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a.Analyse and discuss the significance of IT security management for organisations
b.Develop and implement IT security management structures for small, medium and large size businesses and corporations
c.Evaluate the security of the existing organisation architecture, data, application, and technology

Installation of Snort and Customization of Snort.conf file

The report is prepared for the discussion of the penetration techniques that can be used for detection of the vulnerability of a system and secure the network from outside breaches. There are different network penetration tools and that can be used for getting the access of the core network devices and among them Snort is chosen for intrusion detection. Snot is a popular open source tool that can be used for detection of the overlapping fragments and currently used in the assignment for penetration testing of a network.

For the installation or deployment of snort three files are required to be downloaded that is the WinPcap fr capturing the data packets, snort installer and the set of snort rules. The snort rules package should be extracted after installation of the snort and the winpcap .exe files. A subfolder should be created during the extraction of the snort rules file under the c:Snort directory. The contents of the rules folder should be extracted in the folder C:Snortrules and the contents of the preproc_rules should be extracted to the Snort:preproc_rules directory. The rest of the folders should be ignored because they are created by sourcefire for Linux and windows does not support those files.

After the completion of the installation of the components the repose of the program can be checked using the following commands in the command prompt.

For changing the directory to snot program the following command is used:

C:>cd Snortbin

The installed version of Snort can be checked using the command C: Snortbin>snort –V

The command C: Snortbin>snort –w is used for checking the details of the network adapters connected with the system and configure the snort to listen to the particular adapter when it runs. 

By default there are two adapters in a typical windows system and this number may increase on installation of different applications such as VMWare, Virtual Box. The number of interface that would be used for listening or capturing packets can be selected using the option –i. The snort config file is required to be edited and it should be matched with the local environment. Simple text editor such as Notepad ++ can be used for editing thee snort.conf file. 

The following steps are performed for the customizing the snort.conf file:

Step 1: The declaration of Home_Net should be changed to the Ip address of the home network from default “any”. A CIDR format is used for inputting the IP address.

Installation of Nessus and Writing Security Policy

Step 2: The declaration of the External_Net should be change to !$HOME_NET which means that the IP address of the external network can be any that is not a part of the home network IP address.

Step 3: The servers should be configured with the Home_Net and the list of the web server ports can be reduces by declaring HTTP_PORTS.

Step 4: The rule path should be changed for matching the actual location and the rules are stored in the directory c:Snortrules.

Step 5: In a similar way the preproc rule path should also be changed for matching the appropriate location in the directory using the command c:Snortpreproc_rules.   

Step 1: We need to download pentbox for setting the honey pot in kali linux and it shout be installed into the system from the terminal.

Step 2: cd pentbox 1.8/ is used for entering into the pentbox directory and ./pentbox.rb command is used for running the pentbox tool. 

Step 3: The second option network tool is selected and followed by 3 option which is for the honeypots.

Step 4: On selection of the honeypot option two options are prompted i.e. fast auto configuration or manual configuration. 

Step 5: The auto configuration option is selected and it activates the honey pot on port 80. For manual configuration different port address can be set and false messages can be inserted to misguide the attacker and options for saving the log files is configured.

For installation and deployment of Nessus a windows machine is used and it can be deployed using the cmd command line interface or the GUI graphical user interface can also be used for the installation. The default options are selected for the installation of Nessus and on the configuration option the agent key values should be entered followed by the server (host) and the value of the groups. Different strategies can be followed for the deployment of the Nessus and it is also supported by all the platforms. 

The current networking environment is extremely vulnerable and thus research should be made for protecting the software vendor and protecting the users for to keep the sensitive information securely. For beginning with the research the basic vulnerability acting on a system should be identified. The vulnerability includes the flaws in the software applications and security engineers should be consulted for the identification of vulnerabilities on the system. The vulnerability research helps in mitigation of the risk by discovering the weakness and installation of patches for blocking the source. The installation of antivirus programs can help in eliminating the security flaws protect the system from data corruption, data theft, and data loss.

Types of Penetration Techniques for Network Security

Some problems are faced during the vulnerability research because there are different controversies faced by the network research team for disclosing a mixed result for the end users. The change in the landscape of the vulnerability research can help in increasing the awareness that any of the user can be a victim of cyber-attacks. For the analysis of the security vulnerability it is important to find the weakness of the system and patch them quickly for the establishment of the security policy and secure the system form external agents.  For exposing the vulnerabilities of the applications manual and technical audits are needed to be done and different research service should be followed based on the type of the application such as client based, web based or server based applications. The vulnerability research service should also follow the following critical vulnerabilities for the exploitation of the loop holes.

  • Validation of the inputs
  • Buffer overrun
  • Dangling pointers
  • SQL injection
  • Remote code execution
  • Code injection and
  • Bypassing the authentication

The test result should include the details of the issues identified from the application, technical and strategic recommendations and the results obtained from the exploitation.   

The penetration techniques is used for analysing the security vulnerabilities after the evaluation of the network or the systems with the implementation of malicious methodology. The penetration technique exploits the current weakness and errors in the configuration codes and the main purpose of the penetration techniques is to secure the organizational data from the unauthorised users. On the successful identification of the vulnerability it is used by the tester for accessing the sensitive information of the organization. The following are the types of penetration techniques that can be used are as follows:

  • Social Engineering test – It is used for the exploitation of the personal data, passwords and sensitive organizational information. It can be caused due to human errors. Security policy and standards should be used for avoiding this type of vulnerability and conduction of security audits helps in removal of the flaws.
  • Web application test – Software methodology is used for the exposure of the security threats and the web applications, software programs installed in the targeted system are exploited for analysis of the flaws.
  • Physical penetration test – It is used for the application of sensitive data protection by testing all the network devices for any possibility of breach and the testing is not relevant as the software testing.
  • Network service test – The open ports in the network are identified using different network analysis tool and the network devices are reconfigured for mitigation of the risk.
  • Client side test – the client side software applications are analysed for the exploitation of the vulnerabilities.
  • Wireless security test – The intruders can intrude in the network through the unsecured wireless access points and thus some security algorithms should be applied for restricting the unauthorised users to connect with the organizational network.

There are different commercial tools such as Nessus, Nmap, metasploit that can be used for penetration testing. The penetration technique can be done manually or using automated tools and moreover both the manual and the automatic process can be combined for analysing the vulnerability of a network. For the selection of the best penetration tool are given below:

  • Ease of deployment, configuration and usability of the tool.
  • The tool must be used for scanning the system easily.
  • The vulnerability can be categorized according to their severity and it should be verified automatically.
  • It should be able to re verify the previous vulnerability found in the system
  • It should be able to create logs and reports

Nessus is used for the identification of the vulnerability, issues for configuration and the malware that can be used by the attacker for intruding into the computer’s network. The main features of the Nessus is easy to use and policy can be created easily on few clicks. For the detection of the vulnerabilities different technologies are used and it can accommodate the growth of the network. Nessus can be accessed from any web browser and it is used for It consists of the following terminology such as

Policy – It is used for configure the setting and perform a scan on the network.

Scan – It is used for finding the associated list of Ip address and the domain names

Report – it is used for creating a specific instance of the scan performed

Plugin – It is used for creating security check and the plugin can be FTP, Webservers and for Cisco devices.

Snot can also be used for penetration testing and it is required to be installed in different location for getting the visibility of the network and aiming the attacks that could be done on the network. The installation of the snort outside the firewall helps in monitoring the data traffic that are hitting the site and the basic requirement for installation of the snort outside the firewall is a switch with the capability of port mirroring. For the installation of the snort inside the firewall the sensor should be placed in the demilitarized zone and the logs should be matched from the external sensor for collection of data about the network and validation of the firewall rules for fixing the problem that are exploited in the network. The snot can also be installed on each of the servers installed in the network and it helps in creation of a lightweight intrusion detection system. The sensors are easy to deploy and can be installed everywhere in the network for monitoring the current activity of the network. There is no requirement for the inclusion of the SQL, FTP and HTTP rules on the mail servers and in the same manner there is no requirement to include the HTTP exploitation in the Apache based Web servers installed in the network.

Conclusion

From the above report it can be concluded that performing the penetration techniques can help the organization to exploit the vulnerability of the current network and secure it from external agents for accessing the sensitive information of the network. Snort can be used for detecting the intrusion and the Nessus is used for the exploitation of the vulnerability of the system. Moreover using Nessus tool security application policy can be created for its application in the organizational network and improve the security of the organizational information’s. Different type of policy such as web application scan policy can be created for automating the testing procedure and the basic scan template can be used creating a new scan and the targeted IP address and the domain name should be inputted for starting the scan of the network. Thus it is important to find the flaws in the current system and eliminate the vulnerabilities identified in the current system.

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