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1.  How and why can complexity theory be used by change agents to understand emergent change?

2. How and why do change agents need to use different skills to reduce the negative impact of political behaviour during organisational change?

3. How and why might managers need to use different organisational development techniques to lead organisational change?

Factors considered by complexity theory in handling change

Complexity is a factor that measures the diversity in internal as well as external factors including customers, suppliers, employees, socio politics and technology. Complex theory set of concepts that help to explain phenomenon of complex. Along with that it is a Theory that focuses on how parts of micro as well as macro in a complex systems influence the behavior of emergent. Moreover, complexity theory helps organization to understand the newly formed organizational development. Along with that complexity theory facilitate change and innovation within an organization. Another important aspect of complexity theory is that there is no controller of any system. It is all about assumption that there are principles underlying that is emergent properties that mingle from the interaction of many various actors. The main aim of complexity theory is in business to encourage thinking of innovation and real-time responses for change. It helps out business unit to self organized. Houts states that time have changed; people prefer those things which are different from others. A new kind of company wins now. The best management models emerge in the new economy, it does not adapt by new organization. Hout asserts that leader of the organization should clear to employee about the vision of the company, provide attractive leadership, encourage healthy and strong values and allow employee for open communication. Complexity theory shows the common ground where theorists can research regarding physics, computer science, economics, and business behavior of complex systems along with various components (Benn, et. al., 2014).

Complexity theory is mainly focusing on 5 factors for handling the change. Change agent can use complexity theory in an organization by keeping environmental assessment. Environmental assessment represent that all levels of organization required development and ability to collect information about the external and internal environment. Complexity theory helps change agent to understand the need of emergent change. Emergent change is considered as a successful change that takes less time and it has been analyzed that emergent change does not contains detailed plans and projections. It only finds out the range of available options and move for it. It is the tool that helps change agent to analyze and develop insight. With the help of complexity theory, change agent can respond in an effective manner to the environmental uncertainty is of contemporary organization. Change agents help to remove the obstacle and manage uncertainty condition within an organization. For making an emergent change, complexity theory should be used by change agent because it is the theory which emphasizes holistic interpretation (Cameron and Green, 2015). It has been analyzed that there are three characteristics of complexity theory which can be helpful for change agent to understand the emergent change. Along with that it also helps to determine the problems that may occur in the organization. There are so many organizational phenomena for which complexity principles are necessary. The complexity principle of self organization and emergence helps to evaluation of knowledge and ideas within a group network. Chaos is considered as a another principle of complexity that helps a person for not covering a position of power rather it helps out to bring a large scale effect on the organization to bring a large scale effect on the organization. With the help of adaptive behavior change agent can force to employee or group to learn experimental learning. It would help to embed employee in an interacting network. By following the principle of revolution, change agent can enforce individual, groups and organization to share of ecosystem so that attracting each other spontaneously. Complexity theory helps change agent to follow the self similarity which help to find out the various level of Hierarchy exhibiting scale versions. Complexity theory is being used by many organizations for Organizational transformation and renewal. Along with that it provides a framework of theoretical within organizational change (Bolman and Deal, 2017).

Benefits of complexity theory for change agents

Company’s vision and Mission are interrelated with each other. Due to dynamic nature of world responsible for the organization long term planning. New Technologies are introducing in the world day by day, it is necessary for the organization to go with the world. With the help of complexity theory new way of Thinking on various phenomena would be enhanced that were considered also passed thinkers. There are so many advantages of complexity theory which can help you change agent for emergent change (Fullan, 2014). Change agent can do easy formation within an organization and due to emergent change he can divide the risk among all the partners. Complexity theory motivate change agent for prompt decision making and keeping personal touch to business. The secret of the business should not be leaked out by anyone who is related with an organization. The Reason behind using complexity theory is that change agent sharing wisdom and resources. Complexity theory follows the narrative as well as dynamic concept within an organization (Alvesson and Sveningsson, 2015). However it has various limitations such as unlimited liability, uncertainty of business, liability extended, distrust between partners and Limited availability of funds. With having lot of limitation, it is successful theory in the organization because it helps out to adapt it change with enthusiasm in the organization. Main aim of change agent is to recognize the area in which changes are needed. It is not mean that changes are done without taking a consideration of other employees (Cameron and Green, 2015). It is important for the change agent to make aware other employees about the change and enhance their productivity time to time. There are so many advantages emergent change such as suitability for online real-time experimentation, learning, former control, sensibility and sensitivity to local contingencies. It is important for a change agent to follow his role efficiently. The main role of change agent is to maintain the sharing information and trusting people (Kuipers, et. al., 2014).

Political behavior is the element that is used to obtain and acquire the preferred outcomes in a situation where the possibilities of uncertainty exist. Political behavior does not accept and followed by change agent but it is acknowledged in the way that is important of the life of organizational. Change agent is not able to abolish the political activities within an organization. Therefore, it is required for change agent to learn that how to deal with issues and obstacles. Apart from that change should know about the management and know that how to deal negative influence of political behavior during organizational change. To remove the negative impact of political behavior from organization due to organizational change, change agent need to be a proficient at a specific task under. It would help a change agent to learn employees about the credibility, reliability and knowledge about the certain things. It is required for the change agent to know about the performance of the employees he should aware about the accomplishment of task.

Limitations of complexity theory

Leadership skills are an important skill that require change agent to decrease a political behavior during organizational change. Leadership skill has the ability to reduce the impact of political behavior during organizational change. Along with that it reduces the possibilities of negotiation and conflicts among employees (Chiaburu, et. al., 2013). Change agent builds a relationship among employees so that coordination can enhance within an organization. To help in organizational change, the behavior of leader should contain mentoring, training, counseling and providing feedback. Leadership skills in change agent can reduce the impact of political behavior within an organization. A successful leader has a skill of motivation by which he sets a good example. Motivation is a factor which reduces the negative impact of political behavior within an organization rapidly (Urry, 2015). Change agent should act as a role model for his team and should always be there when they needed most. This attitude will enhance the productivity of the employee and the influence of politics within an individual might be reduced. It should be done within an organization because coordination is must while changing management. With the help of coordination innovation of Technology can be adapted by everyone in easy manner. It is the leadership skill to have the constantly anticipate, flexible, open minded and evaluate. Change agent should motivate innovative ideas and take beneficial of changing technology for example social media. Change agents should set the organizational skills to decrease the influence of political behavior not only within an individual but also in organization. It can be done by setting expectations, common delegating task, fixing deadlines and using evaluating alternative (Hayes, 2014).

Communication skill is an important element for an organizational change. There is number of obstacles can come due to innovation within an organization; in that case it is necessary that the employees of the organization should be frank about the query. It is not possible that each and every employee is aware about the new technology; there is requirement of training and development (Anderson and Anderson, 2010). Those who know how to adjust in organizational change can enhance the behavior of political in the organization. Change agent should focus on activities that make a healthy political environment in order to enhance the flow of knowledge and the performance of organizational. The communication skill of change agent facilitates getting employees to expose typical issues and speak out. Another skill of problem solving and decision making of change agent can reduce the impact of political behavior during the organizational change (Razali & Vrontis, 2010).

Importance of leadership skills in reducing political behavior during organizational change

Change agent need to balance the issues in perfect manner and take a right decision to solve the issues. Politics are there in every change because there will always be winners and losers. It is necessary for the change leader who knows the agenda so that they can figure out how to anticipate and manage politics through decreasing brokering deals, uncertainty and obstacles in the organization (Thomas and Hardy, 2011). Change agent should make an effective effort to facilitate people feel respected and heard. When change agent is known by champions of good ideas, people will initiate knocking at his door within and outside the organization with more effective ideas. Change agent will rapidly create a chest with full of effective ideas that will help to promote and sustain change. Political behavior is arisen in the organization when someone knows more than anyone.

There are so many ways to reduce the politics at workplace that can be job satisfaction, transparency, teamwork, positive frame of mind and maintain the decorum of the workplace. When employees want appreciation from his superiors they start to political behavior and vanish the good will of the fellow workers (Herholdt, 2012). Employee whose believe in hard work is not start to involving in politics at the workplace for the purpose to save their own job. It is not the solution to change the job again and again to protect from politics. Change agent should follow certain rules to make employee feel that they are working at safe and healthy environment where they do not get harassed from anyone. If they found any kind of things which is not in the favor of ethical, they can complaint against them. Maintain the job satisfaction among the employees it is responsibility of the change agent to delegate the responsibility as per the interest, specialization and qualification of the employees (Jones and Brazzel, 2014). The impact of political behavior can be reduced within an organization to make aware employees that what they are supposed to do in the organization. Transparency is considered as an important aspect which is able to maintain at all level to reduce politics. Along with that change agent should follow the company policies for everyone in same manner. Teamwork is considered as the strength bonds among the employees because it enhances the productivity of the works (Ryan, et. al., 2008). Change agent can increase the team work by celebrating various festivals at the workplace. Discussion is another important aspect to reduce the political behavior because due to discussion everyone is allowed to participate in the same manner. Employees are free to share their view and sorrows in front of their superiors. Hierarchy should be defined in perfect manner what the purpose to reduce the political behavior.

Importance of communication skills in organizational change

Organizational development techniques is a gradually process that is implemented with a systematic way. There are so many definitions which define the meaning of organizational development but one of them defines that OD is a process that prepares organization to hold change. Organizational development helps to bring the beliefs of an organization to adapt the technology and environment in which they activate.  The aim of OD is to develop the system, process and structures (Sørensen et. al., 2011). Organizational development includes the number of services in it such as change management which involves committees and other departments in to the implementing of planning of changes within the organization. Talent management is a part of organizational development which accurately analyzes the workforce in the organization to ensure the Occupancy of right employee. Team development is also a part of organization development that helps to enable it to search the ways so that we can be done efficiently together. Customized really is a different technique of organizational development that help to enhance the set of skills, knowledge or value so that employees of the organization get closer to the common objective. A member of organization will work together as a team of change agents so that the intervention plans on the changes along with techniques are to be initiated. Organizational development techniques are the important aspects which have not only to the organization but also employees to get closer and accomplish the objectives and goals of the organization (Benn, et. al., 2014).

There are a number of organizational techniques such as survey feedback, team building, sensitivity training, and brainstorming, Management by objectives, quality circles and process consultation. Manager can use various organizational development techniques to lead the organizational change (Bridges and Bridges, 2017). Survey feedback technique include collected data through a questionnaire information is very helpful to manager for taking decision. The survey feedback contains the question of quality of work, working hours, employee attitude, working condition and salaries. The manager of the organization moves further to evaluate and interpret the collected data. They take first step to pinpoint the problems after that the assessing the results and then starting draft plan for resolution. It is a different technique which is used by manager to lead the organizational change because it helps out you knows the exact feeling of employee’s organization (Burke and Noumair, 2015).

Team building is another technique of organizational development. It is considered as an independent component of OD which has been enhancing popularity. This technique is being used to design for improving the capability of the organization’s member so that they can work together in a harmonious environment. Through enhancing the dynamic of group and promote the safe and healthy workplace, the effectiveness of organization can be boosted. Team building is considered as the effective OD technique which helps to make a group discussion. Group discussion removes the hesitation from the employee and enhances their capability to speak up in front of people or employee so that views and ideas can be revealed out (Sahay and Sarkar, 2015).

Balancing issues during organizational change

Sensitivity training is the most popular technique of organizational development. Manager should you sensitivity training while changing management is it ask employees to interact so that their understanding and better each other. Due to sensitivity training team members get better known and the environment of working. Free communication and interpersonal relationship enhance the experience of group as a team, offering other employees to express their views and ideas in a safe and control the workplace (Dingsøyr and Moe, 2014). Sensitivity training will amplifies the self awareness on Awareness of others as well. These two factors are important element of organizational development which is considered important to make trust and comfort new order can build within the company.

Brainstorming is unique organizational techniques which aim is to promote the creative thinking, bringing the leaders together and facilitate them to engage in a lucrative discussion so that common issue can be resolved. Employees of the organization are allowed to contribute their new ideas and angles for tackling the conflicts of the organization. The aim behind brainstorming is that managers of the organization come together and create a plan based on the suggestions of all. The technique of brainstorming is meant to get employees to discussion potential solutions and opt for best one. These criteria should be done in safe environment where employees of the organization can be able to express their ideas and view in freely manner.

Management by objectives is used by manager to handle the situation of change management. This technique should be used in change management because it reviews and assess the performance of employees.  The management by objectives contains four necessary steps in it such as individual’s targets and objectives, performance, review and appraisal. It can be initiated by manager to measure the performance of the employees. Quality circle is a technique which requires up to a dozen team members for the purpose to discuss important task related issues and come up with that can be initiated by the team of Management this is a technique which has to be carried out twice in a month doing working hour, it allows employee to discuss their ideas and views if they want to contribute. Heighten moral, decrease costs and effective quality is the features of quality circles which enhance the productivity of the employee in the working environment. The success of the quality circle is based on the part of the participants (Benn, et. al., 2014). Apart from that process consultation is a technique which is used by an expert to help team member's issue in an efficient way.

Conclusion

References

Alvesson, M. and Sveningsson, S., 2015, Changing organizational culture: Cultural change work in progress, Routledge.

Anderson, D., and Anderson, L, 2010, Beyond Change Management: How to achieve Breakthrough results through Conscious Change Leadership, Jossey-Bass. Chapter 1, Chapter 2 and 3 Andrews, J., Cameron, H. and Harris, M. (2008) "All change? Managers' experience of organizational change in theory and practice", Journal of Organizational Change Management, Vol. 21 Iss: 3, pp.300 – 314.

Benn, S, Dunphy, D, and Griffiths, A., 2014, Organizational change for corporate sustainability, Routledge.

Benn, S., Dunphy, D. and Griffiths, A., 2014, Organizational change for corporate sustainability. Routledge.

Bolman, L, G, and Deal, T, E., 2017, Reframing organizations: Artistry, choice, and leadership, John Wiley & Sons.

Bridges, W. and Bridges, S., 2017, Managing transitions: Making the most of change, Da Capo Press.

Burke, W, W,and Noumair, D.A, 2015, Organization development: A process of learning and changing, FT Press.

Cameron, E. and Green, M., 2015, Making sense of change management: A complete guide to the models, tools and techniques of organizational change, Kogan Page Publishers.

Cameron, E. and Green, M., 2015, Making sense of change management: A complete guide to the models, tools and techniques of organizational change, Kogan Page Publishers.

Chiaburu, D.S., Peng, A.C., Oh, I.S., Banks, G.C. and Lomeli, L.C., 2013, Antecedents and consequences of employee organizational cynicism: A meta-analysis, Journal of Vocational Behavior, 83(2), pp.181-197.

Dingsøyr, T, and Moe, N, B., 2014, Towards principles of large-scale agile development. In International Conference on Agile Software Development (pp. 1-8). Springer, Cham.

Fullan, M., 2014, Leading in a culture of change personal action guide and workbook, John Wiley & Sons.

Goetsch, D, L, and Davis, S.B., 2014, Quality management for organizational excellence. Upper Saddle River, NJ: pearson.

Hayes, J., 2014, The theory and practice of change management, Palgrave Macmillan.

Herholdt, J, 2012, Managing Change in Organisations, Knowres Publishing. Section A.

Jones, B, and Brazzel, B, 2014, NTL Handbook of Organization Change: Principles, Practices and Perspectives (2nd Edn) Pfeiffer. Part 1 and Part 2.

Kuipers, B, S., Higgs, M., Kickert, W., Tummers, L., Grandia, J, and Van der Voet, J., 2014, The management of change in public organizations: A literature review. Public Administration, 92(1), pp.1-20.

Razali, M, Z., & Vrontis, D, 2010, The Reactions of Employees Toward the Implementation of Human Resources Information Systems (HRIS) as a Planned Change Program: A Case Study in Malaysia. Journal of Transnational Management, vol 15. no 3, pp. 229- 245.

Ryan, N., Williams, T., Charles, M., and Waterhouse, J. 2008, Top-down organizational change in an Australian Government agency, International Journal of Public Sector Management, Vol. 21 Iss: 1, pp.26 – 44.

Sahay, M, and Sarkar, S., 2015, ‘Way to Organisational Development’–Interpreting the Role of Spirituality Using System Dynamics, IIMS Journal of Management Science, 6(1), pp.72-86.

Sørensen, O. H., Hasle, P., & Pejtersen, J, H, 2011, Trust relations in management of change, Scandinavian Journal of Management, 27(4), 405-417.

Thomas, R and Hardy, C, 2011, Reframing resistance to organizational change. Scandinavian Journal of Management, 27(3): 322-331.

Urry, J., 2015, Climate change and society, In Why the social sciences matter (pp. 45-59), Palgrave Macmillan UK.

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