The aim of this assignment is to familiarise yourself with the structure and size of a national electrical generation, transmission, distribution and utilisation industry such that you may be more informed of the key details, issues and policy surrounding the industry. Also, you will hopefully gain an appreciation of some of the industry terminologies.
Your report title is ‘The electrical generation, transmission and distribution network in ****’.
Here, is either the UK, or your home country, or both if you are interested. If you report on 2 countries you can extend the report by 2 pages, so 8 pages of content total, otherwise the report is limited to 6 pages of content.
The scope of your study should cover the following areas:
In the last few years what have been the main energy resources for the generation of electricity. Tabulate the information and show graphically via a pie-chart.
Find and simply state typical figures for the following measurands:
Generating capacity of the system (typically in GW).
Maximum demand ever realised (usually in GW).
Maximum demand in the most recent year of published data (usually in GW).
Generation Peak Utilisation Factor, i.e. at present, what percentage of capacity is the maximum demand, or state a figure for a given but recent year, i.e. 2012/3.
What is the annual electrical energy used in the most recent year of published data.
What is the number of large power stations (i.e. stations greater than 1000MW).
Power flow. Does the country import and export electrical energy. If the country does import and export electrical energy, who are the main exchanges between.
What is the system operating frequency and what is the tolerance in this value.
What are the standard voltage levels for generation, transmission (defined by the high voltage grid network), distribution (usually by national and local governments, and by private organisations) and utilisation (by industry and private customers).
How has the demand for electrical energy use changed since 1900 (the year!). Also, how has the GDP since 1900. This data may be harder to find. Show the data graphically on the same line graph.
Write a short paragraph to answer the following:
If you were in a senior governmental position, what would be your strategy to ensure a successful development of the electrical generation, transmission and distribution industry in the UK and your chosen country towards the year 2050?
This research is a presentation of the electrical power generation, transmission and distribution system in the United Kingdom, Europe. There is a topic per topic tackle on the required areas of study as careful determination is also given. Interest is given in the whole scope of electrical energy requirement in the United Kingdom, factors of production and supply and eventually a personal commentary is given (Yokoyama, 2012).
Here in is the detail of Electrical Power Generation, Transmission, Supply/Distribution and Utilization in The United Kingdom. All the subtopics are handled singly with other related topics and additional information that is deemed relevant to the contribution of this research (DUKES 2016)
Electrical power in the United Kingdom is generated in various ways. There are renewable and non-renewable sources of energy explored in this study. Fossil fuels form the major aspect of the non-renewable fuel source in the United Kingdom in which fossil fuels such as natural oil are burnt to release energy. The production through fossil fuels is notably on a constant decline. Notably gas, power stations that are fueled by coal and nuclear sources are the main ways the industries, households and various institutions in the United Kingdom that is also by large dependent on renewable activities for the environmental sustainability watch, get their electrical energy (Stokes, 2016).
Up to 21 percent of the electricity generated in United Kingdom is from nuclear reactors. This is through the splitting of atoms of uranium that result into the generation of a lot of heat, a process dubbed fission. However, it is predicted that the power stations in United Kingdom that generated power through nuclear energy are likely to close down in 100 years or so with one of the stations expected to stop running by 2025 (Gonen, 2015). Among the renewable energy sources exploited in the country include biomass, wind, wave, hydro, solar and marine o mention just but a few of them. Renewable energy amounted to up to 25 % of the total net energy generated in the country in the 2015. Expectations and plans are in place to see this figure rise even higher as the country aims at hitting the target of European Union of producing 30% of the total energy sources from renewable sources by 2020. Other sources include low carbon energy, hydro energy, solar energy and wind turbines that produce electrical energy (Devine-Wright, 2014).
Also important to note under this section is that United Kingdom imports part of her electricity as one of the sources of her energy. The country´s main partners involved in the importation of this product include France and Netherlands. United Kingdom has her electricity network connected to the systems of these countries through various interconnecting cables called interconnectors.
Generating Capacity of the System (in GW)
Currently, the total electrical energy generated in the United Kingdom is 90 gigawatts. Having an acute challenge in the energy production and particularly electrical energy, efforts are underway to improve on the production (Morley, 2016).
2.2.2 Maximum Demand Ever Realized (in GW)
First of all, it is to be noted with keen interest that electrical energy demand is seasonal in nature in the United Kingdom. Demands hit up to a tune of 52.54 Gigawatts in 2017 Winter, a demand that always is outrageous to the 354 Megawatts that wind energy can produce to meet this demand (Change, 2013).
United Kingdom Registered 9.2% of energy generated from coal (Carbon Brief 2016).
Solar energy gave 10TWh
Coal Generated 34TWh
Wind gave 39.2TWh
Gas was recorded at 145TWh (Carbon Brief 2016)
There is pressure to diversify electrical power supply means to maintain a stable steady flow in consumption and production chain. Unfortunately, not so many people are aware of the stakes in this are it is very tasking. From policy making stage, to capacity factors that influence supply, utilization factors and load factors there is a lot of work required to pull a whole chain of generation, transmission to the end consumption point (Scaddan, 2014).
So far only solar photo voltaic (PV) panels show the largest in reliability in output capability as they are by and large inactive at night and do not produce electricity (Burton, 2011). Hence this limitation leads to the need for a household or institution to have a backup
Electricity usage in 2016 in the United Kingdom was reported to have hit a total of 6103 kWh per capita
2.2.6 Number of Power Stations larger than 1000MW
Over 2000 is the sum total of the power stations in the United Kingdom that mostly comprises the renewable sources of electrical energy (Q. Ashton Acton, 2013).
There is a national high voltage grid and it is reported that a power station is able to produce up to 25000v and make it transmitted through the national grid through 400,000v,275000v and 132000v that then supplies the whole region of the United Kingdom (Krishnaswamy, 2013).
The grid connects a huge area depending on the electricity demand in what is known as a synchronous grid that has a current flow of 50hertz.
There are also connections done under the sea and major wetlands in the United Kingdom. This is also done when the United Kingdom government exports some of its power to its member states as it equally imports a bit to strike a balance in the power production and supply (Morley, 2016).
United Kingdom does not only import electricity but also exports the product. Among her trading partners in this business include Ireland, France and Netherlands which have their electricity systems connected to the electricity network of United Kingdom through the use of cables called interconnectors (Krishnaswamy, 2013). These cables are helpful in the importation or exportation when the country finds it most appropriate and economical. An estimated 8 TWh of electricity was imported from Netherlands with another 13.8 TWh imported by United Kingdom from France in the year 2015. These supplies amounted to about 5.8 percent of the total electricity supplied in the country in during that year. In the same year, 0.9 TWh of electricity was exported to Ireland.
As earlier stated in a previous sub topic, there is a national high voltage grid and it is reported that a power station is able to produce up to 25000v and make it transmitted through the national grid through 400,000v,275000v and 132000v that then supplies the whole region of the United Kingdom (Gonen, 2015).
Details however still do not show specifics of what of what amount of Electric power is supplied to each of the following institutions; government, industries, homesteads but sources disclose that these are the main consumers of much of the electricity produced in the United Kingdom (Burton, 2011).
There is a pre-empted growth in electricity and the power consumption levels given the increase in call for sustainable energy systems and the slow encroachment of cable and electric cars into the market as a means of environmental conservation (Bayliss, 2012)
The United Kingdom portrays an epitome of energy conservation as apparently the Monarchy is able to maintain its supply and demand cycle effectively to satisfy every need electrically (Melhem, 2013). Given the projections however, there will be a great need to improve, control and reduce the usage of non-renewable sources of energy in the United Kingdom as a means to effectively live the environmental sustainability talk (UK Electricity 2050 Part 1: A demand model) Companies like Ecotricity have come up to frontier the move for sustainable green energy.
Bayliss, C. R. (2012). Transmission and Distribution Electrical Engineering. London: Elsevier.
Burton, T. (2011). Wind Energy Handbook. Chicago: John Wiley & Sons.
Change, G. B. (2013). Overarching national policy statement for energy (EN-1). London: The Stationery Office.
Devine-Wright, P. (2014). Renewable Energy and the Public: From NIMBY to Participation. Chicago: Routledge.
Gonen, T. (2015). Electric Power Distribution Engineering, Third Edition. Chicago: CRC Press.
Krishnaswamy, V. (2013). Private Sector Participation in the Power Sector in Europe and Central Asia: Lessons from the Last Decade. New York: World Bank Publications.
Melhem, Z. (2013). Electricity Transmission, Distribution and Storage Systems. Berlin: Elsevier Science.
Morley, E. (2016). The future of Britain's electricity networks: second report of session 2009-10, Vol. 2: Oral and written evidence, Volume 2. London: The Stationery Office.
Ashton Acton, P. (2013). Advances in Environment Research and Application: 2012 Edition.New York: ScholarlyEditions.
Scaddan, B. (2014). Electric Wiring: Domestic. Manchester: Routledge.
Stokes, G. (2016). Handbook of Electrical Installation Practice. Paris: John Wiley & Sons.
Yokoyama, A. (2012). Smart Grid: Technology and Applications. Beijing: John Wiley & Sons.
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