What is Negotiation?
Discuss about the Negotiation.
Negotiation is a discussion between two or more parties or individuals which is meant for the purpose of ensuring a solution or agreeable outcome to a situation is achieved. The situation being discussed may be a conflict or a problem which is being faced by two or more worrying parties. The outcome of a negotiation is usually set to be beneficial to both parties involved. However, in some cases the outcome of a negotiation can be beneficial to some of the parties involved and not all of them. The main aim of endeavoring into a negotiation is to ensure an agreeable outcome is achieved (Marks 2011, p.387). When a negotiation is being undertaken the initial process is for one party to table their position and then all the parties involved debate around this position tailoring it to their needs until an agreeable solution is achieved. Negotiations happen every day in various settings. Whether it is a small issue or a global problem, negotiations usually happen so that major repercussions are avoided or mitigated.
Negotiations can be done through the use of a professional negotiator who has been tasked to act on behalf of a specific party or organization. Negotiation is also referred to as hard bargaining or positional negotiation (Pease, Barbara & Alan 2006, n.p.). This is because in a negotiation a certain position is brought forward then debated until an amicable solution is achieved. Distributed negotiation is a type on negotiation which is believed to be that when on party benefits it is at the expense of the other. Due to this case it is commonly referred to as win-lose negotiation. Integrative negotiation is a negotiation type which is also called principal, merit-based or interest-based negotiation (Lewicki, Saunders & Minton 2001, p.82). This type of negotiation works by trying to improve the chances of a negotiation becoming a success understanding that different parties want different things and outcomes. Bad faith negotiation is whereby one party tries to show that they are interested in achieved a solution but they actually do not want to achieve a compromise.
Negotiation is a necessary avenue to ensure issues which are faced by different parties achieve a compromise. In this paper we shall discuss negotiation based on various premises. We shall dwell on Apple which is a multinational technology company. Apple is a huge company with a wide array of technological products such as the Iphone. Apple being such a huge company it faces various issues as is undertakes its business. It needs to have active and professional negotiators who are skilled in various aspects to ensure the outcome of a negotiation is something in which they can compromise upon (Sagi & Diermeier 2015, n.p.). When Apple is choosing its negotiators it needs to screen all the qualified people who can appropriately fill the shoes of a negotiator. Apple does this by choosing individuals who are good communicators. For an individual to become a good negotiator one of the key attributes is them being able to communicate well and without fear. This enables them to be heard and they have a fair chance of negotiating well for the company.
Types of Negotiation
A negotiator in Apple is chosen based on the specific skill set the individual may have. The skill set of a negotiator in Apple should typically be an individual who is technology savvy and is very conversant with the business environment in which Apple runs in. Such a person stands out when negotiators are being chosen because they are aware of the company and its needs and will always negotiate the deals which appropriately in line with the company. In Apple, a negotiator is chosen also by their level of pro-activity. A negotiator needs to be someone who is always on their feet and will go the extra mile in all they do to ensure the best interests of the company are well maintained in any negotiation process (Gates 2011, p.232).. Individuals who have proven resourceful and innovative are also chosen usually within Apple. This is because in a negotiation, the issue at hand may go very wrong for the company very fast. It is up to the negotiator to come up with ways in which they can ensure the outcome of the negotiation goes well for the company. The training of negotiators can be done on and off the job. In this case negotiators can be trained on the job by learning all the factors that are associated with the business. When they learn these factors they gain knowledge on the best conditions which will be needed to best fit the company (Saner 2000, p.40).. This will enable them to know how they can negotiate for the company in various issues and gain the best outcome for the company.
The trainings which are done off the job can be undertaken through various events and workshops. These kinds of events ensure that the negotiators are taught actively on how best they can gain skills which will enable them to be good at what they do. Workshops are also important because individuals who attend them will be trained on the best and most effective skills and strategies needed to become good negotiators. In such workshops the negotiators will also be updated on the latest trends in negotiation which can enable them to become very effective and marketable as they work for their company to win negotiations (Forsyth 2009, p.380). There are companies which do not have the capacity to have in house negotiators due to various reasons such as monetary restraints. These companies have the opportunity to hire negotiators who can act on their behalf as agents whenever they need their services. It is imperative that any company discovers the for negotiators and have them close so that they can negotiate on their behalf to ensure they reach a good compromise whenever any issue arises. Negotiators are not necessary individuals to be kept in-house but when the need arises they can be called upon to act on behalf of the organization (Shell 2006, n.p.). In a company such as Apple there are always in house negotiators who work for the benefit of the company. They are tasked with ensuring that all negotiation processes are handled professionally and that the company may get the best or most appropriate results from any negotiation process.
Professional Negotiator and Training
At Apple, before any negotiation takes place there are processes which are undertaken to ensure that the company has a good chance of achieving a favorable outcome. Firstly, the issues or topic to be negotiated upon needs to be clearly understood. The company has to call upon its employees who are conversant in their various departments and bring in the needed expertise and experience to be able to negotiate. After the employees are called upon the matter is analyzed and the company comes up with positional scenarios which are the various outcomes the company can accept so that the negotiation is a success (Journal of Organizational Behavior 2006, p.270). The process of understanding the problem and analyzing the various positional scenarios will ensure that the company can be prepared to negotiate well with the involved parties. The preparation phase of a negotiation process can be improved by having the company have regular analysis of any issues which they might face so that if there ever arises an issue in which the company might dwell in negotiations with the involved parties they are always ready (Coburn 2012, n.p.). The company can also organize simulated problems or issues based on the company and have the employees engage in active negotiation sessions which are supervised by experts to ensure that everyone involved within the company can have the necessary skilled which are needed to become a top notch negotiator.
Post negotiation process is the process which comes after a negotiation has happened and the parties involved have reached a compromise. In most companies this process is very shallow in that, the parties involved only fulfill the terms of their compromise. It is important to have a very in-depth post negotiation process. This is because engaging with parties who you might have to face in a negotiation again will be good in that you can always identify potential issues and work together to solve them before they become a headache to the company. The post negotiation process can also be used as a platform for negotiators from all involved parties to help each other improve on their skills (Van Kleef, De Dreu & Manstead 2004, p.65). The presence of these individuals discussing and helping each other improve on their skills will enable them to become better negotiators in future. At Apple, the post negotiation process is viewed as an important step in ensuring the success of a negotiation is achieved. The post negotiation process at Apple is part of the whole negotiation cycle which means that without it a negotiation is not complete.
Negotiation at Apple
The negotiation process should be reviewed because it is a very practical case study in which the company and parties involved can learn of their strengths and weaknesses and therefore improve on them. A negotiation process like any other process involves various steps which need to be undertaken to ensure a feasible outcome is achieved (Brazeal 2009, p.1). For any party involved in a negotiation, the review of such a process will ensure that they can learn on the areas which they are good at and continue improving on them. They will also learn on the weaknesses in which they may have and the company can organize workshops and trainings where the negotiators will be taught on how to capitalize on their weaknesses and turn them into their strengths. At Apple reviewing of the negotiation process is very important. In a particular case, a negotiator may not have fully prepared themselves when walking into a negotiation. The negotiator and the whole company needs to learn from the mistake by reviewing the negotiation process. This will ensure that any future occurrences of such a scenario will have the negotiators at Apple ready to handle any matter because they have done in depth due diligence and preparation before the negotiation begins (Albarracin & Kumkale 2003, p.456). After undergoing the review process, the negotiator will become more familiar with the whole process and in the end he or she will help the company get the best outcome for the company from any negotiation process (Veechi, Van Hasselt & Romano 2005, p.543). The negotiation process can also be reviewed by playing back recordings from the negotiation process in the presence of another professional negotiator who can be able to single out the instances whereby the negotiator would have approached a matter so that it would have been more beneficial to the company. The notes taken during a negotiation can be reviewed to ensure that negotiators are always aware of their actions and what more they might have done to improve the chances of the negotiation being very beneficial to the company (Bazerman, Curhan, Moore & Valley 2000, p.301.).
A good example is a negotiation process in which occurred between Apple and AT&T. The purpose of the negotiation was to ensure that Apple would get a good price on their iphones if they were sold on contract through AT&T. The arrangement was usually mutually beneficial but this time Apple wanted more money because they had a huge demand for their iphones. The other mobile operators had agreed to Apple’s offer but AT&T did not. Apple was at a disadvantage because AT&T had a very large customer base which they could not accept to pass by them. The two companies held a negotiation to agree on the best solution for them to work together. After various positions were brought forward by both companies, the solution agreed upon was that Apple would get the additional money if on every sale of an iphone they gave a discount on the second purchase. Apple would make more money because most people would buy only one iphone and AT&T would get the business of the clients who bought those iphones. The negotiation was a success because both parties involved which were Apple and AT&T had very good negotiators who had done their due diligence and were able to communicate audibly and effectively during the negotiations (Barry, Fulmer & Van Kleef 2004, p.81). The negotiations would have been improved by having both parties being more cooperative from the initialization of the issue. Apple and AT&T had both held their ground when the issue arose and this in effect hurt their business. Even though sales were being made through other service providers, they were not that good as compared to them passing through AT&T. The negotiation process should have been done immediately the issue came up so that the solution would be achieved and both parties would benefit from doing business together.
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