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Step One: Gathering of Data by Divergent Thinking

The ERP or the “Enterprise Resource Planning” has been the management software of business process (Leon, 2014).

The relevant information has been the data applied to resolve any particular issue. A “relevant information report” has been required to be generated to review, refine and add for the ERP activities (Kamikubo, Karasawa & Kitayama, 2016).

The following report has collected data by divergent thinking. The data is then organized by convergent thinking. Then the data is analyzed by Analytical thinking. Lastly the findings are summarized.

The “divergent thinking” has been indicating to the method to solve problems wherein a various possible solutions. This has been as suggested in order to seek the one that would be working. It has been a significant aspect in creative thinking. The creative method never takes to the best solution directly always. Through encouraging numerous types of solutions, latest ideas have been more likely to come out (Reid, de Brentani & Kleinschmidt, 2014).

The best practices of collecting data to get the team moving are described hereafter. At first a wide range of stimulus has been gathered. Then the ideas of ERP and topics similar to it are looked at. Inspiration has been taken from the successful organizations of other industries. Next a deck of creative prompting cards has been used. The resources such as “creative whack pack” are filled with the prompts that are though promoting (Addis et al., 2016). This helped to get to the wheels turning in the new way. Then brainstorm has been done with the co-workers who have not been working on that project. It has been natural that after working over the project for long time, stopping the challenging of the expectations are frequent.

The lack of experience of the co-workers brought fresh view-point in the team. A collaborative cycle is required to be utilized for structuring the productive brainstorm with the outsiders. Lastly, every area has been documented. It ensured that every latest idea has been documented regardless of the approach chosen. Concept sheets for documents each ideas one by one has been used. As every idea has been over distinct papers, the convergent phase became easier. Ultimately the method is downloaded (Bonakdar & Gassmann, 2016).

  • Inter-University Consortium for Political and Social Research (ICPSR)
  • The Institute for Quantitative Social Science (IQSS Dataverse Network)
  • S. Census Bureau (DataFerrett)
  • General Social Survey (GSS)
  • Simple Online Data Archive for Population Studies (SodaPop)
  • 27th Int. Conf. Information Technology Interfaces ITI 2005, June 20-23, 2005, Cavtat,
  • Ellucian supports (ellucian.com)
  • Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID)
  • Fatbit technologies (https://www.fatbit.com)
  • Expedian-University ERP (https://universityerp.com)

There have been various advantages that ERP software has been delivering. Despite that many software has been specializing in various functionalities. Many more variables are also considered into account like the company size as the best out of the company is decided (Behrens, Ernst & Shepherd, 2014). Imposing any ERP system has been the investment of money and time. Hence the researching the up-front has been critical. This has saved frustration and money down that line. The initial place has been to begin through asking few significant queries internally.

Five of the queries are highlighted are outlined helping to achieve the requirements and meet the objectives (Acar & Runco, 2014).

  • What are the present business challenges?
  • Why have been some factors in the present system required be improving or altering?
  • When should be the budget estimation done for the project?
  • What functionalities have been needed from the ERP software?
  • How would successful ERP software be implemented? 

The term “convergent thinking” generally indicates the capability to deliver the “proper” answer to the standard questions. This never requires significant creativity. The divergent thinking has been involved in the tearing any topic apart in exploring the different parts of components. The convergent thinking on the other hand has been involving to join and combine various ideas together. This has been based on the elements that those ideas have in similar. The convergent thinking indicates the putting various pieces of topic back together in an understandable, structured and organized fashion. The convergent thinking has been a significant part of organizing and outlining methods (Lobar, 2016).

Description of the Method of Gathering Data

At first inquiry has been made the forming of data in mind unmistakably. This has been showing that individuals could effectively assimilate and hold up for seven primary thoughts, yet no more. In term of ERP software, this has proposed that the designer made the framework. This has been taking after an obvious example involved two for seven fundamental segments or classifications. In reality the making of the blueprint with three to five fundamental classifications or segments has been perfect (Karimi et al., 2016). This has helped readers for all the more effortlessly understand and recollect the data. For example, those four classes in this case have been the eliminating, the changing, the combining, and the simplifying to organize the data.

Thus, the author could abbreviate the rundown of distinct things four simple classifications. This will enable the readers in processing the data when perusing the archive, and recall the data later. Then the segments or classifications are made mutually exclusive. An obviously sorted out, all around developed archive has managed one theme at any given moment. This has been done for such an extent that the reader could take after along effortlessly (Chen, Chang & Lo, 2015). This has required the blueprint which has grouped particular thoughts inside bigger classes that have not covered with each other. As it were, the principle segments of the blueprint have been different from each other. This had the end goal that the reader has been not confounded about how one segment has been not quite the same as another.

For instance, the motivation of the designer of the ERP system could be considered. This has been for portraying the attributes of efficient leaders. The thinker has distinguished six key qualities. They are the intelligence, communication, motivation, ability to solve problems. It also included the energy and excitement and the skills of individuals. These six classes appear to overlap since the portion of the classifications has been so firmly related (Gereffi & Fernandez-Stark, 2016). For instance, insight and critical thinking have been firmly related; correspondence and relationship building abilities have been firmly related; and inspiration has been firmly identified with vitality and energy. For elucidating and recognizing the primary classifications, the thinker would have to be savvy for consolidating the ones that went together (Sadovskyi et al., 2014).

At last the balance is strived between the particular sections. As the thumb rule, the layout's principle segments have been roughly equivalent regarding the measure of data contained. The principle of balance has proposed that the report has been weighted. This has been done with the end goal that not a single part has been given generously more space and significance than others (Zott & Amit, 2013). One fundamental segment of the blueprint has contained considerably more data than the others. It has been wise to concentrate on that one class, and partition it up into particular segments.

As one has been hunting down an approach for pick up an edge on the opposition, he must consider one of the business world's most important devices. This has been the value chain analysis.  The value chain examination has been depending on the essential monetary standard of favorable position. The organization has been best served by working in divisions where they have the relative beneficial preferred standpoint contrasted with their rivals. At the same time, the organization has asked itself where they can convey the best an incentive for their clients (Alexander, 2013).

The List of Sources of the Information and Data Accessed

To lead an esteem chain investigation, the organization started by recognizing each piece of its generation procedure. This also includes distinguishing where steps have been disposed of or enhancements have been be made. These upgrades brought about either cost investment funds or enhanced profitable limit. The final product has been that the clients got the most advantage from the item for the least expensive cost. This enhanced the organization's primary concern over the long haul.

To see how far directly the value chain examination, the business first comprehended what its value chain has been. A value chain has been the full scope of exercises including plan, creation, and advertising. This also includes appropriation the organization has experienced for bringing an item or administration from origination for conveyance (Simatupang et al., 2017).

The procedure of really arranging these exercises so that they have been legitimately dissected has been called the value chain administration. The objective of value chain of administration has guaranteed that those responsible for each phase of the value chain have been speaking with each other. This has been ensuring the item has been getting in the hands of clients flawlessly. This has been also done as fast as could be expected under such circumstances. 

The scopes and problems in the value chain have been discussed hereafter. The first one is the procurement. This has been the means by which the crude materials for the item have been acquired. Then has been the technology improvement considered.  Technology has been utilized no matter how it has been looked at. This has been in the advancement of the item, incorporating into the innovative work arrange, in how new items has been developed.  .This also included process and designed automation (Wiedemann, 2013). Next the human resource management is considered. These have been the exercises required in procuring. This also included the holding of the best possible representatives to enable plan, to construct. The marketing of the item is also considered here. Then the firm infrastructure was considered. This has alluded to the association’s structure. This incorporated its administration, arranging, finance and accounting .This also included the quality-control components.

In the perfect world, the value chain investigation has enabled the organization to distinguish zones that could be upgraded for the most extreme proficiency. This also included its benefit.

The opportunities of the value-chain analysis esteem chain have been recognizable by the accompanying segments. 

The first one is the “key short and medium term end-advertise openings” in the target value chains. The next one is the factors compelling the maximization of those open doors. The next one is the upgrading of procedures for addressing those limitations. This also included the maximization of opportunities. The private-area, open segment, society elements have collaborated with for accomplishing those updating techniques (Kilic, Zaim & Delen, 2015).  

The performing of due intelligence to get the project on the appropriate track is done. This is performed through creating all information required and then communicating it to the proper personnel.

The ERP implementation has impacted how the organization ought to operate. This is done by upgrading the altering system transactions and upgrading the business processes. The senior managers with the mid-level managers were involved in the project for its successful completion. This provided the project appropriate visibility around the company. This also showed the employees the significance of the project.

Criteria Used For Finding the Validity of the Sources

The core ERP system has been most likely not satisfying every necessities of the company. Hence an ERP strategy has been developed and the components of the ERP were understood. It was also searched how that would fit with other tools and systems. The project scope has been defined from the point of view of knowledge. This has been completely detailing what the project has included (Ahmad & Cuenca, 2013).

The central team of project was composed of the full-time personnel. This also included the project manager and others. They have been denoting the central areas of business. As any consulting integrator was used, the central project team has needed to possess a cohesive and good relationship of working with those consultants.  

The ERP project has not only resulted in the alteration of the systems, but also the organizational and process changes.

The organization has kept a tight management over the customizations. Otherwise they might have diminished the best of practices. These modifications resulted in the rise of scope and budget.

The organizations should create the realistic budget including every expenses of implementation. This has been including the staff resources, hardware and software. The company has expected a timely ROI or the “Return on Investment” from the ERP project.

A good project closure has been just significant as the start-up of the project. The personnel has been requiring the communication channels clear as the latest system was going live and the legacy system got decommissioned (Ram, Wu & Tagg, 2014).

  • Preparing or reviewing the business, IT, ERP strategy and the project scopes.
  • Involving the management in the issue resolution, issue escalation, steering committee and project sponsorship.
  • The ERP has the ability to satisfy few business requirements. They are to be put together with a plan as to find the manner that the other business necessities would be met. They are the social media, business intelligence and data management (Chou et al., 2014).
  • The ERP implementations are to be studies in the industry and the required customizations are to be found.
  • A gap analysis must be performed with the prioritizing of the gaps.
  • Study other ERP implementations in the industry and see what customizations were required.
  • Clear expectations are to be set on the position of the company for customization.

SWOT analysis on ERP implementation (Parr, Shanks & Darke, 2013):

Swot Template

    Current Strengths

   Current Weaknesses

It includes the low maintenance cost, no licensing, preparation of financial reports,             and the running of business. Under the ERP solutions pricing power, innovative culture, supply chain and technology are considered. It also includes the customer loyalty, economies of scale brand name, size advantages and cost advantages.

It has been time consuming. It has been taking additional time to create process and reports. Under the ERP solutions there have been weak management and customer service. Moreover there has been inconsistency of information, repeating task to update in different modules, lack of integration and decentralized data. It also included the manual reports always prone to error, no costing of the materials and the finished goods            , delay in reporting and no approved supplier list. Finally there have been the payroll is excel based and no tracking or history.

   Future Opportunities

         Future Threats

The reports can be developed. Regarding the ERP solutions there have been new services, solution, new technology, innovation fragmented market, online market and new products. It also includes the new markets and international expansion.

About the ERP solutions there are substitute products. The Confidentiality can be harmed. There could be error in financial information. The chance of crash is high. There could be lack of maintenance because of lack of technical knowledge. This is people dependent. This indicates that of the people are gone, the system is also gone. Chances of breakdown are high here.

The organization has needed to take into consider the above primary factors of success and the suggestions. This would help in gaining higher success with the implementation of ERP. The discussed drivers have been the common areas that the maximum projects of system implementation have been needed to be addressed. One of the popular fallacies with the implementation of ERP has been the company has been prepared for its undertaking. The company not only needed to identify and understand the drivers of success but also perform on related preparatory suggestions that have been supporting them.

Conclusion:

Thus it is seen that the convergent thinking could produce latest ideas in scientific manner. The divergent thinking on the other hand produces ideas artistically. The company has combined the divergent and convergent thinking together for producing meaningful ERP implementation. The value chain analysis has been an essential method helping the company to focus on the value. This has been creating the activities and eliminating the wasteful ones. This has been reinforcing the value proposition and bringing more advantages to the company. It has been also leading to the rise of profit and enhancing brand reputations of the organization. This has been one of the fundamental reasons behind the analysis of value chain procedure. The report has also highlighted the SWOT analysis. This has been an eye-opener for the company. This has been giving idea regarding the factors influencing the company while the ERP is implemented.  

Step Two: Organizing Data Through Convergent Thinking

References:

Acar, S., & Runco, M. A. (2014). Assessing associative distance among ideas elicited by tests of divergent thinking. Creativity Research Journal, 26(2), 229-238.

Addis, D.R., Pan, L., Musicaro, R. and Schacter, D.L., 2016. Divergent thinking and constructing episodic simulations. Memory, 24(1), pp.89-97.

Ahmad, M. M., & Cuenca, R. P. (2013). Critical success factors for ERP implementation in SMEs. Robotics and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, 29(3), 104-111.

Alexander, S. (2013). Innovation journey: design thinking in the value chain. In Proceedings of the 27th Australian and New Zealand Academy of Management Conference: Managing on the Edge: 4-6 December 2013, Hobart, Tasmania, Australia.

Behrens, J., Ernst, H., & Shepherd, D. A. (2014). The decision to exploit an R&D project: Divergent thinking across middle and senior managers. Journal of Product Innovation Management, 31(1), 144-158.

Bernroider, E. W., Wong, C. W., & Lai, K. H. (2014). From dynamic capabilities to ERP enabled business improvements: The mediating effect of the implementation project. International Journal of Project Management, 32(2), 350-362.

Bonakdar, A., & Gassmann, O. (2016). Design Thinking for Revolutionizing Your Business Models. In Design Thinking for Innovation (pp. 57-66). Springer International Publishing.

Chen, M. H., Chang, Y. Y., & Lo, Y. H. (2015). Creativity cognitive style, conflict, and career success for creative entrepreneurs. Journal of Business Research, 68(4), 906-910.

Chou, H. W., Lin, Y. H., Lu, H. S., Chang, H. H., & Chou, S. B. (2014). Knowledge sharing and ERP system usage in post-implementation stage. Computers in Human Behavior, 33, 16-22.

Galy, E., & Sauceda, M. J. (2014). Post-implementation practices of ERP systems and their relationship to financial performance. Information & Management, 51(3), 310-319.

Gereffi, G., & Fernandez-Stark, K. (2016). Global value chain analysis: a primer.

Kamikubo, A., Karasawa, M., & Kitayama, S. (2016). Culture and early attention to positive versus negative self-relevant information: An Erp investigation. International Journal of Psychology, 51, 328.

Karimi, S., Biemans, H. J., Lans, T., Aazami, M., & Mulder, M. (2016). Fostering students’ competence in identifying business opportunities in entrepreneurship education. Innovations in Education and Teaching International, 53(2), 215-229.

Kilic, H. S., Zaim, S., & Delen, D. (2015). Selecting “The Best” ERP system for SMEs using a combination of ANP and PROMETHEE methods. Expert Systems with Applications, 42(5), 2343-2352.

Leon, A. (2014). Enterprise resource planning. McGraw-Hill Education.

Lubart, T. (2016). CREATIVITY AND CONVERGENT THINKING: REFLECTIONS, CONNECTIONS AND PRACTICAL CONSIDERATIONS. RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics, (4), 7-15.

Parr, A. N., Shanks, G., & Darke, P. (2013). 8 IDENTIFICATION OF NECESSARY FACTORS FOR SUCCESSFUL IMPLEMENTATION OF ERP SYSTEMS. New Information Technologies in Organizational Processes: Field Studies and Theoretical Reflections on the Future of Work, 20, 99.

Ram, J., Wu, M. L., & Tagg, R. (2014). Competitive advantage from ERP projects: Examining the role of key implementation drivers. International Journal of Project Management, 32(4), 663-675.

Reid, S. E., de Brentani, U., & Kleinschmidt, E. J. (2014). Divergent thinking and market visioning competence: An early front-end radical innovation success typology. Industrial Marketing Management, 43(8), 1351-1361.

Sadovskyi, O., Engel, T., Heininger, R., Böhm, M., & Krcmar, H. (2014). Analysis of big data enabled business models using a value chain perspective. Multikonferenz Wirtschaftsinformatik (MKWI 2014), 1126-1137.

Schniederjans, D., & Yadav, S. (2013). Successful ERP implementation: an integrative model. Business Process Management Journal, 19(2), 364-398.

Simatupang, T. M., Piboonrungroj, P., & Williams, S. J. (2017). The emergence of value chain thinking. International Journal of Value Chain Management, 8(1), 40-57.

Wiedemann, L. (2013). Business Strategies and Value Chain Management. AuthorHouse.

Zott, C., & Amit, R. (2013). The business model: A theoretically anchored robust construct for strategic analysis. Strategic Organization, 11(4), 403-411.

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