Casting is a process that includes pouring of warm liquid metal into the moulds so that it can get the shape of the metal in which it is poured after cooling.  

Machining is a mechanical pressure that shapes metal through turning, polishing, grinding, and drilling. Assembling of different metals components that are joined and fixed to get a final product. Metal fabrication has a range of actions conducted to shape the metal to use for the purposes such as rolling, thermal treatments, and shaping.    

e). Fabrication process of metal shaping  

Forging is a deformation process where the metal is heated on highest level and exerted pressure between any tools to manipulate it in a particular object.  

Forging for moulding the metal 

f). By using various types moulding and assembly for the production of plastic and rubber manufacturing Injection molding is used to transform rubber and plastic material. 

g). surface finishing based processes

Metal finishing describes the process of placing coating around the metal that is generally called as substrate. This implementation process is used for polishing, cleaning, and improving the surface of the metal. Process of electroplating consists of depositing metal ions on the substrate through electric current. Process of electroplating helps in limiting the impact of corrosion, minimising the effect of unnecessary friction, improving the appearance, creating the surface featured with electrically conductive. Moreover, it serves a prime coat to promote paint adhesion.

Material handing is the protection, storage, movement, and control of materials through manufacturing, distribution, warehousing, and consumption. It is the movement of raw material from native site to the destination of production. In earlier era, while handling material, goods are considered as a single unit in a discontinuous manner. Previously, there were three basic stages of material handling such as collecting the material, manufacturing, finally distributing the product. Material goods were moved individually rather than bulk units.

Labor and Skills Distribution Requirements

Packaging is considered as a part of manufacturing process. This include suitable requirement from where the goods are transported and how far is the place of destination. If the destination is quite far, the packaging has to be done according also considering the mode of transport. Labelling requires light colour packaging so that the label can be clearly visible. Packaging has to consider environmental concerns, food and safety requirements, and dangerous goods requirement.    

Provisioning storage includes store assigning in the form of server disk that can drive proper place and space so as to improve and optimise the performance of storage area. Provisioning the storage system is executed in specific order steps. In modern era, technology has become the most efficient way to execute storage system. The administrator maintains a particular data storage for the assigned space for goods in the warehouse. Routes are kept in place in case there is a partial failure than the whole system of Logical unit numbers and SAN (storage area network) are tested. 

Distribution requirements of plant and processes

Improving the process is to identify and analyse the existing process in the organisation to achieve objectives and goals. Common tools used by an manufacturing units considers DRIVE, DMAIC, simulation, Statistical process control (SPC) and foremost importantly mapping the process. Moreover, DRIVE is a problem solving methodology briefed as define, review, identity, verify and execute, more problem solving processes include check sheets, matrix analysis, ICOR (input, output control resources) and pareto analysis (Department of trade and industry, 2018). 

Maintenance of assets apply to both intangible and tangible assets. Intangible assets include human capital, goodwill, financial assets, and intellectual property. Maintaining assets is a systematic process of operating, developing, upgrading, and disposing the assets effectively. Safe custody is a important function in managing the assets which would result increase in level of security and reduce the possibility of misuse and theft. In today`s era, the companies keep tracking the location of each fix asset, its usage, maintenance, custodian, and insurance. This would help the managers to maintain the safety, efficiency, and productivity of assets. Maintenance also considers managing the asset life cycle with strong audit trail.

Process automation in the manufacturing process can enable automatic processing system by using the efficient technology. This helps the manufacturing process to become efficiency, speedy, process control, and précised form. Solutions to control automated process includes handling the dry and liquid material handling, batching and blending to avail major and minor ingredient operation through automations. Moreover, automated process includes controlling the electrical system of all the process with its equipment.     

Economic, Social and Long-term Implications of the Manufacturing Process

Flowing of material in an manufacturing needs an inspection because there is a huge risk of material loss in the industry. There is a systematic flow of raw material and then work in progress of material takes many processes to be conducted in the process of manufacturing.    

b). Feedback on product manufacturability for possible product modification

The product is not at all executed for use to customers after being produced. Some assessment activities and training is a leaning tool that helps the organisation to provide a feedback to the responses to the manufacturing process.

c). Feedback from maintenance and life cycle costs for plant

The supervisor keeps a check on process and manufacturing to focus and derive new modification to improve.

d). QA, QC and SPC feedback

Quantitative analysis (QA) and statistical process control (SPC) includes a range of data is collected and analysed to check, which process or statistical is not providing the right evaluation. The supervisor strives to maintain a life-cycle cost of the entire plant.

e). Customer feedback on cost, quality, delivery and reliability

Feedback from the customers is the last stage of the product when it reaches for the final consumption. When customers feel that they pay more than what they receive in terms of cost and quality. It will become feasible for the company to improve the same.   

 It is compulsory for an organisation to set a compatibility with the maintenance management system which are installed in the manufacturing place with a aim to identify their impact on the overall manufacturing process. These systems are used to plan and execute the required maintenance that can assist and confirm the regulatory and lifecycle compliance. With the introduction of technology, companies started using computerised maintenance management that helps to collect the field data, convert it into the useful information so that it can determine the work needs, and control the work. 

The steps included in the costing and budgeting process includes-

Identifying the appropriate opportunities by exploring each opportunity available.

Estimate the operating and implementing cost and estimate the benefit associated with it.

Access the risk with the process and finally after ensuring the maximum benefits, implement it.    

a). WHS 

WHS refers to Workplace Health and Safety is a legislation binding of act whose primary duty is to ensure that people working at the workplace and manufacturing unit are safe and healthy. It is the liability of business entrepreneur to meet WHS requirements as mentioned in acts and regulations in Australia.  

WHS and Regulatory Requirements

b). Risk management 

In an enterprise, the process of risk management is undertaken to reduce the potential risk in the environment that can hamper the business operation. This process identifies and evaluates the risk and strive to reduce the negative impact. The organisation analyses the ARMS (Australian Risk Management standards) to conduct and apply the guidelines to the current situations.

c). SWMS

The objective of Safe work method statement (SWMS) is to establish a safe environment so that they can effectively carry out their activities especially workers, contractors and supervisors.  These work activities follows a logical sequence and series of steps that can analyse each activity in the whole process and which specific activity has the potential to cause accidents.    

d). Work permits

There are various limitations imposed by the government for the business so that it could not harm the public and environment. To use any of the public resources, a company has to adhere permission from the authority. The permission such as working at heights because it has risk to lives of people who works on the top floor. Moreover, some spaces are not exposed to be used by businesses such as underground vaults, storage bins, silos, and other similar and risky places.

e). MSDS

There are many chemicals and active ingredients used in manufacturing of the products. Each chemical must have a SDS (material safety data sheet) in which there is required label. This sheet will explain the type of active ingredients and chemicals that is contained in the substance. This helps the employee to identify the associated risk. Moreover, implication of how far the particular chemical will hamper workplace health.  

f). Code of practise

Code of practise is a set of regulations and guidelines, the time when this code of conduct is followed, it ensures that organisation is complying its relevant legislation requirement. Moreover, a written set of rules explains how people should behave in a particular profession. In addition to this, code of conduct complements safety laws and occupational health.  

g). Regulation 

There is a range of rules and regulations imposed to fulfil the legislative requirement of a manufacturing industry. Manufacturer of Product should consider safety standards of the employees during the manufacturing process. The regulation differs from the department to department such as manufacturers set Product safety standards that will enable to sell the products legally in Australia. Information standards requires detailed ingredients labelling that are important for consumer safety. Manufacturers set standards for electrical goods especially distributing the goods needs awareness of packaging and label code of specific goods.

h). Standards

This report focuses on range of product standards that focuses on safety standards and information standards. Moreover, the goods have to comply with the composition, method of processing and manufacturing, contents, design, and packaging rules.

Information standards considers information that can be given to consumers when they buy specific products such as a company undertakes printing of information in form of labels e.g. tobacco products, clothing and textile labelling, and cosmetics.  

i). Regulatory requirements 

Regulatory requirements should be relevant and reliable to accreditation requirements, internal procedures, and code of conduct, standards, and procedures of a professional organisation. A company has to undertake regulations of territory, national and international authority. Regulatory requirements are inclusive of anti-discrimination, bankruptcy, chemical use, infrastructural construction, corporate governance, and certification of an organisation under statutory licensing procedures.

It includes types of licensing in different operation that a manufacturing organisation needs depend on what type of manufacturing company it is or what ingredients they use in their production process. While manufacturing products, a company should have licence to manufacture therapeutic goods, industrial chemicals, import and export procedure of hydrofluorocarbons, tobacco, alcohol, and various risky electrical equipment.  


The report provides a interesting study of process and manufacturing of metal. It discusses about the standards, which are considered important while considering work health safety concern of the employees. Moreover, it bring out the practises that could improve the quality of its process by applying modem approaches.  


Automotive block diagram, Sheet Metal Fabrication Process Diagram (2018). <>

Chaudhary, G, Kumar, M, Verma, S and Srivastav, A, 2014 ‘Optimization of drilling parameters of hybrid metal matrix composites using response surface methodology’, 6 Procedia materials science 229-237.

Department of trade and industry, (2018). TQM process improvement tools. 8

Goldense, B, The 5 types of manufacturing process (2015) <>

Harich, J, The Three Pillars of Sustainability (2014). <>

Kansai Metal industry co. LTD, Manufacturing process (2018) <>

OEM fabricators, inc., CELLULAR MANUFACTURING (2013) <>


University of engineering and technology, Plastics injection molding (2015) <>

Worcester city council, Sustainable Worcester Living today for a better tomorrow: What is sustainability?, (2018) <>

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