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Overview of Construction Program Management

Question:

Discuss about the Multi Criteria Decision Model for Mining Projects.

Construction program management involves the process of scheduling the construction activities to deliver the project on time. The current report provides a work breakdown structure of construction project of City of Newcastle. It also identifies the dependencies and sequence of the constructional activities. Resource requirements and duration for the project are also discussed. Finally, the conflicts and leveling has been reviewed efficiently. 

The preliminaries in the construction provide the description of the project allowing the constructor to assess the cost that do not form a part of the package of works which is required in the contract as well as the method and circumstances of the works. Destination will be done on basis of excavation, formwork, concreting, substructure, services and external works. It should be done for the project. It should also ensure that all the estimation is done accurately and as for the required means of the project excavation process would include building foundation the materials and tool used for the earthwork. Excavation will be done using iron pen, basket, sledgehammer, boning rod and mark. Speed line and pins, drawing requirements will be used for excavation, which includes central line drawing in layout planning. The size of the formulation for the main walls will be set according to the depth as well as for the partition the corner benchmarks will be set up surveying the ground level as well as that of labels excavation will be done to improve left foundation (Fellers 2014).

The ground will be dressed making up to cut off level; the dewatering will still be constructed interconnecting the trenches and marking boundaries of the building. Excess soil will be removed and the quality checks for excavation will be done. The quality checks for filling will also be done finally for required dewatering compaction as well as density level that need to be achieved. Substructure will be constructed after the excavation has been done it would be based on Foundation level. According to Ja?ocha (2014), shallow formation are those foundation having depth less than its width, deep foundation are those foundation having depth more than its width. In case of shallow foundation, step footing will be used as well and isolated footing depending on the loads.

Structural design will be used for the deformation will be piling and raft footing. The piles that will be used are fictional piles in which the load will be there as negative skin friction of the piles. Moreover, the piling will ensure that whole structure withstands bad loading condition and the load is transferred to the soil respectively. Faster the pile, boards will be driven using the pile driving machine. It will take up at range of 8 to 13 with 1.2-meter diameter after the file has been dug. Steel reinforcement cages of piles will be put into the pile holes. Later concrete will be filled up using method and bentonite slurry will be used to prevent the side soils to collapse. After the piling has been constructed a pile cap will be constructed which will ensure that the total structural weight is carried and is transferred equivalent to the soil (Yumusak 2015). The pile structure as well as the pile cap should be monolithic that is the concrete should be done uniformly to prevent any kind of cracks or cold joins. The superstructure will be constructed throughout after the completion of substructure (Omar 2017). Superstructure will include main wall, partition walls, load bearing walls, design services including lighting, flooring, tiling, internal and external finishes. Various plumbing works will also include in the services. The final wall finish, distempering, whitewashing and coloring will also be done. External works including aesthetics interior design as well as carpeting will be done.

Work Breakdown Structure of City of Newcastle Project

Task Name

Duration

Start Date

End Date

Predecessors

% Complete

Building in City of New Castle

134d

05/10/17

10/14/17

 

0%

Preliminary works

68d

05/11/17

07/29/17

 

0%

Piles Cleaning

15d

05/11/17

05/27/17

 

0%

Geocell

25d

05/29/17

06/27/17

3

0%

Shotcrete works

40d

06/02/17

07/19/17

4SS +4d

0%

Anchors

10d

06/09/17

06/21/17

5SS +6d

0%

Detailed Excavation

30d

06/22/17

07/26/17

5SS +16d

0%

Footing works

20d

07/07/17

07/29/17

7SS +13d

0%

Erect tower crane

3d

07/20/17

07/22/17

8SS +11d

0%

Substructure works

36d

07/24/17

09/02/17

 

0%

Basement works

36d

07/24/17

09/02/17

 

0%

Columns and Structural walls/Lifts

15.5d

07/24/17

08/10/17

 

0%

Steel Fixing

7.5d

07/24/17

08/01/17

8SS +10d, 9

0%

Formwork

7.5d

07/28/17

08/05/17

13SS +4d

0%

Concrete pouring

7.5d

08/02/17

08/10/17

14SS +4d

0%

Electrical works

7d

08/07/17

08/14/17

15SS +4d

0%

Plumbing works

10d

08/09/17

08/19/17

15SS +6d

0%

Pour slab

20d

08/11/17

09/02/17

17SS +2d

0%

Structural works

134d

05/10/17

10/14/17

 

0%

Upper Ground Floor works

35d

09/04/17

10/14/17

 

0%

Erection of scaffold

5d

09/04/17

09/08/17

18

0%

Form deck

7d

09/09/17

09/16/17

21

0%

Prepare columns and walls

6d

09/14/17

09/20/17

22SS +4d

0%

Pour columns and walls

6d

09/18/17

09/23/17

23SS +3d

0%

Prepare steel fixing

6d

09/21/17

09/27/17

24SS +3d

0%

Services decking

6d

09/23/17

09/29/17

25SS +2d

0%

Place top reo

6d

09/28/17

10/05/17

25

0%

Deck cleaning

6d

10/06/17

10/12/17

27

0%

Pour slab

2d

10/13/17

10/14/17

28

0%

First Floor works

16d

05/10/17

05/27/17

 

0%

Erection of scaffold

4d

05/10/17

05/13/17

 

0%

Form deck

5d

05/10/17

05/15/17

 

0%

Prepare columns and walls

3d

05/15/17

05/17/17

32SS +4d

0%

Pour columns and walls

5d

05/18/17

05/23/17

33SS +3d

0%

Prepare steel fixing

4d

05/22/17

05/25/17

34SS +3d

0%

Services decking

4d

05/24/17

05/27/17

35SS +2d

0%

Place top reo

4d

05/10/17

05/13/17

 

0%

Deck cleaning

4d

05/15/17

05/18/17

37

0%

Pour slab

2d

05/19/17

05/20/17

38

0%

Second Floor works

18d

05/10/17

05/30/17

 

0%

Erection of scaffold

5d

05/10/17

05/15/17

 

0%

Form deck

7d

05/10/17

05/17/17

 

0%

Prepare columns and walls

6d

05/15/17

05/20/17

42SS +4d

0%

Pour columns and walls

6d

05/18/17

05/24/17

43SS +3d

0%

Prepare steel fixing

6d

05/22/17

05/27/17

44SS +3d

0%

Services decking

6d

05/24/17

05/30/17

45SS +2d

0%

Place top reo

6d

05/10/17

05/16/17

 

0%

Deck cleaning

6d

05/17/17

05/23/17

47

0%

Pour slab

2d

05/24/17

05/25/17

48

0%

Roof level works

19d

05/10/17

05/31/17

 

0%

Erection of scaffold

2d

05/10/17

05/11/17

 

0%

Form deck

6d

05/10/17

05/16/17

 

0%

Prepare columns and walls

5d

05/12/17

05/17/17

52SS +2d

0%

Pour columns and walls

4d

05/16/17

05/19/17

53SS +3d

0%

Prepare steel fixing

5d

05/16/17

05/20/17

54SS

0%

Services decking

5d

05/19/17

05/24/17

55SS +3d

0%

Place top reo

5d

05/23/17

05/27/17

56SS +3d

0%

Deck cleaning

5d

05/24/17

05/29/17

57SS +1d

0%

Pour slab

2d

05/30/17

05/31/17

58

0%

Finishes works

43d

05/10/17

06/29/17

 

0%

Basement works

20d

05/22/17

06/14/17

 

0%

Rough in services

20d

05/22/17

06/14/17

39

0%

Upper Ground Floor works

43d

05/10/17

06/29/17

 

0%

Hydraulic works

5d

06/15/17

06/20/17

62

0%

Brick laying

13d

06/15/17

06/29/17

64SS

0%

Installation of windows

12d

05/10/17

05/23/17

 

0%

Internal frames to walls and ceilings

10d

05/10/17

05/20/17

 

0%

Rough-in services

7d

05/22/17

05/29/17

67

0%

Set, Sand walls and install ceilings

10d

05/30/17

06/09/17

68

0%

Waterproofing works

5d

06/12/17

06/16/17

69

0%

Painting works

4d

05/10/17

05/13/17

 

0%

Tiling works

12d

05/15/17

05/27/17

71

0%

Cleaning works

4d

05/29/17

06/01/17

72

0%

Fittings

3d

05/10/17

05/12/17

 

0%

Silicon works

3d

05/13/17

05/16/17

74

0%

Final Cleaning

1d

05/13/17

05/13/17

75SS

0%

First Floor works

31d

05/10/17

06/15/17

 

0%

Plasterboard set out

2d

06/14/17

06/15/17

49FS +15d

0%

Hydraulic works

4d

05/10/17

05/13/17

 

0%

Installation of windows

4d

05/10/17

05/13/17

 

0%

Brickwork

14d

05/11/17

05/26/17

80SS +1d

0%

Internal frames to walls and ceilings

5d

05/10/17

05/15/17

 

0%

Rough-in services

5d

05/12/17

05/17/17

82SS +2d

0%

Set, Sand walls and ceilings

7d

05/10/17

05/17/17

 

0%

Waterproofing works

4d

05/18/17

05/22/17

84

0%

Painting works

5d

05/10/17

05/15/17

 

0%

Installation of kitchen

7d

05/16/17

05/23/17

86

0%

Tiling works

5d

05/24/17

05/29/17

87

0%

Wardrobes installation

4d

05/10/17

05/13/17

 

0%

Screens installation

3d

05/10/17

05/12/17

89SS

0%

Cleaning works

3d

05/10/17

05/12/17

 

0%

Fittings

2d

05/10/17

05/11/17

 

0%

Silicon works

2d

05/12/17

05/13/17

92

0%

Carpet installation

2d

05/15/17

05/16/17

93

0%

Final Cleaning

1d

05/17/17

05/17/17

94

0%

Second Floor works

38d

05/10/17

06/23/17

 

0%

Plasterboard set out

4d

06/20/17

06/23/17

59FS +15d

0%

Hydraulic works

5d

05/10/17

05/15/17

 

0%

Installation of windows

5d

05/10/17

05/15/17

 

0%

Brickwork

19d

05/11/17

06/01/17

99SS +1d

0%

Install sliding door frames

5d

05/15/17

05/19/17

100SS +3d

0%

Internal frames to walls and ceilings

7d

05/10/17

05/17/17

 

0%

Rough-in services

6d

05/12/17

05/18/17

102SS +2d

0%

Set, Sand walls and ceilings

12d

05/19/17

06/01/17

103

0%

Waterproofing works

5d

05/31/17

06/05/17

104SS +10d

0%

Painting works

5d

06/06/17

06/12/17

105

0%

Installation of kitchen

9d

05/10/17

05/19/17

 

0%

Tiling works

7d

05/18/17

05/25/17

107SS +7d

0%

Wardrobes installation

6d

05/10/17

05/16/17

 

0%

Screens installation

5d

05/10/17

05/15/17

109SS

0%

Cleaning works

5d

05/10/17

05/15/17

 

0%

Fittings

3d

05/10/17

05/12/17

 

0%

Silicon works

4d

05/13/17

05/17/17

112

0%

Carpet installation

3d

05/18/17

05/20/17

113

0%

Final Cleaning

2d

05/22/17

05/23/17

114

0%

Exterior works

35d

05/10/17

06/20/17

 

0%

Exterior waterproofing

10d

05/10/17

05/20/17

 

0%

Dismantle crane

0

05/10/17

05/10/17

 

0%

Cleaning of bricks

8d

05/10/17

05/18/17

 

0%

Painting works

15d

05/15/17

05/31/17

119SS +4d

0%

Dismantle of scaffold

7d

06/01/17

06/08/17

120

0%

Exterior tiling

20d

05/10/17

06/01/17

 

0%

Landscaping works

15d

06/02/17

06/20/17

122

0%

Exterior cleaning

10d

05/10/17

05/20/17

 

0%

Table 1: Spreadsheet of the dependencies and project activities

(Source: Created by the author)

The whole sequencing method has been derived as a result of effectiveness of the construction project and to maintain the innovation, scheduling and ideas. As per Samanta (2017), the major constraint of the project that has been kept in mind is the project budget as well as the time. Time and budget are the main constraints of the project and the project is estimated to be delivered within the time without any kind of delay. Moreover additional risk management has been taken before hand to ensure that the project does not exceed the budget cost

Task Name

Quantity

Crew Size

Preliminaries

 

5

Estimation

m2

3

Planning

 

1

Risk analysis

 

2

Budgeting

 

2

Reconnaissance survey

m2

8

Excavation

cum

100

Foundation materials and tools

 

10

Earth work excavation

cum

68

Centre line drawing

m2

4

Layout planning

m2

5

Quality checks of soil

 

15

Substructure

 

89

Soil testing

 

12

Foundation layout

m2

2

Foundation construction

m2

105

Foundation load analysis

 

3

Piling

 

54

Piling reinforcement

 

35

Piling cast in situ

 

66

Pile cap construction

 

44

Concreting

cum

38

Superstructure

 

78

Walling

 

25

Flooring

 

25

Roofing

 

25

Beam design and construction

 

4

Column design and construction

6

Slab design and construction

 

5

Staircase design and construction

4

Services

 

12

Lighting

 

3

Plumbing

 

6

Electricity

 

3

Fit out and finishes

 

3

Wall finish

 

3

Coloring

 

3

Whitewashing

 

5

Distempering

 

3

Floor finish

 

4

External coloring, pavements and garden

5

Table 2: Resource requirements and duration

(Source: Created by the author)

Number of activity

Work activity

Unit

Tradesman hours

Laborer hours

1

Excavation and backfilling

cum

0.92

2

Concrete work

sqm

0.30

3

Formwork

sqm

0.65

0.22

4

Reinforcement

No

0.24

5

Precast concrete

sqm

0.70

6

Brickwork and blockwork

blks

14

7

7

Brickwork and block work

blks/sqm

15

6.5

8

Structural steelwork

m

2

9

Metalwork

m

0.50

1

10

Carpentry

m

20

11

Floor framing

m

18

12

Wall framing

m

18

13

Insulation and flooring

sqm

25

14

Joinery

sqm

2

15

Windows and doors

set

1.55

16

Timber framing

m

22

17

Glazing

m

8.5

18

Roofing and roof planning

sqm

15

5

19

Insulation

sqm

20

20

Plastering

sqm

0.5

0.25

21

Painting

sqm

0.25

22

Sanitary plumbing

each

0.75

23

Drainage

m

0.43

24

Mechanical service

each

0.55

25

Black carbon steel

m

1.60

2.20

26

Pipe work

m

0.75

27

Pipe support

each

0.70

28

Electrical services

m

0.18

29

Conduit

m

0.22

30

Cable

m

0.17

Table 3: Labor/plant productivity rates that has been used

(Source: Influenced from Rawlinsons 2008)

It was ensured that the allocation of the resources was done serially on time and the scheduling of all the activities possible within the available resources. The next time period was then moved on and repeated it (Sarhadi 2016). The same process and activities were assigned for the similar resources, preferences was given to the activities with the least slack. According to Sohi (2016), the non-physical activities were rescheduled for freeing the resources for the critical activities. In this process, the non-critical activities became critical and the completion time of the project was stressed. Effectively critical path comprising of activities having zero slack after completion of the resource leveling the resource smoothing was carried out for further optimization of the project (Teraiya 2016).

The ‘max units’ was assigned to the level of resource and was reset every time the schedule was loaded from the database. The project resource allocation less than load of enterprise resource, adjustments were done to the field with proper project allocation through resource leveling. The assignment units are also set against the assignment tasks. Further, the value is set during assigned resource to the task. Leveling process is also ensured to be the greater units that have been reached for the project. The peak for the resources was calculated as the rollup for the assignments, which are overlapped as well as requires movement of the assignment to other resources. The priorities of the task was set accordingly for leveling the resources as well that was accomplished using proper setting of dependencies such as the predecessors for short concrete works was set as 4SS+4d and so on.

Conclusion

It can be concluded that project management is an important factor that contributes towards the successful completion of a project. The work breakdown structure helps for resource leveling as well as resource smoothing activities that will ensure that no conflict for the end activities is taking place. For the Gantt chart produced, it helps a project manager to identify various kinds project scheduling as well as fix the constraints of the projects, time and budget. Moreover any deviation of the project from scheduling and plan budgeting can also be tracked and mitigated before hand as well.

References

Fellers, J.W., 2014. How do Managers Control Technology-Intensive Work?. Journal of Management, 2(1), pp.01-09.

Ja?ocha, B., Krane, H.P., Ekambaram, A. and Prawelska-Skrzypek, G., 2014. Key competences of public sector project managers. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 119, pp.247-256.

Omar, R. and Din, J., 2017. Risk Assessment Tool for Software Project in Malaysian Public Sector. Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 12(3), pp.527-533.

Samanta, B.K., 2017. Multi Criteria Decision Model for Mining Projects. The Journal of Modern Project Management, 4(3), pp.23-34.

Sarhadi, M., 2016. Comparing Communication Style within Project Teams of three Project-oriented Organizations in Iran. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 226, pp.226-235.

Sohi, A.J., Hertogh, M., Bosch-Rekveldt, M. and Blom, R., 2016. Does Lean & Agile Project Management Help Coping with Project Complexity?. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 226, pp.252-259.

Teraiya, M.D., Solanki, M.B. and Raval, M.R., 2016. DESIGN OF TEXTILES INDUSTRIES BATCH MANGEMENT USING PLC AND SCADA. Development, 3(1). Pp.12-23.

Yumusak, N., Ozcelik, I., Iskefiyeli, M., Adak, M.F. and K?rktepeli, T., 2015. University Industry Linkage Projects Management System. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 174, pp.3254-3259.

Conflicts and leveling

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