Critique whether the researcher used the appropriate and ethical application of research methods in relation to their research goals.
Assess whether the application of quantitative methods approaches, qualitative methods approaches or a combination (mixed methods) was appropriate in the article research.
Interpret data and empirical findings in the research through an assessment of the strengths and weaknesses.
Examine the role of the research design in the article by defending or critiquing the research method based on your assessment.
Support the impact of the research by determining if it benefits social policy, theoretical knowledge, or both.
Pregnancy time is a very vulnerable time in the life of a woman. Women who are still at the age bracket of bearing children are often exposed to high risks associated with intimate partner violence (IPV) and violence that occur within the neighbors. IPV and neighborhood violence have been found to have detrimental results to the mental condition of pregnant mothers and may result in physical injury. IPV may lead to depression and increased risks of complication associated with giving birth. Examples of IPV are emotional violence, physical violence and sexual violence. On the other hand, neighborhood violence is also a threat to mental health (Barcelona de Mendoza, Harville, Savage & Giarratano, 2018). Those people who participate or observe an occurrence of violence in the neighborhood has a risk of getting depression. Researchers on neighborhood violence have focused on other aspects and forgotten to look into pregnant women. Available evidence has established that natural disasters contribute to increased crime. Crime in New Orleans city has been observed to increase since the occurrence of Hurricane Katrina.
Little research has been done on the sum outcome of lack of security within and without the residential places for expectant women. Therefore, the sole reason for this paper was to study how perceptions of crime and violence, both between couples and among neighbors, and their total outcome ,may lead to serious mental health outcomes in expectant women of New Orleans (Freeman et al. 2015). The target of this investigation is unmistakably communicated in the mission statement. The mission statement likewise catches the setting in which the examination was directed. The title of this article obviously conveys to the peruser the primary goal of the article. The theoretical further elucidates facilitate on the reason articulation. This is additionally referred to plainly in the presentation. The presentation constructs the establishment of the reason articulation. This empowers the peruser to see better the setting of the article.
This study was conducted from 2010 to 2012 and it targeted 398 women who resides in city of New Orleans. These participants came from different sites. Eligible women were supposed to have knowledge of either English or Spanish; were not supposed to be less than eighteen years and not more than forty five years, and had visited antenatal clinic care for three times or more. Data were collected between five and seven years after the happening of Hurricane Katrina. The respondents were required to answer the question about their exposure to Hurricane. Both survey questions and interviews were used to collect data. Interviews were conducted by people who understood both English and Spanish (Murphy, 2018).
A Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) from the Centers for Disease and Prevention Control was used in assessing the IPV. Physical abuse at pregnancy was examined through the help of closed-ended questions. On the other hand, the perception of violence within the neighbors, crime, and security risks was examined using rating questions. Finally, a sum total of exposure index was used to ascertain the general insecurity issue (Logan, 2018).
Depression, pregnancy-specific anxiety (PA) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) were the main outcomes. In the assessment of the symptoms of depression, the Edinburg Postnatal Depression Scale (EDS) was utilized. Little research has been done on the sum outcome of lack of security within and without the residential places for expectant women. Therefore, the sole reason for this paper was to study how perceptions of crime and violence, both between couples and among neighbors, and their total outcome ,may lead to serious mental health outcomes in expectant women of New Orleans. The Revised Prenatal Questionnaire was used in assessing PA while the PTSD checklist was used in the assessment of PTSD (Green et al. 2017).
Assessment of the relationship between variables was done through the following steps;
- Computation of descriptive data and frequency and testing of bivariate associations using chi-square and Fisher's exact test.
- Unadjusted and adjusted multivariable logistic regression was used in the examination of the association that existed between each aspect of the variables.
- Violence with couples and within the neighbors was placed in the same model.
- A cumulative measure of total violence that incorporated violence within couples and among neighbors was calculated to find out the impact on the mental health.
All analyses conducted done using SAS 9.3.
Slightly above a tenth of the interviewed respondents reported intimate violence. Around 30% of the respondents felt that the police services did not offer enough protection to the community. Close to 0.3 % 0f the participants had probable depression (EDS> 12) a smaller number had high PA (>17) and infrequent signs of PTSD (PCL .50). Women who experience physical and emotional violence had higher probable depression when rated to those who did not experience the physical and emotional violence. The study found that women who experience IPV have an increased risk of getting PTSD. There was no relationship found between total intimate partner violence and PA (Hudson, 2017).
Concerning the relationship between indicators of neighborhood crime and security issues and the health of the mind, the study found that women experiencing moderate and increased safety among the neighbors had increased probable depression than those whose perception on neighborhood safety was low. Moderate and increased total violence among neighbors was related with high probable depression when rated with low violence among the neighbors. Finally, women with increased total violence had increased odds of probable depression as compared to those with low total violence (Stauffer, 2017).
Discussion and Conclusion
This study found that, after provision for crucial risk factors, the intimate partner violence led to high odds of probable depression and that increased PA cases are attributable to physical violence at home. The study further found that there exists a relationship between indicators of neighborhood crime and probable depression and PTSD. It was also found that high odds of probable depression could be to some extent attributed to cumulative violence (Weltje & Sumpter, 2017).
Majority of the findings of this study were found to agree in with the results of previous researchers on the same topic. In the question of the sum total impact of IPV and violence within the neighbors on mental health, our outcomes agreed with two studies but differed with one. The difference is attributed to the different perception of violence and crime by the participant (Veblen, 2017).
This study is important as it provides more knowledge and evidence on the topic of study. The sample used in this study was relatively small. Future researchers should consider studying how different violence influence different aspects of life.
Statement of purpose
This research is designed to assess how perceptions of crime and violence, among couples and within the neighbors and their total impact on the mental health mental among expectant women in New Orleans. The objective of this study is clearly expressed in the statement of purpose. The statement of purpose also captures the setting in which the research was conducted. The title of this article clearly communicates to the reader the main objective of the article. The abstract further expounds further on the purpose statement. This is further cited clearly in the introduction. The introduction builds the foundation of the purpose statement. This enables the reader to understand better the context of the article. The introduction previews previous works and clearly illustrates the gap that this article is going to fill. The statement of purpose also provides the variables of the research and the correlation between violence both intimate and neighborhood affects mental health (Williams, 2018).
The researchers identify several specific questions. These are not clearly stated in the order. They are not easily traceable. The hypothesis is lost within the methods section of the research.
This study utilized a cross-sectional survey design. This design is an appropriate one as it helps the researchers to get answers to their questions. The sample selected, that is, pregnant women was appropriate as this would provide the required information. The criterion that was to select the participant was appropriate. The research has not indicated the method used in sampling but from what the researchers did it can be seen that the researcher used a convenience sampling method. This method may have led to the collection of biased information. The researchers indicate that they sought the required authorization before they could collect data from the participant. The researchers also sought the consent of the participants before they could collect data. This shows respect for the individual's privacy. The sample selected for this research is relatively small and may not result in very accurate results (De Paoli, Sauer & Ropo, 2018).
Statement of Purpose
The contents of the instruments are described in details. The first instrument used was the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) questionnaire. It is developed by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Since the developer is a reputable body, then the reliability of the instrument is reliable. The other instruments used in the assessment include; use of survey with questions drawn from the community surveys and previous studies on neighborhood influence, Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EDS) (used in examination of depression symptoms), the Revised Prenatal Distress Questionnaire (used to assess PA), and the PTSD checklist (used to check symptoms related to stress). All these instruments were validated and their reliability checked.
Generally, the methods used by the researchers have been able to address all the questions raised in the research and have thus enabled the researchers to attain the objectives. The instruments used seem to have been carefully selected thus enabling the researcher to collect all the necessary data that can facilitate the achievement of objectives (Howarth, Glynos, & Griggs, 2016).
- Statistical analysis
The statistic part has clearly indicated how data will be analyzed. The researchers have highlighted the steps that will be followed in the analysis. The procedure for dealing with response bias is also clearly illustrated. The omission of one question by the researchers may have an effect on the overall result of the analysis. SAS 9.3 software is popular and credible software to use. Many researchers have used this software in their analysis. Its use in this research increases the credibility of the results of this research ( Radice, 2018).
The researchers have clearly presented the results in tables. The tables are clearly labeled to enable the reader to understand the content. The data is well matched in the right column row and cell. Comparison of data in the tables is easy as it is clearly labeled and well presented (Jackson, 2018).
The data in the tables is well complemented by the information recorded in the narration. Close scrutiny of both data in the table and narration signifies no difference. The accuracy of the researchers in entering the data is high. However, there is missing information in the table which makes the cumulative percentages not to add up to 100%. Concerning the percentage issue, the researchers have indicated it clearly to the reader that there the cumulative addition may not add up to100% due to information that may be missing (Boyle, 2016).
The results presented clearly addresses each research question. Every hypothesis was tested. Generally, the results obtained answers all the questions and provide all the relevant information required to draw up conclusion (Feldman, Odling-Smee, & Laland, 2017)
The researchers have provided a detailed discussion based on the results obtained. The researchers link their findings with the findings of other studies. From the discussion, it can be observed that the findings of this research are consistent with the findings of other studies. This is clear proof that the research was keenly conducted (Freeman, Kobziar, Rose & Cropper, 2017).
This research conclusively was able to achieve its objectives. The findings of this study provide more evidence of the influence of violence at several stages and neighborhood disorders on a person’s health and illness. Despite having achieved its objectives, this research was faced its strengths and weaknesses. One of the strengths of this research is that it had a combined focus on individual experiences of violence. Individuals who are victims of domestic violence provide real information which presents their personal experiences and the effects that those experiences had to their health. The other strength of this research is the perception of neighborhood factors. The limitation of this research is the use of small sample size. Small sample size often affects the accuracy of the results obtained. Small sample size may not present the true picture of the whole population. Another limitation of this study is the lack of cooperation from some of the eligible respondent. This may have prevented the collection of relevant information that would have an impact on the final result of the research. Biased results may have been received from women who reported that they would not report a crime to the police. According to the findings of the research, the fear of reporting is associated with mental illness. This means that their reporting may be influenced by their mental condition (Mansell, 2015).
The findings of this research will be very useful to different researchers as it adds knowledge to the existing one. These research findings can also help the government in policy and decision making in matters health. The researchers suggest that the health care providers who provide services to expectant mother to provide IPV screening to mothers who come from communities affected by violence.
This research was limited to only two types of violence, that is, domestic and neighborhood violence, the researchers propose that researchers to come should focus on broader description and understanding of exposure to different categories of violence that occur in within the society. They should also focus on finding answers to questions such as how socioeconomic status and racial background impact recovering from a natural occurrence (Parker, 2017).
In conclusion, this research was well structured as it followed the format of a research. The flow of thought in the research is consistent. The design was suitable for the topic that was being addressed. The methods used by the researchers to collect data were appropriate and it facilitated the collection of data necessary for analysis (Willmott, 2018).
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