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The Inter-Related Processes of Learning and Motivation

Question:

Discuss about the Motivation and Learning.

The purpose of this unit is to explain that how motivation acts like a boon for the successful learner by taking charge of managing their learning skills. For the accomplishment of such goals, this study has determined several factors for the motivation to learn. It is well defined that learning and motivation are the inter-related processes (Deci, Vallerand, & Pelletier, 1991).

The guiding principles of motivation define that if an individual wants to change their motivation than his/her beliefs, and perceptions will also get changed (Ghaedi & Jam, 2014). To become a successful learner or anyone who wants to gain expertise requires to spent considerable efforts and remain persistent in acquisition of knowledge and development of skills.

Motivation refers to probably a factor that is considered to be most important from the point of learning enhancement. Multitude theories were designed to explain the motivation while some out of all has discussed about the aspects of motivation. It is defined that the motivation is like an incentive or energy that drives the individual for taking an action (Daw & Shohamy, 2008). It is like a dynamic internal construct that reflects about the individual’s emotional and psychological states during certain period of time.

Motivation is like a stimulating factor that induces, energizes and inspires the people to work willingly by taking initiative, confidence, zeal and satisfaction in an integrated manner for achieving the desired goals. It acts like a moral boosting stimulate. On the other hand, learning is like a psychological change in behavior that results from experience or mechanistically changes in organism that result from experience (Xie, Durrington, & Yen, 2011). Motivation creates a positive impact over learning as without motivation learning does not exist. It is the motivation only that energizes the person to achieve the tasks and goals. In the process of learning, motivation helps in boosting the speed of individual to work  towards the important tasks and achieve the goals (Rehman & Haider, 2013). It is a way through which learners can preserve their capability to find that what kind of behavior can be exerted and how actual goals can be achieved.   

Learning is not at all about memorizing of any subject matter while it is like a secondary language that engages the learners into culture learning. Under such learning process, motivation plays a key role. This is further illustrated through focusing over literatures:

According to Karen Clayton F. B. (2010), Motivation is the factor that ‘kick start’ the processes, ‘lubricates’ the parts and ‘fuels’ the engines to keep the process running. Without motivation, one cannot think about earning and once the learner has started learning then it may not be able to maintain the learning after experiencing the hardship in the processes (Karen Clayton, 2010). Consequently, the learners that were highly motivated for their goals and objectives found to have higher achievements than those with lower motivation. The researchers have found that the complexity in the process of motivation gets initiated through mainly three characteristics: learning of language, desires for learning the language and the motivational intensity. Another very common issue in the process of motivation is persistence. For keeping the individual engaged in any particular task, it is necessary to keep them persistent because it may be possible that they may get easily distracted while getting engaged in any task.

Factors for Motivation to Learn

Based on the source of self-determination theory, it is found that generally learners used to learn through two sources that are internal and external. Every individual learns either by getting intrinsically motivated or through externally driven (Hilgard & Marquis, 2016). The individuals that were intrinsically motivated were found to be engaged in the activities due to their internal interests, excitement and joy while externally driven people perform their action with an anticipation of some other outcome apart from learning. Apparently, there is another state of motivation that is referred to as ‘amotivation’. It is a situation under which learner lacks in intention to get engaged in learning activity. He/she doesn’t feel worthwhile to make any efforts for learning due to the results of getting externally controlled.

Continue with the similar perspective, Hadi Hassankhani (2015) had illustrated that intrinsic motivation heps the learner to learn in a much better way. It boosts their powers to get more process-oriented, more prone to self-learning and development and remain persistant with for its achievements. However, it cannot be said that extrinsic motivation does not works at all (Hadi Hassankhani, 2015). It is investigated that in some or the another form extrinsic motivation also plays a vivid role like in the educational actvities where the things are not interesting and enjoyable by nature. In such cases, to engage the learners in the tasks, teachers regulates the learner’s engagement through highlighting the importances of the things and pointing out that how it will support the learner in its own goals and interests of real life.

After focusing over the above literatures, it is found that motivation is deemed self-perpetuating. It is the notion that leads to improvement in self-confidence for the one who wants to enhance their self-discipline that is rewarded for reaching the goals. When motivation is intrinsically or extrinsically exerted, it acts like a challenge for the people who dreamt of stretching beyond their perceived limits. According to Dickinson (1995), an individual can only get motivated when their personal motivations work in two ways. Firstly, they continue to apply the techniques until they found that what works best for their aligning team members and secondly, make an assurance that their motivation is grounded on right intentions. If an individual does not work by them and just forces others for achieving what he/she wants from them to do without making any consideration about actual needs and values, definitely ended up with temporary motivation (Dickinson, 1995). But it is only possible when others are also motivated. In the Self-Determination theory also, it is reviewed that there is a need to understand about the facts that will help in deriving appropriate actions in its respect. For that, it is necessary to spend some more time and discover the parameter that helps in creating knowledge for the team members in similar way. The thing that is only required for it is to become more creative and think in a non-traditional terms as to how to get people make them feel motivated for the accomplishment of their objectives (Garris, Ahlers, & Driskell, 2002).

Multitude Theories Designed to Explain Motivation

One of the psychology and core principles of Xu (2011) has engendered that the criticism for motivation is not only characterized by the self-actualizers while there is long list of human psychologist’s objectives that are again questioned. Author has criticized for the point of Hilgard & Marquis (2016) that motivation is like an effect that is characterized by the self-actualizers. According to him, every individual’s acts in the way they were motivated. But it is very hard for them to accept the changes in the processes, that are unalterably inadequate (Xu, 2011). In contrast with this fact, he had argued that sometimes praise encourages complicacy in the achievement of goals and objectives. It is the situation that degrades and destroys the confidence of others also as it might be possible that there is existence of people who fits into another category. Motivation is not the grip that creates more or less impact on everybody. It is the psychology of their learning ability that impels the person to perform different actions (Rotgans & Schmidt, 2012). Thus it can be said that motivation holds different internal forces that are responsible for different actions.

According to Ornstein (1995), Learning and motivation are complex and composite construct. Under its content, perceived value is assumed to be one of the major determinants for the motivation of individual as it initiates them to accept and use a technology. Here, perceived value is one of that degree to which person believes that after using a particular information system they would be able to enhance their learning (Ornstein, 1995). Motivation often leads to improvement in individual’s performance through identifying cognitive processes, goal directed behavior, efforts and energy, impacts of consequences, initiation and persistence. Simply learning about any skill does not mean that the individual will also be motivated to adopt it in practices. For the fulfillment of such needs, some of the parameters that are necessary to consider are possibility of higher grades, confidence of becoming a successful earner and spending of more time to participate in enjoyable activities (J. Huizenga, 2009). The cognitive view of motivation initially focuses on the influences of individual behavior over their internal states like his/her goals, perceptions, beliefs and emotions.

To analyze the critical aspects of motivation, researchers have evaluated different statistics, facts and figures used by the reviewers in setting up the initial problems. They have worked over finding the leading source of ideas on which basis motivation is generated. It is revealed that generalizability is not an issue. Researchers have tried to describe the purpose of understanding the potential to discover or rediscover the factors that appears to be important from the learner’s point of view. 

By keeping the base of capabilities, authors have determined the leading sources of knowledge and skill that keeps the individual motivated. They have designed their own frameworks and models in line with international studies of Garris, Ahlers, & Driskell (2002), Dickinson (1995), Vibulphol (2016), Rehman & Haider (2013) and Rehman & Haider (2013). Since, linkage between motivation and learning cannot be observed manually, thus authors have also taken the help of different data collection methods, including self-report questionnaires and observations for observing the phenomenon from different perspectives. To ensure the reliability of the analysis, that data was reviewed by two raters separately. An initial discussion about the inconsistencies was conducted before reaching the final agreement via additional comments in the questionnaires and observation sheets.

The Impact of Motivation on Learning

Based on above analysis, it can be said that the essence of matters, nature of the human mind and the origin of universe are the profound questions that has engaged the thinkers throughout the centuries (Vibulphol, 2016). Motivation is the term that is mostly used with the second language of learning. It is like an effort plus desire to achieve the goals of learning plus the favorable attitudes that defines different psychological effects. Consequently, it is suggested that strategies play a significant role as it is the tool for an active and self-directed involvement of the individual (Pan, 2009). It is the strategy that is essential for the development of communicative competence. Thus, an individual must adopt effective learning strategy by being motivated for setting plans and routines for the obtainment of appropriate goals and achievements.

Conclusion 

As a basis of study, motivation was found to be a necessary component in the strategic behavior and precursor in the strategic use. It is the systematic form of study that defines a significant relationship between learning and motivation. However, some of the authors have argued that motivation is indirectly related with the learning achievements because motivation is the concept that explains about the behavior of the individual rather than describing that how people behave after being successful. Thus, motivation and learning is considered as significant factor that affects the choice of the individual.

References               

Daw, N. D., & Shohamy, D. (2008). The Cognitive Neuroscience Of Motivation And Learning. Social Cognition, 26(05), 593-620.

Deci, E. L., Vallerand, R. J., & Pelletier, L. G. (1991). Motivation and Education: The Self-Determination Perspective. Educational Psychologist, 26(3 and 4), 325-346.

Dickinson, L. (1995). Autonomy and motivation a literature review. System, 23(02), 165-174.

Garris, R., Ahlers, R., & Driskell, J. E. (2002). Games, motivation, and learning:A research and practice model. Simulation & Gaming, 33(04), 441-467.

Ghaedi, Z., & Jam, B. (2014). Relationship between Learning Styles and Motivation for Higher Education in EFL Students. Theory and Practice in Language Studies, 04(06), 1232-1237.

Hadi Hassankhani, A. M. (2015). The Relationship between Learning Motivation and Self Efficacy among Nursing Students. Res Dev Med Educ, 04(01), 97-101.

Hilgard, E. R., & Marquis, D. G. (2016). Motivation and learning. American Psychological Association, 2(1), 395-435.

Huizenga, W. A. (2009). Mobile game-based learning in secondary education: engagement, motivation and learning in a mobile city game. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 25(04), 332-344.

Karen Clayton, F. B. (2010). The relationship between motivation, learning strategies and choice of environment whether traditional orincluding an online component. British Journal of Educational Technology, 41(03), 349-364.

Ornstein, A. C. (1995). Motivation and Learning. The High School Journal, 78(02), 105-110.

Pan, P. L. (2009). The Relationship between Motivation and Achievement-—A Survey of the Study Motivation of English Majors in Qingdao Agricultural University. English Language Teaching, 02(01), 123-128.

Rehman, A., & Haider, D. K. (2013). The Impact Of Motivation On Learning Of Secondary School Students In Karachi: An Analytical Study. Educational Research International, 02(02), 139-147.

Rotgans, J. I., & Schmidt, H. G. (2012). The Intricate Relationship Between Motivation and Achievement: Examining the Mediating Role of Self-Regulated Learning and Achievement-Related Classroom Behaviors. International Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education, 24(02), 197-208.

Vibulphol, J. (2016). Students’ Motivation and Learning and Teachers’ Motivational Strategies in English Classrooms in Thailand. English Language Teaching, 09(04), 64-75.

Xie, K., Durrington, V., & Yen, L. L. (2011). Relationship between Students’ Motivation and their Participation in Asynchronous Online Discussions. MERLOT Journal of Online Learning and Teaching, 07(01), 17-29.

Xu, X. (2011). The Relationship between Language Learning Motivation and the Choice of Language Learning Strategies among Chinese Graduates. International Journal of English Linguistics, 01(02), 203-2012.

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