Get Instant Help From 5000+ Experts For
question

Writing: Get your essay and assignment written from scratch by PhD expert

Rewriting: Paraphrase or rewrite your friend's essay with similar meaning at reduced cost

Editing:Proofread your work by experts and improve grade at Lowest cost

And Improve Your Grades
myassignmenthelp.com
loader
Phone no. Missing!

Enter phone no. to receive critical updates and urgent messages !

Attach file

Error goes here

Files Missing!

Please upload all relevant files for quick & complete assistance.

Guaranteed Higher Grade!
Free Quote
wave

For this assessment developing a Pragmatic Alternative for Creating a Corporate Social Responsibility Strategy: A case of Jordanian Telecom Sector.

Corporate Social Responsibility in Business Organizations

The research provides an analysis about corporate social responsibility and the manner in which alternatives about the corporate social responsibility of an organisation can be identified. According to Schwartz (2017), the duty of every company is to ensure that a proper responsibility is maintained which helps in building the society as well as the members in it. The responsibilities help in providing an idea about the capabilities that are possessed by an organisation and help in increasing the popularity of the company.

The research focuses on the corporate social responsibility that is undertaken by the Jordanian Telecom Sector. The aim of the sector is to improve the condition of the social life of the people residing in the country. With revenue of over JOD 411.790, million and the aim can be attained with the application of proper and alternative corporate social responsibilities.

The research provides an opportunity to analyse and understand the importance of corporate social responsibility in a business organisation. The research analysis provides an understanding of the effectiveness of the corporate social responsibility and the manner in which it can help in the development of the Jordanian Telecom Sector. The telecom sector in the country aims at identifying the problems of the people in terms of employment or for the promotion of a good and healthy life in the country.

This also helps in the development of the organisational responsibility that can help the sector to gain good reputation in the business. The alternative manner, which can be used to maintain the corporate social responsibility need to focus on the profit making ability of the sector. Hence, an alternative strategy needs to be the focal point that highlights the social responsibility that the corporate sector of the Jordian Telecom needs to undertake for its benefits.

The aim of research is to understand the concept of corporate social responsibility and the manner in which it can be used to gain success. The pragmatic alternative that can help the Jordanian Telecom Sector to continue its business in the country is also provided in the research. This can help in generating strategies that will be used for the future of improving the Jordanian Telecom Sectors.

The research objective is:

  • To understand the concept of corporate social responsibility
  • To analyse the importance of implementing corporate social responsibility in the Jordanian Telecom Sectors
  • To develop a pragmatic alternative for creating corporate social responsibility strategy suitable for the Jordanian Telecom Sectors
  • To recommend ways to improve the alternative sources for the betterment of the Jordanian Telecom Sectors

The research questions include:

  • What is the concept of corporate social responsibility?
  • What is the importance of implementing corporate social responsibility in the Jordanian Telecom Sectors?
  • What pragmatic alternative for creating corporate social responsibility strategy can be suitable for the Jordanian Telecom Sectors?
  • What recommends can be provided to improve the alternative sources for the betterment of the Jordanian Telecom Sectors?

The chapter focuses on the theories and models that can be used to understand the topic at hand. The works of various scholars as well as researchers have been analysed critically in the chapter so that a proper idea can be developed that can shed light on the research. The concepts, importance, application and the any changes that can be related with the topic are analysed so that the corporate social responsibility of the Jordanian Telecom Service can be analysed properly and steps to improve it can be taken. The literature review helps in understanding the research in a broader manner.

Importance of Corporate Social Responsibility

Corporate social responsibility has many definitions and in the modern world, the concept has grown steadily. According to Tai and Chuang (2014), Corporate Social Responsibility is the strategy that is devised by organisations so that policies and procedures can be adopted by organisations in order to define its existence in the market. The policies and procedures can help in benefiting the society so that the members can gain profit out of the contributions made by the organisations. Corporate Social Responsibility is considered as an important policy of an organisation that helps it to gain success (Holme and Watts 2018).

It has been seen been seen that the Corporate Social Responsibility help in providing benefit for an organisation in terms of gaining popularity in the business as well as gaining the trust of the people of the society. As stated by Matten and Moon (2014) Corporate Social Responsibility can be engaged in strategic as well as ethical purpose that helps in governing the functions of an organisation. In the words of McWilliams (2015), implementation of an appropriate social policy can help in restricting the downfall of an organisation and ensure that necessary recognition in the society can be obtained. Therefore, such strategy needs to be implemented in organisations for gaining a competitive advantage in the market.

Many theorists have come up with the fact that social responsibility can help in the development of the society in a proper manner. For example, eradication of poverty, social exclusion and governmental degradation can be addressed with the effective application of social responsible strategies. As stated by Lindgreen and Swaen (2017) social responsibility can aim to move towards promoting a sustainable future that can be useful in building a proper work and social culture. The known status and respect that an organisation possesses is related with the perceived responsibilities that it has towards a community. Hence, Corporate Social Responsibility helps in the development of ethics among the people working in an organisation.

At the same time, Crowther (2018) is of the opinion that Corporate Social Responsibility in a general sense reflects the obligations towards the society and the stakeholders. It is a known fact that the stakeholders of an organisation play a major role in promoting the activities of an organisation and ensures that the activities of an organisation pertain to the interests of the stakeholders. At the same time, the responsibilities towards the communities in terms of its ethics need to be maintained by the organisations. According to Leonard and McAdam (2013) long term profits can be operated using the perspectives of the Corporate Social Responsibility.

Theories related to Corporate Social Responsibility

However, Corporate Social Responsibility has met with a fair amount of criticism as well. As critiqued by Cadbury (2016) Corporate Social Responsibility has a neutral impact on the financial outcomes. At the same time, questions have been made about the unrealistic expectations that are made from the application of Corporate Social Responsibilities. It has been observed that Corporate Social Responsibility also assumes the ability of the Government to create social movement if required and ensure that a proper risk management device is taken into consideration (Carroll 2016). Therefore, it can be said that Corporate Social Responsibility aids an organisation to accomplish its mission and at the same time serve as a guide for the society.

Crane and Matten (2017) is of the opinion that the application of Corporate Social Responsibility need to be based on the manner in which communities get inspiration from the activities undertaken by an organisation. The displacement from a material value to an immaterial value need to be addressed so that the application of the value of Corporate Social Responsibility can be understood. Hence, it is for this reason that certain theories can be used so that the effectiveness of the concept can be understood in a broader manner.

The stakeholder theory is considered as the mirror image of Corporate Social Responsibility. As stated by Carroll (2018) this particular theory is famous as it is a direct alternative to the original concept of Corporate Social Responsibility. The theory argues that the pressure of the stakeholder groups has a wide development since the 1960s and the forces that affect the business need not be underestimated. Hence, it is necessary that the interests of the stakeholders be taken into consideration. At the same time, there has been criticism for the application of the stakeholder theory in order to understand the impact it has on the corporate social responsibility.

McWilliams and Siegel (2015) are of the view that the stakeholder theory emphasises special interest to the society that can be considered as unrelated to the organisation. The responsibility of the organisations is directly linked with the stakeholder responsibility and in the process; it sometime fails to take into consideration the factors that may benefit the society. At the same time proper segregation of the stakeholders are not taken into consideration and this can be considered as a huge negative impact for the existence of social responsibilities within an organisation (Garriga and Melé 2014).

Jordanian Telecom Sector: Corporate Social Responsibility

Cowen, Ferreri and Parker (2017) is of the opinion that the focus of the ethical theory is mainly on the ethical requirement that help in strengthening the relationship between a business organisation and the society. The business ethics theory is based on the principle that expresses the correct thing so that a necessity can be made to achieve a good and prosperous society. According to McGuire, Sundgren and Schneeweis (2018), the business ethics theory aims at establishing a wider social obligation so that the moral duty of the business towards a society can be established.

Hence, it can be said that the application of the ethics theory can justify the application of Corporation Social Responsibility on varied yet interrelated ethical grounds. As stated by Dahlsrud (2018) the change in the social responsiveness and the expectations from a particular society can be considered as a social problem. At the same time extrinsic and intrinsic ethical values always acts as an inspiration so that normative and universal principles can be derived from the social acts. The social justice, fairness and human rights play a major role in promoting the business ethics among the society.

The critical view of the theory as stated by Aupperle, Carroll and Hatfield (2015) is that it considers Corporate Social Responsibility as a philanthropic and ethical responsibility rather than the legal and economic responsibility. The legal obligations of the Corporate Social Responsibility initials are declined by the application of social responsibility in the society. Hence, it can be said that the application of business ethics in the theoretical aspect can be considered as an obligation and freedom from legal implications in the society.

The idea proclaimed by the shareholder theory is that it is the duty of the managers to ensure that the profits of the shareholders are maximised so that they can invest more in the business. As pointed out by Campbell (2017) increasing the value of an organisation does not necessarily mean gaining high profits from the products sold or services rendered. The application of a proper social responsibility can be considered as a means of increasing the value of the shareholders. Roberts (2015) is of the opinion that the social responsibility of business is to ensure that contribution to the society is made in a manner that helps in increasing the economic condition of the place.

Cochran and Wood (2014) are of the opinion that maximising the profit of the shareholders is to justify the most significant as well as the corporate responsibility of social obligations. It is for this reason that strategic instrument as well as corporate competitive benefit is obtained so that more profit can be gained from the society. Certain economists are of the opinion that the application of the shareholder’s theory is that the corporation owners need to serve the interests of the shareholders so that business can be carried on in a proper manner (Carroll and Shabana 2017).

Alternative Corporate Social Responsibility Strategies

As stated by Suliman et al. (2016) Corporate Social Responsibility is important in every aspect of an organisation. Without proper Corporate Social Responsibility, it can be difficult for companies to gain trust from the society and work towards developing a proper reputation. Hence, an analysis can be made highlighting the importance of Corporate Social Responsibility in the development of an organisation. This can provide an analysis of the application that needs to be made in order to ensure that the development of the society. The importance of Corporate Social Responsibility includes:

More media coverage: The recognition from the media can be considered as a huge boost for the organisations. This is mainly because in the modern world, media plays an important part in the promotion of a company. The exposure to good media can provide companies with an opportunity to attract more customers so that it can increase the profit (McWilliams, Siegel and Wright 2016). In the case of the application of Corporate Social Responsibility, media coverage can help in providing exposure to the media and people benefiting from the social services can provide good feedback about the company. Hence, this can help in the development of proper Corporate Social Responsibility and at the same time increase the reputation.

More customer retention: The coverage from the media can lead to the increase of customers. Customers can be retained because the trust upon a company can be gained. As stated by Burke and Logsdon (2016) nine out of ten customers would not support a company that does not indulge in social cause. This can hamper the existence of the company and in turn can decrease its profitability. Hence, Corporate Social Responsibility can help in the retention of customers and at the same time; ensure that benefit of the society can be restored. Therefore, it can be said that the retention of the customers is one of the important factors that can be gained by an organisation.

Brand differentiation: Roy et al. (2015) are of the opinion that brand differentiation can be made with the help of Corporate Social Responsibility. An organisation can stand out from its competitors with effective social responsibility and this can assist the creation of brand image. Pedersen (2015) rightly pointed out that the existence of a brand image is mainly due to the effectiveness of the Corporate Social Responsibility. Therefore, organisations need to participate in programs that help in benefiting the society and in the process ensure that the impressions of the people are subjective to the opinion that are perceived about a company.

Literature Review

Low costs: Esrock and Leichty (2018) are of the opinion that lowering the costs of a product or service can be considered as a social responsibility. This is mainly because the cost cutting procedures used by reputed companies to maintain sustainability is one of the most important aspects of social responsibility. For example, a company like IKEA has shown an important way to cut down the cost of production by changing the shipping practises and reduce the carbon footprint that have a heavy impact on its progress. Hence, it can be said that lowering the cost can help in the implementation of factors which in turn can be effective in gaining a good coverage in the society.

Certain factors can contribute for the development of Corporate Social Responsibility. These factors are important mainly because it dictates the manner in which effectiveness of the strategy can help in creating brand image and at the same time ensure that legality of the business is maintained. As stated by Mohr, Webb and Harris (2015) factors that contribute for the development of Corporate Social Responsibility can attributed to the factors that help an organisation to progress in the market. Some of these factors are discussed that can be effective in performing Corporate Social Responsibility of an organisation.

One of the factors that lead to achieving social responsibility is that of the law. As stated by Carroll (2015) the importance of the legal factors can be determined based on its implications in an organisation and at the same time on the development of the policies. One of the important considerations that need to be undertaken is the application of policies so that awareness of the people can be maintained over the application of social statures in the organisation. This can help in creating social awareness among the people in the hopes that legal and ethical considerations need to be made for the implementation of social responsibilities.

Another factor that can contribute towards attaining Corporate Social Responsibility is the condition of the society. As observed by Becker-Olsen, Cudmore and Hill (2016) the social awareness of a company is mainly focused on the development of the society in which it functions. Although arguments can be made stating that such development is mainly to increase the capabilities of an organisation, the effectiveness of the development process can help in the development of a society. Hence, as stated by Maignan and Ferrell (2014) social awareness is an important factor for the development of social responsibility in an organisation.

Conclusion

As observed by Bhattacharya et al. (2017) Corporate Social Responsibility helps in the development of a strong infrastructure in the society. The diversity in a society can be used to develop infrastructure such as hospitals or education centres. Therefore, improving the infrastructure of the societies plays crucial role in the development of Corporate Social Responsibility in an organisation. These factors are essential in ensuring that the people of a society are provided with the necessities of life and at the same time ensure that influences the managers of an organisation to develop a society worthy of residing or conducting business activities.

Jones (2014) is of the opinion that Corporate Social Responsibility can help in the prevention of risks and ensure that reputation increases. The impact of this is high in a society and the improved manner in which new business opportunities can be developed helps in the implementation of social responsibility. In the words of Du, Bhattacharya and Sen (2016) a high competitiveness helps in the development of social responsibility mainly because, every organisation aims to gain a competitive advantage in the market. Hence, these factors can help in the development of Corporate Social Responsibility and ensure that alternative to it are as effective as the intended factors.

Freeman and Liedtka (2017) stated that an alternative for the application of Corporate Social Responsibility strategy need to be developed so that shared value practise that is the main cause of concern for most organisations could be mitigated. Outdated corporate responsibility programme need to be removed so that companies can gain a proper exposure to the society. Hence, approaches need to be developed so that alternative manner of Corporate Social Responsibility can be attained so that uniqueness of the manner in which the society is served can be made.

Luo and Bhattacharya (2016) are of the opinion that the application of an established approach can help in developing an alternative for the application of Corporate Social Responsibility. Social responsibility strategy needs to fulfil two goals that include creating a positive social impact and enhancing the brand image. Hence, the application of an alternative source such as an established approach can help in fulfilling the goals. This Corporate Social Responsibility can help in defining charitable acts as well developing a funding partnership so that business can be articulated in a proper manner. This can help in the development of sponsorship within the market.

At the same time, certain factors need to be taken into consideration while implementing alternative strategies to Corporate Social Responsibility. Moir (2015) is of the opinion that moral obligations related to work needs to be taken into consideration so that organisations can remain accountable to the duties that it needs to undertake. The social and ethical standards need to be kept in mind while implementing the strategies related to Corporate Social Responsibility. This can provide organisations with an opportunity to remain effective in the business that is undertaken by it. As stated by Smith (2016) ethical standard is one of the most important factors that need to be considered while socialising in the organisations.

The sustainability factor also needs to be kept in mind while promoting corporate social responsibility in the organisations. This is mainly because in the modern world, it is an important factor for the success of an organisation (Visser 2018). Sustainability is essential for the development of a society and this can be considered as an important alternative for the application of social responsibility. Most organisations tend to focus on the development of society through education and infrastructure; however, taking care of the environment in a strategic manner is another consideration that needs to be taken into consideration.

Mohr and Webb (2015) are of the opinion that it is important to execute the application of Corporate Social Responsibility strategy so that organisations can maintain its market advantage. Investing in time and energy for the implementation of strategies is one of the most important factors that an organisation needs to consider. In the case of the application of Corporate Social Responsibility and the means of finding an alternative way to attain it, organisations need to consider the application of the factors that help in the development of a proper social process.

Vogel (2017) stated that social responsible factors could be improved by the application of strategies so that organisations can continue to develop in the market. Hence, it is essential to formulate strategies that can help in building the factors that are responsible for the development of society. One of the recommended options that can be provided is to practise transparency in the business. Morsing and Schultz (2016) are of the opinion that in the age of information and technology security of information in a company can be difficult to maintain. Hence, any Corporate Social Responsible strategy that are carried out by companies need to be preserved.

An active role in the community can help in building reputation as well as ensure that social responsibility is attained. According to Lee (2018), being active in the society provides an organisation with an opportunity to develop in the society. The decisions taken can have a global impact, which in turn can help in providing organisations with an opportunity to succeed in the business market. Hence, supporting the local community can be considered as an effective method of considering the effective responsibilities needed in a society.

Epstein (2017) is of the opinion that in the modern world, another important change that is required to be made is the innovation. Unlike in the earlier days, application of Corporate Social Responsibility can be done by using innovative tactics. For example, sustainability can be attained by gaining assistance from the technologies so that it can help in maintaining the environment. Therefore, it is essential that organisations indulge in innovative tactics so that it can gain the trust of the people and develop its business with modern application (Hohnen and Potts 2017). Hence, it can be said the changes recommended could help in developing sustainability in the business and at the same time ensure that business remain developed.

The chapter provides a description of the topic and the country. Various factors that needed to be known about the country are provided in the chapter. The research topic is provided so that it helps in the development of the topic and at the same time ensures that the country about which the topic is aimed at is described in a proper manner. Analysis based on the industrial structure and the opportunities of import and export of the country is made. At the same time, the demography of the country such as the population and living standard is analysed as it is essential for the development and implementation of Corporate Social Responsibility.

The research focuses on the effectiveness of the Telecom Sector in Jordan and the manner in which it can help in developing the country. The application of the Corporate Social Responsibility of the sector is taken into account and its importance for the development of the country is considered. Furthermore, the topic discusses the manner in which the industrial structure of Jordan can help in the growth of the country and help in gaining an idea about the application of social responsibility that can be provided. At the same time, the factors that contribute for the development of the sector is taken into consideration so that identification can be made about the best Corporate Social Responsibility that can be implemented in the Jordanian Telecom Sector.

Jordan is an under developed country located in the Middle East that depends upon the assistance made by the foreign countries. The main sectors of the Jordanian industry are the pharmaceuticals, cement, clothes and fertilisers. However, over the years, the Jordanian Telecom Sector has become the principle telecommunication service in the country. The development of the sector is because Jordan has to depend heavily on the assistance of the foreign countries. Hence, it is essential that the telecommunication of Jordan upgrades itself to provide assistance to an otherwise failing economy. The privatisation of the sector has brought about a great deal of finances for the country.

The exports of Jordan are estimated to bring about JOD 6.521 billion while the import brings about JOD 15.65 billion. The chief export and import partner of Jordan is Saudi Arabia, India and The United States. In addition to this, the country conducts trade business of clothing, pharmaceuticals, crude oil, machinery and transport with countries such as the U.A.E, Italy, Iraq and China. However, it has been seen that the exports and import of Jordan have decreased considerably. A comparison of the decline of the import and export figures of Jordan has been provided for better understanding of the decline in the trade profits of the country

Jordan has a population of about 9,949,170 inhabitants. The population consists of a majority of Arabians while other ethnic people are considered as minority in the country. It has been seen that the population of the country is equivalent to 0.13% of the total population of the world and this is one of the reasons behind it being considered as an underdeveloped country. The density of the population in the country is 112 per km2 with a land area of 88,780 km2. The median age of the people in the country is about 22.4 years. The population has received a steady growth since 1955.

The cost of living in Jordan is much higher than compared to other countries of the Middle East. The rent provided by the people residing in Jordan is about 87.31% higher than other Middle Eastern countries. Despite this Jordan is considered as an under developed country mainly because the rate of standard of living does not match the rate of economic growth of the country. Jordan has been ranked among the 50 most expensive countries in the world due to its high standard of living. However, it is the responsibility of the Government of the country as well as the sectors inside the country to ensure that the living standard improves.

The GDP size of Jordan is worth US$40.07 billion. The GDP value of the country represents about 0.06 percent of the world economy. The GDP of Jordan averages about US$10.25 billion in 1965 and since then have grown gradually with the elapse of time. The GDP is also expected to increase by 2.4% by the end of 2018 and by 2.5% at the start of 2019. The per capital income of Jordan JOD 5,180 with an approximate of 14.4% population reside below the poverty line.

The literacy rate of the Jordanians is about 14.5%. It has been seen that the illiteracy rate in Jordan is the lowest among the Arab countries with only 9.1% of the population being classified as illiterate. The literacy rate of the country is an indication of the potential success that the country can have and the manner in which it can use it to develop the poor state of the region. Hence, it can be said that the population of Jordan is one of the most literate people in the world presently.

The chapter focuses on the tools and techniques that can be used for completing the research in a successful manner. The research choices that have been made are justified and the effectiveness of the research methodology on the topic has been provided. The researcher also provides the accessibility issues that have been faced and the ethical considerations that have been made in order to conduct the research.

The research philosophy consists of three types of ways to analyse the data. These include the positivism philosophy, interpretivism philosophy and pragmatism philosophy. The three philosophies have distinctive characteristics that help in choosing a particular mode of analysis. According to Neuman and Robson (2014), positivism philosophy helps by providing information about the research by relating it to the facts that help in gaining a full knowledge of the specific topic. The interpretivism philosophy helps in gaining the relevant information so that real life incidents and experiences can be related for better understanding of the topic (Lewis 2015). On the other hand, the application of the pragmatic philosophy can be considered as the amalgamation of both the other philosophies so that assist in the analysis of the facts can be related with the real world.

In order to conduct this particular research in a proper manner the application of positivism philosophy can be appropriate. The reason for the choice of this particular philosophy is that it can help the researcher to develop opportunities that can be related to the scientific analysis. Elliott (2015) stated that positivism philosophy helps in analysing scholarly articles that can be used for the successful completion of a research. Therefore, the application of this theory is justified.

According to Ellram and Tate (2016), the research design is based on two types of methods. These include the exploratory design and the descriptive design. The application of the research design can help in attaining the objectives of the research and at the same time ensure that a proper analysis of the topic is done by linking it with the objectives. Taylor, Bogdan and DeVault (2015) stated that the exploratory research design assists in an investigation keeping in mind the new and relevant responses that are provided based on the topic. However, the descriptive research design verifies the topic that helps in the analysis of the research question and links it with the topic at hand (Panneerselvam 2014).

The research design that is selected for the completion of the research is the descriptive design. The reason for the selection of this design is that since the data is analysed using secondary sources, description about the concept need to be provided so that a proper conclusion can be obtained. This can help in defining the objectives of the research in a proper manner.

The importance of the research approach is that it helps in providing information that is relevant and a relation with the research topic is made. According to Quinlan et al. (2018), the research approach comprises of two types that is the inductive and the deductive approach. The inductive approach assists in the application of models and relevant theories so that the requirements of the research topic are met. The deductive approach helps in the analysis of the theories and ensures that the theories are applied in a manner that can help in the effective completion using secondary sources (Bernard 2017). Moreover, thematic analysis can be conducted using the deductive approach.

For the successful completion of this research, the research approach that can be taken into consideration is the deductive approach. This is mainly because the deductive approach can help in the analysis of the theories that can be related to the topic at hand. A thematic analysis can be conducted so that target can be reached based on the application of secondary data. The deductive approach can be effective in analysing the theories that need to be sought for the completion of the research topic. Hence, the application of this particular research approach is justified.

The research questions include:

  • What is the concept of corporate social responsibility?
  • What is the importance of implementing corporate social responsibility in the Jordanian Telecom Sectors?
  • What pragmatic alternative for creating corporate social responsibility strategy can be suitable for the Jordanian Telecom Sectors?
  • What recommends can be provided to improve the alternative sources for the betterment of the Jordanian Telecom Sectors?

The data collection method normally includes two types of method that include the primary method and the secondary method. Cheng and Phillips (2014) observed that the secondary data consists of collection of information using books, articles and journals along with the official and Government websites. The primary data collection method involves collecting first hand information from the experiences of the people and their opinion about a particular topic. This can be done using methods such as surveys or interviews that help in the proper analysis of the data.

In order to complete the research in a successful manner, the application of secondary data is appropriate. The reason for the application of secondary data is that thoughts and insights of various scholars can be related with the topic at hand. This can help in gaining an in-depth knowledge of the topic and help in the successful completion of the topic. Hence, relation can be made with the works of the scholars and the theories related can also be applied for the successful completion of the research. The basis used for the collection of secondary data is the information received from websites, journals and books that can be related to the topic.

The data collection technique consists of qualitative as well as quantitative technique. According to Berger (2015), the application of the techniques can help in predicting and judging the results that are expected from the completion of the research of the topic. The qualitative technique is applied while using primary data so that the results of the survey can be calculated and the research can be completed in a proper manner. The responses of the participants of the survey are calculated and analysed. At the same time, the application of the quantitative data collection technique can help in analysing the secondary research that has been conducted so that a more detailed approach can be made and the research can be completed in a proper manner (Nardi 2018).

This research uses the analysis of secondary data and due to this; the application of quantitative data collection technique can be used. For this research, the appropriate application of secondary research is the thematic analysis. This can help in gaining more details about the topic and at the same time ensure that relevant theories are applied that can help in relating the topic with that of the objectives. The research questions can be answered by the application of the thematic analysis.

In order to ensure that the research is conducted in a proper manner, the researcher needs to take into account certain considerations. These include defining the purpose of the research so that accessibility to the information related to the research can be made. This can help in identifying the manner in which the research needs to be conducted by the researcher. The data collected by the researcher is made valid so that it can be collected in a legal manner. The statute of the Data Protection Act 1998 needs to be followed so that the information collected can be made legal. The researcher cannot use the data collected for any other purpose other than the academic purpose intended for collecting the data. The results of the research will be kept a secret to avoid controversies.

In order to complete the research in a proper manner, the researcher faced various issues that hindered the progress. One of the issues that were faced by the researcher is the extensive search of the secondary data. The required data for identifying the application of corporate social responsibility in the Jordanian Telecom Sector needed to be related to the theme of the research. Hence, accessing the files and websites related to the Telecom Sector were difficult to access as it was protected using firewalls. At the same time, the websites were set in the local language of Jordan that needed to be translated.

The chapter provides an understanding of the analysis and findings that can be obtained after analysing the Jordanian Telecom Sector. The analysis is based upon conducting a secondary analysis that highlights the key aspects of the Corporate Social Responsibility tactics and its effectiveness in the Jordanian Telecom Sector. The analysis and findings provides an idea about the manner in which alternatives to the Corporate Social Responsibility can be implemented so that it can help in the growth of the sector as well as the development of the country in general.

Theme 1: Effectiveness of Corporate Social Responsibility

As stated by Palazzo (2018) Corporate Social Responsibility is one of the modern strategic aspects that organisations need to follow in order to maintain good relations with the society. Thereby, its effectiveness in the market can stretch towards many aspects that include educating the society to building a proper life style of the people. The statistics show that effectiveness of Corporate Social Responsibility in every sphere of life.

As the analysis suggests, the effectiveness of the Corporate Social Responsibility can be best implemented for the development of a community. This is mainly because an organisation aims to get the best support from the community in terms of resources as well as the materials. Hence, development of the infrastructure related to the community is important for the development of an organisation. The environmental factor also plays an important role for Jordanian Telecom Sector. Education of the people in the society is important for its development so that employment can be increased. Hence, Jordanian Telecom Sector need to ensure that education is provided in the society so that the people can advance.

The analysis also shows that conserving the environment is another important factor that needs to be maintained from the Corporate Social Responsibility. According to Kurucz, Colbert and Wheeler (2018), protecting the environment need to be done to maintain sustainability and at the same time ensure that the health of the people is maintained. This is another factor that Jordanian Telecom Sector takes into consider so that the people can have a better life and contribute for the development of the society. Therefore, it can be said that Corporate Social Responsibility plays an important role for the development of the society as well as the community. These responsibilities are common and organisations need to ensure that proper management system is implemented in order to gain recognition.

Theme 2: Importance of Corporate Social Responsibility

The literature provides a description of the importance of Corporate Social Responsibility while the theme earlier provides its effectiveness. Lantos (2016) is of the opinion that the Corporate Social Responsibility is needed in every aspect so that companies can provide an opportunity for improvement in the society. At the same time it is also essential that the reputation of the company improve that can help in the development of the company. It has been seen that improvement of the public image can help in the development of the development of a company. As stated by Barnett (2017) companies that remain engaged in different activities across the country are more likely to be noticed by the public.

On the other hand, if the activities undertaken pertain to the development of the society then the companies becomes a major favourite for the people. In this regard, it can be said that positive feedback may be received from the people and it can help in the development of the people in the society. Apart from this, the exposure of the brand in turn can help in retention of the customers. Although Baron (2018) views this particular factor as separate from the popularity, denial cannot be made about the effectiveness of public exposure on the retention of the customers.

Another importance of engaging in Corporate Social Responsibility is that companies can build a proper brand differentiation. This can help in the retention of the employees and at the same time ensure that the customers are aware of the brand not only for the products and services provided but also for the contribution towards the society. Branco and Rodrigues (2016) is of the opinion that increase the brand awareness can help in ushering more profit thereby plays a significant contribution towards the motivation of the employees. Hence, it can be said that the adoption of the Corporate Social Responsibility process does not only help the companies to be popular with the customers but also act as an indirect motivating factor for the employees.

Theme 3: A pragmatic alternative Corporate Social Responsibility strategy

According to Alexander and Buchholz (2018), most companies aim at preaching and practising Corporate Social Responsibility for the development of a community and the society. However, it is essential to understand that Corporate Social Responsibility mainly fulfils two goals that help in the development of the society and the community. These two goals include creating a positive social impact and enhancing the brand name of the company. Hence, as stated by Godfrey, Merrill and Hansen (2018) companies should not try to force the desperate Corporate Social Responsibility programmes in the strategy adopted by the brand.

Jordanian Telecom Sector needs to have a clear idea about the reason for being involved in the Corporate Social Responsibility and the outcomes that can be expected from it. Unlike its supplier Zain, which possess revenue worth JOD 1030, the Jordanian Telecom Sector cannot afford to refrain from conducting Corporate Social Responsibility. An example of the revenue of Zain can be provided in this case.

Keeping this in mind, it can be said that capital fund of Jordanian Telecom Sector can be used to provide assistance to the people in need so that they can improve the functioning of the strategy and ensure that emphasis is provided for the aim at developing the community or for improving the working condition within the organisations. One such alternative that can be adopted is the development of ethical considerations within a society.

Although Brammer, Millington and Rayton (2017) may argue that the development of ethical consideration within the people is done by providing education, evidence can prevail that states that development of ethical considerations sometimes occur from the background of the family. It has been seen from the analysis of the country that Jordan has the least number of people in the illiterate section. Therefore, the people residing in the society can understand a sense of right and wrong principles within the community and its application. Apart from this aligning the share of profits for the development of the community can be considered as an alternate approach towards Corporate Social Responsibility. However, one of the criteria that need to be kept in mind is the capability of the company.

The capability of Jordanian Telecom Sector can help it to remain contained within its aims and ensure that innovative actions are taken for the development of the community. For companies that lack stable financial conditions it can be difficult to implement innovative tactics. Hence, it can be said that development of an alternative source of Corporate Social Responsibility can help companies to remain unique in the market and provide an opportunity for growth.

Theme 4: Changes in the application of Corporate Social Responsibilities

The application of Corporate Social Responsibility needs to take into consideration the effectiveness with which a company can deliver its capabilities. As stated by Craig and Rodrigues (2016) it is the duty of the managers of an organisation to ensure that Corporate Social Responsibility is prevailed within the organisation so that it can continue to function properly in the society. It is for this reason that changes are required to be made within Jordanian Telecom Sector that helps in guiding the effectiveness of the changes and the manner in which it can be implemented by the organisation.

Hence, the recommendations that are needed to be provided to the company normally account for being creative and innovative in the market so that it can continue its growth in the market. The changes need to be made by taking into account the applicability of change management tactics so that organisations and the employees can benefit from it. In the case of the Jordanian Telecom Sector, the change of the management needs to focus on the effective implementation of the factors that dictate the success of Corporate Social Responsibility (Moon and Knudsen 2018).

It can be seen that in the case of Orange Group, the revenue generated by the company is usually from the mobile and internet services that it provides. Jordanian Telecom Sector can benefit from this supplier as the revenue generated is mainly based on the mobile communication. The figure provides an idea about the practises that are undertaken by the Jordanian Telecom Sector with Orange Group.

The analysis of the literature review suggests that changes in the Corporate Social Responsibility need to be made by considering the innovative capability and the strength of the resources. Previous analysis has shown that the effective implementation of Corporate Social Responsibility is mainly on the development of community through educational practises as well as ensuring that the environment is kept safe. However, implementation of changes in the community by Jordanian Telecom Sector needs to be provided after careful analysis of the resources. As stated by Kim, Li and Li (2014) development of a pragmatic alternative requires the effective implementation of resources so that proper effectiveness is maintained in the organisations.

The chapter discusses the analysis and findings along with the research questions that has been developed to conduct the research. The discussion is linked with the research question so that the aim of the research is maintained. At the same time, relation with the literature review is made so that verification can be done about the successful manner in which the research has been conducted. The chapter conducts a proper discussion about the findings by making critical arguments about the analysis and trying to identify a proper connection between the Corporate Social Responsibility adopted by the Jordanian Telecom Sector and its connection with its development.

The research questions included for the research were:

  • What is the concept of corporate social responsibility?
  • What is the importance of implementing corporate social responsibility in the Jordanian Telecom Sectors?
  • What pragmatic alternative for creating corporate social responsibility strategy can be suitable for the Jordanian Telecom Sectors?
  • What recommends can be provided to improve the alternative sources for the betterment of the Jordanian Telecom Sectors?

From the analysis, it can be seen that Corporate Social Responsibility is essential for the development of a community. In the case of the Jordanian Telecom Sector, it is essential that the company maintain strategies to develop the community for its betterment. The analysis shows that it is essential to develop the community in which a company functions. The Jordanian Telecom Sector is spread across Jordan and it is essential that the development of the country take place. The development can take place by considering every aspect that the Corporate Social Responsibility intends to perform.

The analysis of the background of the country has shown that the living standard of Jordan is high and it is for this reason the country is considered as one of the most expensive in the world. However, a slow economic growth mainly due to the fall in export and import of the country have resulted it being considered as one of the under developed and lesser-known countries of the world. Hence, it can be said that it is the duty of the Jordanian Telecom Sector to ensure that development of the economy takes place along with the cost of living in the country.

The rate of people residing below the poverty need to improve as this is one aspect in the society, which plays a hindrance role in the development of the country. This can be done by contributing a share of the profit earned to the people so that development of the society takes place. Such a step can be considered as one of the essential roles of Corporate Social Responsibility and it can help the Jordanian Telecom Sector to gain reputation in the market and work towards the improvement of the society.

This can be done by ensuring that the sector engages in improving the communication system with the world so that the import and export between the countries can improve. Moreover, it is also essential that the sector encourage people with the art of residing a stable life without spending much on items that cannot be liquidated or generate income. For this, it is important to ensure that the education of the people is provided. It has already been seen that Jordan is considered as a country that has the lowest illiteracy rate. At the same time, the literacy rate of the country is not as high as other countries in the world.

Hence, it is essential for the Jordanian Telecom Sector to take into account the education of the society and use it to make it a better place for the people to reside in it. Education across the country can be spread by setting up schools or undertaking campaigns that provide an opportunity for the people to be educated and lift them up from the illiterate section of the society. Jordanian Telecom Sector can provide such opportunities so that it can be prudent for the people to gain the basic education needed for lifting the condition of the society as well as the community in which they reside.

At the same time, the environmental factor of the Corporate Social Responsibility undertaken by the companies compels it to maintain sustainability in the environment. The analysis shows that protecting the environment is considered as one of the most important duties of Corporate Social Responsibility and the Jordanian Telecom Sector need to implement strategies to protect it. It has been seen that Jordan is considered to have one of the most polluted environment mainly due to its population and the mass of land. Hence, priority on the protection of the environment is essential so that the sector can help in its development and make Jordan one of the cleanest countries in the world.

Therefore, keeping in mind the essentials of Corporate Social Responsibility, the importance of it can be taken into consideration and related with the Jordanian Telecom Sector. As per the analysis, one of the most important factors related to Corporate Social Responsibility is that it helps in the improvement of public image. The Jordanian Telecom Sector already has a good reputation in the market and therefore, it can be said that implementation of Corporate Social Responsible factors can help in improving the already existing reputation of the sector. In this case, it can be said that Jordanian Telecom Sector can improve its stability in the market by attracting customers as well as employees.

The analysis has shown that Corporate Social Responsibility helps in motivating employees as monetary benefit can be gained from its implementation. Hence, it is necessary that Corporate Social Responsibility be implemented by the sector to improve the longevity of the employees. The motivation of the employees can be gained by providing them with the assistance required for working at the sector. The Corporate Social Responsibility adopted by the sector can help in retaining the services of the employees as well as the investors that take interest in the sector. Therefore, it can be concluded that the stakeholders of the Jordanian Telecom Sector can benefit immensely from the adoption of a proper responsible factor.

It has been seen from the analysis that increasing the reputation also helps in retaining the loyalty of the customers. At the same time, the analysis of the background of the country has proven that export and import of the country have taken a backdrop in the past years. Hence, an improved reputation of the sector can help it to establish proper and effective communication with the countries interested in trade relations with Jordan thereby improving the condition of the society. The Jordanian Telecom Sector can implement the responsibility in trying to create intercommunication between the people in the countries so that effectiveness of the strategy can be maintained.

The analysis also shows that corporate partnership can be forged with the help of Corporate Social Responsibilities. This can be attributed with the fact that the partnership usually occur with companies that have the same interest in helping out the community and its development. Forging corporate partnership with reputed companies can help in the improvement of Jordanian Telecom Sector and at the same time provide the sector with an opportunity to gain resources and capabilities from the partnership. As seen from the analysis of the organisation, the Jordanian Telecom Sector does not have any such partnerships forged at the time and this can be considered as a backlog for the sector particularly if it tries to establish an educated and established community.

At the same time, Corporate Social Responsibility can help in the differentiation of the brand and therefore, it can be said that the companies are provided with an opportunity to be different from one another. In the case of the Jordanian Telecom Sector, the differentiation in the brand can help it to maintain its uniqueness from its competitors. Although the sector does not face much competition in the country, expansion into a foreign territory in the future may bring about competition in the market. Therefore, it is essential that the Jordanian Telecom Sector abide by the opportunities provided by the Corporate Social Responsibility and engage in helping the community to progress.

On the other hand, application of a pragmatic alternative strategy for the implementation of Corporate Social Responsibility need to be identified so that in the case of failure of the common strategies, the Jordanian Telecom Sector gain competence with the unique solutions that it can provide to the community for its development. The analysis has shown that alternate solution for the implementation of proper Corporate Social Responsibility within the community need to be unique and innovative. Therefore, the Jordanian Telecom Sector needs to develop capabilities that can serve its purpose for spreading growth and education in the society.

The analysis has provided evidence that organisations normally aim to fulfil two goals that are necessary for the implementation of an effective Corporate Social Responsibility. In the case of the Jordanian Telecom Sector, these goals help in creating positive social impact in the community so that the brand image of the sector can be enhanced. Unlike other sectors, the Jordanian Telecom Sector finds this particular growth to be a natural fit mainly because of its already established name in the society. Hence, it can be said that the Corporate Social Responsibility strategies that the sector aims to apply can provide the sector with uniqueness and at the same time ensure that it helps in gaining its objectives.

One of the advantages that the Jordanian Telecom Sector possesses is its idea and clarity of its goals. The economic state of Jordan does not have stability and therefore, it can be said that the sector can be said that the application of strategies related to the development of economy can be a huge factor for the sector. It has already been seen that the effectiveness of the Corporate Social Responsibility is directed for the development of the community and the environment along with that of providing education. Hence, economic development is important for the development of the country.

Conclusion

The research can be concluded by taking into consideration the factors that affect the importance of Corporate Social Responsibility. It is essential to understand that Corporate Social Responsibility needs to be undertaken so that a company can continue to gain popularity with its development. The manner in which effectiveness of Corporate Social Responsibility can be taken into account is one of the most important factors that need to be considered. Hence, the strategies that can be adopted for the implementation of Corporate Social Responsibility within an organisation need to be precise and at the same time consist of managing an effective position in the market.

It is important that a sector like Jordanian Telecom Sector develop its Corporate Social Responsibility in an effective manner. This is mainly because Jordan is considered as one of the most under developed countries in the world. Despite its rich life style and a high rate of literacy, the country requires the development of economy and a proper trade relation. The responsibility of Jordanian Telecom Sector is to ensure that a communication is made with the countries so that trade relations are kept for the development of the economy. Change in the lifestyle of the people in the community need to be done based on the implementation of the Corporate Social Responsibility strategies that help in the development of the society.

At the same time, it is highly essential to take into consideration the environmental factors, as the sustainability of a society is important for the implementation of a suitable business. The Jordanian Telecom Sector need to ensure that the environment in which it works provide itself with an opportunity to develop its sustainability. The analysis has shown that due to the population of the country along with its land mass, it can be difficult to maintain a proper environment suitable for sustainability. Hence, this is another consideration that needs to be made by Jordanian Telecom Sector.

Therefore, it can be said that the Jordanian Telecom Sector need to be innovative as well as maintain uniqueness in the strategies that are adopted by it. The changes that need to be undertaken by the Jordanian Telecom Sector need to be such that it highlights the innovative prospects of the sector. This can provide an opportunity for the sector to promote its capabilities. Apart from the customers, the employees working at the sector can gain benefit from the application of proper Corporate Social Responsibility within the organisation. Hence, Jordanian Telecom Sector need to take measures that can make the sector effective in its market.

Objective 1: To understand the concept of corporate social responsibility

The Corporate Social Responsibility is one of the most important and essential strategies that need to be taken by an organisation in order to attain success. The application of Corporate Social Responsibility can be attributed to the fact that it provides organisations with an opportunity to make its presence known in the market. In the case of the Jordanian Telecom Sector, the application of the Corporate Social Responsibility is essential for the development of the country. Evidence from the literature review as well as the data analysis suggests that the effectiveness of the Corporate Social Responsibility can help in the development of a community, environment and provide chances of receiving proper education to the people.

Therefore, it can be said that Corporate Social Responsibility of the Jordanian Telecom Sector needs to focus on the development of these factors for the progress of the country as well as the organisation. The focus need to be primarily on these factors so that the perception of the people about Jordan being an under developed country can be changed. Hence, it can be said that this particular objective is met after proper analysis of the literature review as well as the data analysis present for understanding the concept.

Objective 2: To analyse the importance of implementing corporate social responsibility in the Jordanian Telecom Sectors

As established earlier, Corporate Social Responsibility is important for establishing the goodwill of an organisation in the society. However, analysis of the literature review as well as other secondary sources has established the fact that Corporate Social Responsibility is important in other areas as well. The analysis has shown that Corporate Social Responsibility can be applied in other areas such as motivation of the employees as well as retention of the customers. In the case of the Jordanian Telecom Sector, the application of the Corporate Social Responsibility can be directed at establishing proper trade relations with the foreign country.

The reason for this is that the analysis has shown that export and import of Jordan has decreased vehemently and this in turn can have a negative impact on the economic growth of the country. Hence, the Jordanian Telecom Sector can establish good relations with the foreign country and improve its export and import in the country. Therefore, such a relationship can help in establishing a proper Corporate Social Responsibility in the market and provide Jordan with an opportunity to grow its economic competence. Hence, after the analysis of the literature review and the data with secondary information it can be said that this particular objective has been met.

Objective 3: To develop a pragmatic alternative for creating corporate social responsibility strategy suitable for the Jordanian Telecom Sectors

The analysis has shown that it is important for organisations to develop a pragmatic alternative solution so that Corporate Social Responsibility strategy can be suitable for the Jordanian Telecom Sector. The sector needs to ensure that the Corporate Social Responsibility is stretched towards the development of the community using means that are unique from its competitors. It can be said that such application can help the Jordanian Telecom Sectors to expand its horizons in the market and at the same time implement the strategies in a proper manner.

The telecom sector needs to provide support by taking innovative steps so that it can mitigate the threats of the competitors. At the same time, it is also necessary that the Jordanian Telecom Sector take into account the ethical considerations that can be related for the protection of the community. The analysis shows that bringing about an ethical development for the people can be considered as an educational approach. With a high rate of literacy rate, Jordan Telecom Sector can implement the ethical consideration of the country in a proper manner. Thus, it can be said that the Jordanian Telecom Sector can develop a pragmatic alternative for the success of its Corporate Social Responsibility in the market.

Objective 4: To recommend ways to improve the alternative sources for the betterment of the Jordanian Telecom Sectors

Therefore, it is essential that Corporate Social Responsibility strategy be directed towards the development of economy by engaging in collaboration of trade activities with foreign nations. To do so the Jordanian Telecom Sector need to maintain effective communication with the countries and involve them in the trade activities that can help them in securing stability in the import and export within the country. This can be considered as an effective role that the Jordanian Telecom Sector can play in the community. At the same time, it is also necessary that the ethical consideration of the people be taken into consideration so that it can help in maintaining a disciplined community.

The ethical condition of the people needs to be considered so that it can help in maintaining the discipline of the country and the people involved in it. It has been seen from the analysis as well as the background of the country that Jordan is a country with a high percentage of literate people. Hence, it is expected that the people residing in the country have an understanding of the ethical considerations and the company can best reflect the manner in which it can pursue its effectiveness. Therefore, ensuring that the ethical factors are kept in mind while implementing the Corporate Social Responsibility of the organisation.

After the analysis of the secondary data as well as the literature reviews, recommendations can be provided so that the Jordanian Telecom Sector can improve its functions in the society and implement the necessary assistance required for the development of the society. One of the changes that the sector can make is the adoption of innovative practises for the development of the society. This can be done by ensuring that adequate profit is obtained and used for the development of strategies such as an opportunity to scale the economic progress of the country. Argument can be made of the fact that development of economy is usually done by the Government, but Jordanian Telecom Sector can implement this strategy so that it can be unique in its pursue of providing an effective Corporate Social Responsibility.

This can include making equipments for conducting effective communication with the foreign countries so that a trade relation can be made that can provide Jordan with the desired growth in the economy. One of the important aspects of the Jordanian Telecom Sector is that it can manage to provide an opportunity of collaboration with the people residing in areas outside the country. Hence, people outside Jordan can make effective contact with the country and visit the country for business purpose as well for touring it. At the same time, another recommendation that can be adopted by the Jordanian Telecom Sector is that it can use Corporate Social Responsibility for improving the profitability of the sector.

This can be done by helping the people and increasing the reputation of the sector. The analysis has already stated that the application of Corporate Social Responsibility in a positive manner can help in improving the brand awareness among the people. Despite the fact that the Jordanian Telecom Sector is popular in the country, the effective popularity of the sector can help in providing the sector with an additional benefit in the market. The Jordanian Telecom Sector can use the popularity to reach its customers and make effective relationships with the employees. The employees can be well motivated for helping the sector reach its popularity.

The future scope of the study is that the effectiveness of Corporate Social Responsibility in organisations outside Jordan can be done. At the same time, scope of expansion of the telecom sector and its popularity in the market of Jordan can be identified. Having identified the condition of Jordan, the manner in which the economy of the country can be improved or the manner in which the population can be controlled by effective means of Corporate Social Responsibility can be identified. The opportunities that may be gained by business organisations from an overseas location can be identified in the future.

A?an, Y., Kuzey, C., Acar, M.F. and Aç?kgöz, A., 2016. The relationships between corporate social responsibility, environmental supplier development, and firm performance. Journal of Cleaner Production, 112, pp.1872-1881.

Alexander, G.J. and Buchholz, R.A., 2018. Corporate social responsibility and stock market performance. Academy of Management journal, 21(3), pp.479-486.

Alvarado-Herrera, A., Bigne, E., Aldas-Manzano, J. and Curras-Perez, R., 2017. A scale for measuring consumer perceptions of corporate social responsibility following the sustainable development paradigm. Journal of Business Ethics, 140(2), pp.243-262.

Aupperle, K.E., Carroll, A.B. and Hatfield, J.D., 2015. An empirical examination of the relationship between corporate social responsibility and profitability. Academy of management Journal, 28(2), pp.446-463.

Barnett, M.L., 2017. Stakeholder influence capacity and the variability of financial returns to corporate social responsibility. Academy of management review, 32(3), pp.794-816.

Baron, D.P., 2018. Private politics, corporate social responsibility, and integrated strategy. Journal of Economics & Management Strategy, 10(1), pp.7-45.

Becker-Olsen, K.L., Cudmore, B.A. and Hill, R.P., 2016. The impact of perceived corporate social responsibility on consumer behavior. Journal of business research, 59(1), pp.46-53.

Berger, A.A., 2015. Media and communication research methods: An introduction to qualitative and quantitative approaches. Sage Publications.

Bernard, H.R., 2017. Research methods in anthropology: Qualitative and quantitative approaches. Rowman & Littlefield.

Bhattacharya, C.B., Korschun, D., Sen, S. and Routledge, H., 2017. Corporate Social Responsibility. Journal of International Law, 26(2).

Boulouta, I. and Pitelis, C.N., 2014. Who needs CSR? The impact of corporate social responsibility on national competitiveness. Journal of business ethics, 119(3), pp.349-364.

Brammer, S., He, H. and Mellahi, K., 2015. Corporate social responsibility, employee organizational identification, and creative effort: The moderating impact of corporate ability. Group & Organization Management, 40(3), pp.323-352.

Brammer, S., Millington, A. and Rayton, B., 2017. The contribution of corporate social responsibility to organizational commitment. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 18(10), pp.1701-1719.

Branco, M.C. and Rodrigues, L.L., 2016. Corporate social responsibility and resource-based perspectives. Journal of business Ethics, 69(2), pp.111-132.

Brannen, J. ed., 2017. Mixing methods: Qualitative and quantitative research. Routledge.

Bryman, A., 2015. Social research methods. Oxford university press.

Bryman, A., 2017. Quantitative and qualitative research: further reflections on their integration. In Mixing methods: Qualitative and quantitative research (pp. 57-78). Routledge.

Burke, L. and Logsdon, J.M., 2016. How corporate social responsibility pays off. Long range planning, 29(4), pp.495-502.

Cadbury, A., 2016. Corporate social responsibility. Twenty-First Century Society, 1(1), pp.5-21.

Campbell, J.L., 2017. Why would corporations behave in socially responsible ways? An institutional theory of corporate social responsibility. Academy of management Review, 32(3), pp.946-967.

Campopiano, G. and De Massis, A., 2015. Corporate social responsibility reporting: A content analysis in family and non-family firms. Journal of Business Ethics, 129(3), pp.511-534.

Carroll, A.B. and Shabana, K.M., 2017. The business case for corporate social responsibility: A review of concepts, research and practice. International journal of management reviews, 12(1), pp.85-105.

Carroll, A.B., 2015. Corporate social responsibility. Organizational dynamics, 44(2), pp.87-96.

Carroll, A.B., 2016. The pyramid of corporate social responsibility: Toward the moral management of organizational stakeholders. Business horizons, 34(4), pp.39-48.

Carroll, A.B., 2018. Corporate social responsibility: Evolution of a definitional construct. Business & society, 38(3), pp.268-295.

Cheng, H.G. and Phillips, M.R., 2014. Secondary analysis of existing data: opportunities and implementation. Shanghai archives of secondary data, 26(6), p.371.

Clapp, J. and Rowlands, I.H., 2014. Corporate social responsibility. Essential concepts of global environmental governance, 42.

Cochran, P.L. and Wood, R.A., 2014. Corporate social responsibility and financial performance. Academy of management Journal, 27(1), pp.42-56.

Corkery, J., Mikalsen, M. and Allan, K., 2016. Corporate social responsibility: The good corporation.

Cowen, S.S., Ferreri, L.B. and Parker, L.D., 2017. The impact of corporate characteristics on social responsibility disclosure: A typology and frequency-based analysis. Accounting, Organizations and society, 12(2), pp.111-122.

Craig, R. and Rodrigues, L.L., 2016. Using a Dialectic Approach to Understand Stakeholders’ Conflicts with Corporate Social Responsibility Activities. In A Stakeholder Approach to Corporate Social Responsibility (pp. 339-356). Routledge.

Crane, A. and Glozer, S., 2016. Researching corporate social responsibility communication: Themes, opportunities and challenges. Journal of Management Studies, 53(7), pp.1223-1252.

Crane, A. and Matten, D. eds., 2017. Corporate social responsibility (Vol. 2). Sage.

Crowther, D., 2018. Corporate social responsibility. Bookboon.

Dahlsrud, A., 2018. How corporate social responsibility is defined: an analysis of 37 definitions. Corporate social responsibility and environmental management, 15(1), pp.1-13.

Davies, M.B. and Hughes, N., 2014. Doing a successful research project: Using qualitative or quantitative methods. Palgrave Macmillan.

Du, S., Bhattacharya, C.B. and Sen, S., 2016. Maximizing business returns to corporate social responsibility (CSR): The role of CSR communication. International journal of management reviews, 12(1), pp.8-19.

Dyck, A., Lins, K.V., Roth, L. and Wagner, H.F., 2018. Do institutional investors drive corporate social responsibility? International evidence?. Journal of Financial Economics.

Elliott, D.C., 2015. Secondary data analysis. Research in the college context: Approaches and methods, pp.175-184.

Ellram, L.M. and Tate, W.L., 2016. The use of secondary data in purchasing and supply management (P/SM) research. Journal of Purchasing and Supply Management, 22(4), pp.250-254.

Epstein, E.M., 2017. The corporate social policy process: Beyond business ethics, corporate social responsibility, and corporate social responsiveness. California management review, 29(3), pp.99-114.

Epstein, M.J., 2018. Making sustainability work: Best practices in managing and measuring corporate social, environmental and economic impacts. Routledge.

Esrock, S.L. and Leichty, G.B., 2018. Social responsibility and corporate web pages: Self-presentation or agenda-setting?. Public relations review, 24(3), pp.305-319.

Eteokleous, P.P., Leonidou, L.C. and Katsikeas, C.S., 2016. Corporate social responsibility in international marketing: review, assessment, and future research. International Marketing Review, 33(4), pp.580-624.

Farooq, O., Payaud, M., Merunka, D. and Valette-Florence, P., 2014. The impact of corporate social responsibility on organizational commitment: Exploring multiple mediation mechanisms. Journal of Business Ethics, 125(4), pp.563-580.

Flammer, C. and Luo, J., 2017. Corporate social responsibility as an employee governance tool: Evidence from a quasi?experiment. Strategic Management Journal, 38(2), pp.163-183.

Flick, U., 2015. Introducing research methodology: A beginner's guide to doing a research project. Sage.

Font, X., Guix, M. and Bonilla-Priego, M.J., 2016. Corporate social responsibility in cruising: Using materiality analysis to create shared value. Tourism Management, 53, pp.175-186.

Frederick, W.C., 2018. Corporate Social Responsibility: From Founders to Millennials. In Corporate Social Responsibility(pp. 3-38). Emerald Publishing Limited.

Freeman, R.E. and Liedtka, J., 2017. Corporate social responsibility: A critical approach. Business Horizons, 34(4), pp.92-99.

Frynas, J.G. and Yamahaki, C., 2016. Corporate social responsibility: Review and roadmap of theoretical perspectives. Business Ethics: A European Review, 25(3), pp.258-285.

Garriga, E. and Melé, D., 2014. Corporate social responsibility theories: Mapping the territory. Journal of business ethics, 53(1-2), pp.51-71.

Glavas, A. and Kelley, K., 2014. The effects of perceived corporate social responsibility on employee attitudes. Business Ethics Quarterly, 24(2), pp.165-202.

Godfrey, P.C., Merrill, C.B. and Hansen, J.M., 2018. The relationship between corporate social responsibility and shareholder value: An empirical test of the risk management hypothesis. Strategic management journal, 30(4), pp.425-445.

H?bek, P. and Wolniak, R., 2016. Assessing the quality of corporate social responsibility reports: the case of reporting practices in selected European Union member states. Quality & quantity, 50(1), pp.399-420.

Henderson, D., 2016. Misguided virtue: False notions of corporate social responsibility. Routeledge.

Hohnen, P. and Potts, J., 2017. Corporate Social Responsibility. An implementation guide for business. Pearson

Holme, R. and Watts, P., 2018. Corporate social responsibility. Geneva: World Business Council for Sustainable Development.

Jamali, D. and Karam, C., 2018. Corporate social responsibility in developing countries as an emerging field of study. International Journal of Management Reviews, 20(1), pp.32-61.

Jenkins, R., 2015. Globalization, corporate social responsibility and poverty. International affairs, 81(3), pp.525-540.

Jo.zain.com. 2018. ??? ??????. [online] Available at: https://www.jo.zain.com/arabic/consumer/Pages/default.aspx [Accessed 23 Oct. 2018].

Jones, T.M., 2014. Corporate social responsibility revisited, redefined. California management review, 22(3), pp.59-67.

Key, C.S.R., 2014. Corporate Social Responsibility.

Kim, Y., Li, H. and Li, S., 2014. Corporate social responsibility and stock price crash risk. Journal of Banking & Finance, 43, pp.1-13.

Kurucz, E.C., Colbert, B.A. and Wheeler, D., 2018. The business case for corporate social responsibility. Pearson

Lampard, R. and Pole, C., 2015. Practical social investigation: Qualitative and quantitative methods in social research. Routledge.

Lantos, G.P., 2016. The boundaries of strategic corporate social responsibility. Journal of consumer marketing, 18(7), pp.595-632.

Lee, M.D.P., 2018. A review of the theories of corporate social responsibility: Its evolutionary path and the road ahead. International journal of management reviews, 10(1), pp.53-73.

Leonard, D. and McAdam, R., 2013. Corporate social responsibility. Quality progress, 36(10), p.27.

Lewis, S., 2015. Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five approaches. Health promotion practice, 16(4), pp.473-475.

Lin, M.C. and Chih, H.L., 2016,. Do peer firms affect corporate social responsibility policies?. In Management of Engineering and Technology (PICMET), 2016 Portland International Conference on (pp. 3006-3016). IEEE.

Lindgreen, A. and Swaen, V., 2017. Corporate social responsibility. International Journal of Management Reviews, 12(1), pp.1-7.

Lund-Thomsen, P. and Lindgreen, A., 2014. Corporate social responsibility in global value chains: Where are we now and where are we going?. Journal of Business Ethics, 123(1), pp.11-22.

Luo, X. and Bhattacharya, C.B., 2016. Corporate social responsibility, customer satisfaction, and market value. Journal of marketing, 70(4), pp.1-18.

Maignan, I. and Ferrell, O.C., 2014. Corporate social responsibility and marketing: An integrative framework. Journal of the Academy of Marketing science, 32(1), pp.3-19.

Mason, C. and Simmons, J., 2014. Embedding corporate social responsibility in corporate governance: A stakeholder systems approach. Journal of Business Ethics, 119(1), pp.77-86.

Matten, D. and Moon, J., 2014. Corporate social responsibility. Journal of business Ethics, 54(4), pp.323-337.

McCusker, K. and Gunaydin, S., 2015. Research using qualitative, quantitative or mixed methods and choice based on the research. Perfusion, 30(7), pp.537-542.

McGuire, J.B., Sundgren, A. and Schneeweis, T., 2018. Corporate social responsibility and firm financial performance. Academy of management Journal, 31(4), pp.854-872.

McNabb, D.E., 2015. Research methods for political science: Quantitative and qualitative methods. Routledge.

McWilliams, A. and Siegel, D., 2015. Corporate social responsibility: A theory of the firm perspective. Academy of management review, 26(1), pp.117-127.

McWilliams, A., 2015. Corporate social responsibility. Wiley encyclopedia of management, pp.1-4.

McWilliams, A., Siegel, D.S. and Wright, P.M., 2016. Corporate social responsibility: Strategic implications. Journal of management studies, 43(1), pp.1-18.

Mertens, D.M., 2014. Research and evaluation in education and psychology: Integrating diversity with quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methods. Sage publications.

Mishra, S. and Modi, S.B., 2016. Corporate social responsibility and shareholder wealth: The role of marketing capability. Journal of Marketing, 80(1), pp.26-46.

Mohr, L.A. and Webb, D.J., 2015. The effects of corporate social responsibility and price on consumer responses. Journal of consumer affairs, 39(1), pp.121-147.

Mohr, L.A., Webb, D.J. and Harris, K.E., 2015. Do consumers expect companies to be socially responsible? The impact of corporate social responsibility on buying behavior. Journal of Consumer affairs, 35(1), pp.45-72.

Moir, L., 2015. What do we mean by corporate social responsibility?. Corporate Governance: The international journal of business in society, 1(2), pp.16-22.

Moon, J. and Knudsen, J.S., 2018, July. Corporate social responsibility and government. In Academy of Management Proceedings (Vol. 2018, No. 1, p. 12777). Briarcliff Manor, NY 10510: Academy of Management.

Morsing, M. and Schultz, M., 2016. Corporate social responsibility communication: stakeholder information, response and involvement strategies. Business ethics: a European review, 15(4), pp.323-338.

Nardi, P.M., 2018. Doing survey research: A guide to quantitative methods. Routledge.

Neuman, W.L. and Robson, K., 2014. Basics of social research. Pearson Canada.

Neuman, W.L., 2013. Social research methods: Qualitative and quantitative approaches. Pearson education.

Noble, H. and Smith, J., 2015. Issues of validity and reliability in qualitative research. Evidence-Based Nursing, pp.ebnurs-2015.

Orange.com. 2018. Corporate Website of Orange - orange.com. [online] Available at: https://www.orange.com/en/home [Accessed 23 Oct. 2018].

Palazzo, G., 2018. Corporate social responsibility: A process model of sensemaking. Academy of management review, 33(1), pp.122-136.

Panneerselvam, R., 2014. Research methodology. PHI Learning Pvt. Ltd..

Pedersen, E.R.G. ed., 2015. Corporate social responsibility. Sage.

Platonova, E., Asutay, M., Dixon, R. and Mohammad, S., 2018. The impact of corporate social responsibility disclosure on financial performance: Evidence from the GCC Islamic banking sector. Journal of Business Ethics, 151(2), pp.451-471.

Puranik, R., 2018. Participatory Approach for Corporate Social Responsibility Plan. In Energy and Environment (pp. 109-121). Springer, Singapore.

Quinlan, C., Babin, B., Carr, J. and Griffin, M., 2018. Business research methods. South Western Cengage.

Riff, D., Lacy, S. and Fico, F., 2014. Analyzing media messages: Using quantitative content analysis in research. Routledge.

Roberts, R.W., 2015. Determinants of corporate social responsibility disclosure: An application of stakeholder theory. Accounting, organizations and society, 17(6), pp.595-612.

Roy, S.K., Roy, S., Mubeen, R., Brindha, N., Abirami, A., Leve, S.L., Mohanraju, B.L., Priyadarshini, K., Jeyabharathy, P., Thilakam, C. and Mahadevi, S., 2015. Corporate social responsibility. EduPedia Publications Pvt. Ltd..

Schäfer, H., 2016. Corporate Social Responsibility Rating.  Corporate Governance and Social Responsibility, p.449.

Schwartz, M.S., 2017. Corporate social responsibility. Routledge.

Setó?Pamies, D., 2015. The relationship between women directors and corporate social responsibility. Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management, 22(6), pp.334-345.

Shaukat, A., Qiu, Y. and Trojanowski, G., 2016. Board attributes, corporate social responsibility strategy, and corporate environmental and social performance. Journal of Business Ethics, 135(3), pp.569-585.

Shin, K.Y., 2014. Corporate Social Responsibility. In Corporate Social Responsibility Reporting in China (pp. 1-21). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.

Slack, R.E., Corlett, S. and Morris, R., 2015. Exploring employee engagement with (corporate) social responsibility: A social exchange perspective on organisational participation. Journal of Business Ethics, 127(3), pp.537-548.

Smith, J.A. ed., 2015. Qualitative psychology: A practical guide to research methods. Sage.

Smith, N.C., 2016. Corporate social responsibility: whether or how?. California management review, 45(4), pp.52-76.

Steenkamp, J.B., 2017. Corporate Social Responsibility. In Global Brand Strategy (pp. 209-238). Palgrave Macmillan, London.

Su, W., Peng, M.W., Tan, W. and Cheung, Y.L., 2016. The signaling effect of corporate social responsibility in emerging economies. Journal of business Ethics, 134(3), pp.479-491.

Suliman, A.M., Al-Khatib, H.T. and Thomas, S.E., 2016. Corporate social responsibility. Corporate Social Performance: Reflecting on the Past and Investing in the Future, p.15.

Tai, F.M. and Chuang, S.H., 2014. Corporate social responsibility. Ibusiness, 6(03), p.117.

Taylor, S.J., Bogdan, R. and DeVault, M., 2015. Introduction to qualitative research methods: A guidebook and resource. John Wiley & Sons.

Tradingeconomics.com. 2018. Jordan Exports | 1972-2018 | Data | Chart | Calendar | Forecast | News. [online] Available at: https://tradingeconomics.com/jordan/exports [Accessed 20 Sep. 2018].

Trc.gov.jo. 2018. ???? ????? ???? ????????? - ?????? ????????. [online] Available at: https://trc.gov.jo/ [Accessed 20 Sep. 2018].

Treiman, D.J., 2014. Quantitative data analysis: Doing social research to test ideas. John Wiley & Sons.

Umniah.com. 2018. Umniah - Main Page. [online] Available at: https://www.umniah.com/en/ [Accessed 23 Oct. 2018].

Visser, W., 2018. Corporate social responsibility in developing countries. In Corporate social responsibility, 76(3), pp.77-90

Vlachos, P.A., Panagopoulos, N.G., Bachrach, D.G. and Morgeson, F.P., 2017. The effects of managerial and employee attributions for corporate social responsibility initiatives. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 38(7), pp.1111-1129.

Vogel, D., 2017. The market for virtue: The potential and limits of corporate social responsibility. Brookings Institution Press.

Wang, D.H.M., Chen, P.H., Yu, T.H.K. and Hsiao, C.Y., 2015. The effects of corporate social responsibility on brand equity and firm performance. Journal of business research, 68(11), pp.2232-2236.

Watson, L., 2015. Corporate social responsibility research in accounting. Journal of Accounting Literature, 34, pp.1-16.

Weber, J. and Wasieleski, D.M. eds., 2018. Corporate social responsibility. Emerald Group Publishing.

Wickert, C., Scherer, A.G. and Spence, L.J., 2016. Walking and talking corporate social responsibility: Implications of firm size and organizational cost. Journal of Management Studies, 53(7), pp.1169-1196.

Worldometers.info. 2018. Jordan Population (2018) - Worldometers. [online] Available at: https://www.worldometers.info/world-population/jordan-population/ [Accessed 20 Sep. 2018].

Wu, L.Z., Kwan, H.K., Yim, F.H.K., Chiu, R.K. and He, X., 2015. CEO ethical leadership and corporate social responsibility: A moderated mediation model. Journal of Business Ethics, 130(4), pp.819-831.

Yin, J. and Jamali, D., 2016. Strategic corporate social responsibility of multinational companies subsidiaries in emerging markets: Evidence. Long Range Planning, 49(5), pp.541-558.

Cite This Work

To export a reference to this article please select a referencing stye below:

My Assignment Help. (2021). Developing A Pragmatic Alternative For Creating A Corporate Social Responsibility Strategy: A Case Of Jordanian Telecom Sector Essay.. Retrieved from https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/mgt550-leadership-strategies/case-of-jordanian-telecom-sector.html.

"Developing A Pragmatic Alternative For Creating A Corporate Social Responsibility Strategy: A Case Of Jordanian Telecom Sector Essay.." My Assignment Help, 2021, https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/mgt550-leadership-strategies/case-of-jordanian-telecom-sector.html.

My Assignment Help (2021) Developing A Pragmatic Alternative For Creating A Corporate Social Responsibility Strategy: A Case Of Jordanian Telecom Sector Essay. [Online]. Available from: https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/mgt550-leadership-strategies/case-of-jordanian-telecom-sector.html
[Accessed 24 July 2024].

My Assignment Help. 'Developing A Pragmatic Alternative For Creating A Corporate Social Responsibility Strategy: A Case Of Jordanian Telecom Sector Essay.' (My Assignment Help, 2021) <https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/mgt550-leadership-strategies/case-of-jordanian-telecom-sector.html> accessed 24 July 2024.

My Assignment Help. Developing A Pragmatic Alternative For Creating A Corporate Social Responsibility Strategy: A Case Of Jordanian Telecom Sector Essay. [Internet]. My Assignment Help. 2021 [cited 24 July 2024]. Available from: https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/mgt550-leadership-strategies/case-of-jordanian-telecom-sector.html.

Get instant help from 5000+ experts for
question

Writing: Get your essay and assignment written from scratch by PhD expert

Rewriting: Paraphrase or rewrite your friend's essay with similar meaning at reduced cost

Editing: Proofread your work by experts and improve grade at Lowest cost

loader
250 words
Phone no. Missing!

Enter phone no. to receive critical updates and urgent messages !

Attach file

Error goes here

Files Missing!

Please upload all relevant files for quick & complete assistance.

Plagiarism checker
Verify originality of an essay
essay
Generate unique essays in a jiffy
Plagiarism checker
Cite sources with ease
support
Whatsapp
callback
sales
sales chat
Whatsapp
callback
sales chat
close