1. Identify and briefly describe the functional and non-functional requirements for JHC's new information system.
2. Identify use cases and draw use case diagrams for JHC's new information system that show major use cases and actors.
3. Draw a UML domain model class diagrams for JHC's new information system. Be as specific and accurate as possible, given the information provided. If needed information is not given, make realistic assumptions.
4. Develop event-partitioned system models for JHC's new information system encompassing major use cases you identified in question 2.
5. Review the functional and non-functional requirements for JHC's new information system you have developed in question 1. Then, list and briefly describe some specific tasks required for each design activities of SDLC including describing the environment, designing application components, user interfaces, the database, and software methods.
The functional requirements of James Healthcare Centre IS are as following.
- EMR: Electronic Medical Records is the way of storing the patient data within the system. It will hold all the details of the patient personal information along with treatment information. The reports of the tests done, dieses and many other data will be saved within EMR. It will allow monitoring data over time. EMR will be a significant entity in modifying the patient care as it will allow tracking how patients measure certain parameters like readings of blood pressure.
- Database: It will be the base of all the data stored within the system. From EMR to payroll all the data stored within a single centralized database. This database will be connected to the central system. Verification and validation methods will be implemented to check accuracy and liability of inputted data before storing it into database.
- CDSS: Clinical Decision Support System is the application for analyzing data for assisting healthcare providers for making clinical decisions. It is a part of the decision support system. The nurses, physicians and healthcare professionals of James Healthcare Centre will be using the CDSS for preparing a diagnosis and reviewing that diagnosis regarding enhancing the final outcome. The CDSS will be applying protocols to patient data utilizing an inference engine. This system will be showing the authorized information into the end user display.
- Data Mining: Data mining will be done by the organization Information System for evaluating the patient medical history in adjacent with the relevant clinical research. James Healthcare Centre will be using Data Mining with the purpose of recognizing the possible events range from disease symptoms to drug interaction.
- CPOE: Computerized physician order entry is the procedure of entering orders of medication into the system by medical professionals. James Healthcare Centre will be able to reduce the issues regarding poor handwriting and transcription related medical orders. The healthcare organization may be able to integrating the thought of implementing e-prescriptions through the development of COPE.
- Billing: The system will be able to automatically calculate the payment that the patient needs to pay. The system will provide the receipt of treatment to the patient with an auto generated bill before discharge. This bill will be containing all the data regarding patient treatment and cost for each process that the patient has undergone.
- Attendance Tracking: The system will be storing the attendance related data into the system for distinct staff. The system will access these data and show it to the intended end-user if request is submitted. Based on the attendance data, a report will be generated for the management executives. The system will be able to mark leaves and week offs as per admin input. Special verification methods will be applied to the attendance tracking subsystem.
- Audit: The system will be developed in such a way it can create audit reports based on the stored data. These audit reports will be formatted as a well-designed report for the organization stakeholders.
- Payroll: The system will be responsible for payroll of the medical and general staff. The system will have all the salary and other payroll related data. Some of the data will be inputted by the admin. The payroll will be the central process of the system.
- Appointment: The system will be scheduling appointments based on the patient input and attendance of medical staff. All the details of the appointment will be stored in the database. After an appointment, the patient can request for next appointment.
The non-functional requirements of the system are as following.
- Security: High security is a highly required feature of information system. The system will be storing the bank account details of the staff and patients. All the personal data of stakeholders will also be stored in the system. In such situation, the system must be able to prevent and block cyber-attacks. The increase in the DDoS attack in the recent year has created a serious issue in IT. James Healthcare Centre can employ a third party security provider so that attacks like DDoS, cyber espionage and others can be prevented. Various protocols will be implied on the end-users of the system to prevent security exploitation form inside.
- Availability: Availability is a significant feature of the proposed information system. If the system goes down all the process of James Healthcare Centre will be disrupted. The system must be able to provide support business 24*7 without any interruption. A special IT team will be hired to maintain the system functionality. If the system is not available, the health organization will be running process temporarily on the paper based work. The subsystems will be running individually. If one subsystem like appointment handling gets down, other processes will be running after the subsystem starts running all the data will be sent to the subsystem automatically.
- Usability: Usability refers to the feature of system that entails how easily the end users will be able to interact with the system. The system will be using different interfaces for different end-user types such as receptionists and management executives will be accessing the system through different interface. These interfaces will be designed as per data and functions required by the end-user. In order to increase the usability, the system development team will be taking feedbacks form the end-users and modify the interface. The interface will be showing only the required information to the user. In order to access different data, various buttons will be provided so that having all the data into one page does not confuse the user.
- Scalability: The scalability refers to the system capability of managing usage of resource. Managing resource usage is a significant way of cost saving. If the admission of patient is low then system does not need to use all the resources it needed during heavy admission. In such situation, the organization can reduce the amount of resource so that cost of running business process can be reduced.
Figure 1: Use Case Diagram
(Source: Created by Author)
The use case diagram has been generate for capturing the dynamic aspect of the proposed system. At first the interaction between the system and end user has been identified. Based on the identified data, the use case diagram has been developed.
Domain model class diagram is considered as the static diagram. In order to visualize the static view of the proposed system, the designers will be using the class diagram. The responsibilities of the James Healthcare Centre can be seen in the figure 2.
Figure 2: Domain Model Class Diagram
(Source: Created by Author)
Figure 3: Context Diagram
(Source: Created by Author)
Event partitioning is referred to an easy-to-apply method that assists the analyst/designer organizing requirements in terms of large systems like JHC’s information system.
As per the functional requirement, the system is a complex IT product that has various subsystems within it. The project will also be a complex one so it is best for selecting a SDLC model that is able to handle complex project processes. The agile model is best suited for the development as its approach toward complex projects is very realistic. The model will be promoting team work and cross training. The partial work solutions will be beneficial to gather end-user feedback as mentioned in non-functional requirement named usability. The effort for planning the project is less than other SLDC models. The project team will be able to manage the processes easily. In order to work on a complex project that has various parts, flexibility for developers is very essential. The agile model provide the developers that amount of flexibility.
Domain Model Class Diagram
The phases of agile models are pre-project planning, project initiation, construction iteration, end game, production and retirement. The insight of these phases in terms of JHC system development has been stated below.
Figure 4: High Level SDLC Model
(Source: Created by Author)
Pre-project Planning: It is also known as the iteration-1, is consist of defining business processes opportunity, identifying a viable regarding the project and assessing the feasibility. JHC has a very good customer base and if it enhance it processes and implement IT infrastructure properly then having a better future is possible. The market opportunity is very suitable for JHC. The system will be able to handle patient request easily and quickly thus improving the customer satisfaction level. This way the healthcare organization will be able to attract potential customer. The stakeholders of the organization is looking forward to have a better atmosphere in the healthcare center where requests can be processed quickly and communication among the departments will be effective. As per the situation of JHC, implementing information system is the best strategy right now. The system will be able to lower the cost of busies process execution. Along with that, the system will be enhancing the image of the healthcare center among the patients highly. Thus it can be stated that the system implementation is feasible in terms of technology, economy and social considerations.
Project initiation: The project manager and project sponsor will be attending meeting with the stakeholders of the JHC to get permission for fund for the project. All the details of the project will be discussed within these meetings. The project manager along with Jack Carpenter will be employing team members. Jayden Greig will be approached after getting permission from the executive management team to buy equipment and setting the environment for the project. The project manager will be responsible for doing the project estimation.
Construction Interactions: During this stage the project team will be developing high quality applications. The end-users will be providing feedback based on this working applications. The system developers will be developing the application based on the identified data by analysts and designers. After considering the feedback of the end-users, the application will be redeveloped. This will be a great way of ensuring quality of the system. The testing of the application is done in excessive manner in this phase. Emily Cox will be in charge of end-user evaluation process.
Transition/End Game: This phase is the deployment phase of the project. The final testing of the system will be done after getting all the user feedback implemented into the system. The user documentation is created so the after deployment, the users can easily learn to access the system. The end-users will also be provided training.
Production: The purpose of this phase is to keep the system running after deployment is complete within JHC environment.
Retirement: The goal of the Retirement Phase is the removal of a system release from production, and occasionally even the complete system itself.
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