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You need to design and develop an evidence-based teaching plan for a peer teaching session you will be conducting in the clinical laboratories. 

Objectives of the lesson plan

Rapid responses to emergency situations are mandatory reactions to save lives. Therefore, to make life support more beneficial, human beings are required to go through a systematic and theoretical as well as practical-based training which is essential for saving lives (Hunt et al., 2015). First-aid assistance is reported to increase survival rates of those in danger and training learners on the necessary skills and knowledge in life support can improve as well as boost confidence. Additionally, life support training explains how to recognize as well as respond to cardiopulmonary arrest and in most cases, how to use defibrillators (Cartledge, Bray, Leary, Stub, & Finn, 2016). Face-to-face practice, therefore, crucial in improving life survival rates among patients. The following is a lesson plan for the necessary life support training session to be conducted on students.

The lesson plan will be constructed based on cognitive information processing (Cognitivism). Cognitivism is a theoretical learning principle that requires learners to articulate information based on the process behind the behavior (Mardegan, Schofield, & Murphy, 2015). To achieve the objectives of the lesson plan, the learning style to be incorporated will be visual and kinesthetic. According to Mardegan, Schofield, & Murphy, (2015) Engaging the learners both mentally and physically is inclined to imprint information in their minds for future references. With the use of cognitivism, there is an increased chance of improving information integration among the learners through the training sessions planned out. 

The objectives of the necessary life support are to train and equip students with the necessary skills in helping those in need through support systems. As such, the primary focus audience will be students in the University. To be precise, first-year students will be the primary focus as they are equipped with the energy and enthusiasm as well as maturity to handle life-threatening situations. The students are chosen because it is mandatory for the University to train incoming students on the vital first-aid skills necessary in helping their college-mates or others in the society during times of emergencies (Müller et al., 2014). As for the learning needs, as reported by Perkins et al., (2015), it is fundamental that the students are trained on first-aid measures and skills to use during emergency situations. The students, hence, will be prepared based on their cognitive, affective and psychomotor skills need to boost their knowledge and skills on training them (Perkins et al., 2015).

The mode of learning to be incorporated will be visual and kinesthetic. Visual includes the use of real dummies and demonstrations through practical learning to impart information on the students. On the other hand, the kinesthetic learning implores the purpose of transferring data from one forum to the next (Abolfotouh, Alnasser, Berhanu, Al-Turaif, & Alfayez, 2017). In other words, it means that the students will have to write down fundamental information about the training sessions especially during the theoretical aspects. Based on the need to train the students, the lesson plan incorporates the assessment of the learners based on their prior experience with necessary life support skills and experiences.

Learning style

According to recent studies, there is a noteworthy absence of knowledge regarding the characteristic signs and risks factors related to stern medical circumstances among scholars in the tertiary systems. As such, there is an urgent need to address the loophole in learning objectives especially in encouraging students to complete basic life support training throughout their education timeframe (Schröder et al., 2017). For instance, in the event of an emergency, there is the need for fast and structured patient management crucial to the outcome of an adult in distress. Managing the common crises is reported to elevate the survival rate of a person especially those in danger of cardiopulmonary attacks and chokes. Possessing the necessary skills and knowledge in dealing with emergent situations.

The lesson plan will guide the students through a basic life support training through medical supervision on how to use equipment such as a defibrillator (Macken, Clarke, Nadeem, & Coghlan, 2017). According to medical studies, (Kleinman et al., 2015), basic therapeutic techniques are pivotal to saving a life. Therefore, if laypersons are taught how to go about emergency situations then, the probability of saving a life may be more prudent than limited. The approach will be primary and includes: Securing danger, response assessment, airway evaluation, breathing check, compressions (and at what rate), and use of a defibrillator. 

Introduction

Basic Life Support (BLS) is the care provided to patients who are experiencing respirational arrest, cardiac apprehension or airway impediment. The skills required include: basic psychomotor skills for execution high-quality CPR while using an computerized peripheral defibrillator and discharging an clogged airway for the patient (regardless of age). The aim of the lesson plan is to equip the scholars with the beneficial assistances and knowledge in medical techniques required for basic life support scenarios.

Objectives of Learning Outcome:

  • Critical thinking: Students will be required to have a clear and rational thinking based on the facts offered besides the practice as well as skills gained.
  • Problem solving: Students will be required to possess skills in identifying solutions to the matters that arise using voluntarily accessible resources (Lee et al., 2016).
  • Communications: Students will possess the skills necessary in communicating with others through the sender-message and receiver protocol.
  • Team subtleties: Ability to integrate and coordinate all with anyone around to achieve basic life support.
  • Technical Competencies: The students will be able to use equipment including a defibrillator while resuscitating a patient.

Timing (Minutes)

Content (Topic/subtopic)

Activity/teaching approach

Resources

Evaluation

Set

15 minutes

-Introduction

-Assess learners prior knowledge of the concept on basic life support

-Introduction on the lesson plan on BSL session

The facilitator will have a brief interaction with the students. The students will be introduced to the facilitator through an introduction of the name and profession. The students will then be asked to introduce themselves as they provide an example (s) of their experience with resuscitating or seeing someone being resuscitated.

Learners will be asked to describe what they know about basic life support and their experiences (first-hand)

The expert will inform the learners of what is to be expected throughout the session.

Seats for each student

Each learner will be asked to provide an idea about the basic learning support and how it can help them in their day-to-day life resuscitations.

Body Part 1

25 minutes

1. Assessing and understanding concepts and principles of basic life support

- Learners will be taken through a four-series education plan.

-Writing pads

- Learners will be quizzed at tandem about definition on basic life support.

a. Danger

- Trainees will be taken through an instructive session listing the definition and types of dangers.

- PowerPoint presentation

- Each learner will provide an example of danger situation (non-repetitive response) (Lee et al., 2016).

b. Responsive (Primary Assessment of unresponsive adult patient)

- Demonstration on how to check for alertness and comprehension by checking pulse or heart rate per second.

U= Unresponsiveness

- A volunteer from the learners.

- Wrist watch.

- Each trainee will have to demonstrate how to check for responsiveness.

c. Send-for-Help/ assessing situation to incorporate others to help

- Demonstration to the students on the best possible solution will be provided. Learners will be trained on the best solution depending on the situation.

- Improvise resources

- Each student will provide an inventive idea of how to call or summon for help.

Body Part 2

35 minutes

1. ABCD concept

- Using a dummy, the learners will be trained on how to initiate the ABCD

-Airway evaluation

- Normal breathing

- Start CPR

-  Attach defibrillator.

- Dummy (for each group formed)

- Defibrillators

- First Aid Kits.  

- Each student will be assessed on the different ABCD strategies to use on a patient.

2. Compressions

- Demonstrations of how to conduct compressions (30 compressions per 2 breaths)

- Dummies

- Volunteers

- Each learner will be asked to demonstrate compressions on dummies provided.

3. How to use a defibrillator

- The facilitator will train the learners about the defibrillator.

- Defibrillator

- At random, the facilitator will point at a part of the machine and inquire of its name from each student.

- Each student will be required to operate the defibrillator.

Closure

15 Minutes

4. Re-assurance on the techniques taught

5. Provision of feedback to the recommendations on improving the session.

- Facilitator will re-emphasize on the need to address skills in basic life support and why the students need to practice often in order to incorporate them in daily life.

- A repeat training will be required where the students will have to repeat the training.

- Defibrillator

- Dummies

- Evaluation of students performance.

Time Frame

Lesson Plan

Time

Purpose

Introduction

15 minutes

Orient leaners on the aim of the lesson

Body Part 1

25 minutes

Dangers, Responsiveness and Self-help

Body Part 2

35 minutes

ABCD; CPR and using a defibrillator.

Closure

15 minutes

Recap on the lesson.

Feedback is a necessary reinforcement to strive strength existence as well as keep goals-directed objectives on course. To ensure that the purposes of the lesson plan are integrated through cognitivism, there will need to assess and provide feedback. As such, feedback will be through both formal and informal methods (Hauch, Sporer, Michael, & Meissner, 2016). For formal techniques, the students will receive feedback after every assessment and during each training session. For the casual feedback, each student is provided with the necessary assessment information on a one-on-one level.

To provide the best feedback, reliance on experience will be the best option. In this case, reflection on ways to provide input will be necessary. Studies determine that they include reflection on the situation such as evaluating whether each student understands what needs to be done including using a defibrillator (Schwaighofer, Fischer, & Bühner, 2015). Additionally, the facilitator will assess whether the feedback is necessary or not and how or to whom would it be delivered to is on a one-on-one basis or to the whole class. Therefore, input provided by the facilitator will be more inclined to positive feedback rather than vanishing or damaging (Hatala, Cook, Zendejas, Hamstra, & Brydges, 2014). The feedback intends to ensure that the learners comprehend and are not offended by attending the lessons.

Mode of Learning

The method to be used in providing feedback will be planned. Planned requires that the feedback be directive, time-bound and within the environment of assessment. Since the environment of assessment will be in the laboratory room, the students will be provided with the feedback information during the sessions based on immediacy and with the right tone (Schwalbe, Oh, & Zweben, 2014). The learners will be cautioned at the beginning of the lessons that feedback to be provided will be prompt and descriptive and not evaluative.

As such, the feedback to be used will be corrective, motivational and praising. The feedback will be provided in a straightforward and particular manner. For instance, if a student has made a mistake, the facilitator will have to address the error either one-on-one or altogether through the use of communication tools (Parham, Kavanagh, Shimada, May, & Andrade, 2018). The communication tools to be used include discussion forum where other students will be allowed to point out the mistake and understand what to do next time. The student who has done the mistake will be motivated to do it better in the next trial and encouraged to do better. 


In the end, the student has options of either verifying that they have understood what the feedback information was addressing and encourage dialogue in cases where the information was not well received (Shin, Sok, Hyun, & Kim, 2015). The process may entail the student, to be honest and straightforward about the mistakes corrected and provide an agree or disagree evaluation.

The learners will be evaluated based on their behaviors rather than their personalities during training. Studies determine that an effective lesson plan ought to assess students individually rather than implore on their characters (Canale, 2014). The idea is to ensure that the student's mastery of the objectives is well evaluated throughout the training program. Therefore, the lesson plan has each session’s designated evaluation outcomes for each student.

Additionally, to ensure that student’s competence in understanding the aims of the lessons, each student will have to expound on the previous learning sessions and what the objectives entailed (Oxford, 2016). Therefore, each student has to demonstrate what they learned through a physical recap of what they learned the previous lesson. In other words, the student has to reteach the class about the objectives of the experience using their method of understanding, and other students will have to evaluate whether they agree or not.

Learning Needs

Finally, at the beginning of every lesson, the teachers will have to be trained about the objectives of the experiences and why they are essential throughout the basic life support training (Oh, Jeon, & Koh, 2015). Each student will be required to assess whether the objectives are in line with what they were taught during the lesson at the end of the session. 

Conclusion

The learning activity aims to equip first-year students with the necessary skills and knowledge in the medical field on essential life support. To achieve the aim, the learning activity has been divided into three parts. The first part provides information about the background of the learning purpose and basic life support training. The experience offers a breakdown of the pre-teaching consideration reliant on the theoretical principle to be used which includes cognitivism (Burston, 2015). The introduction has also indicated that the target audiences are the eager and mature first-year students who will be trained in the medical techniques in handling life-threatening scenarios. To impart information on the learners, the facilitator will use the visual and kinesthetic learning style. Visual learning style will have physical learning aids that will improve on cognitive information integration whereas; kinesthetic will require the students to write down information about each lesson and what they would expect remembering in the future.

For the lesson plan, the plan has three components which include an introduction, body part 1 and two as well as the closure. The introduction provides a brief understanding of what is necessary life support and why it is essential to have skills in the technique. Additionally, the presentation outlines the learning outcomes of the training which include, cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and how to use an external defibrillator. The objectives of the training will impact the students with critical thinking and analytical skills, problem-solving, communications, team dynamics and technical competencies in handling medical equipment.

The final part is the feedback and learners’ competence assessment. The lesson plan has outlined in detail the process through which the facilitator will provide feedback and how to assess whether the input is well received. As for the students and their learning competencies, the lesson plan has provided a systematic process through which the facilitator will use throughout the program to evaluate whether the students are incorporating the information and the objectives correctly or not. 

References

Abolfotouh, M. A., Alnasser, M. A., Berhanu, A. N., Al-Turaif, D. A., & Alfayez, A. I. (2017). Impact of basic life-support training on the attitudes of health-care workers toward cardiopulmonary resuscitation and defibrillation. BMC Health Services Research, 17(1), 674.

Basic Life Support Training Plan

Burston, J. (2015). Twenty years of MALL project implementation: A meta-analysis of learning outcomes. ReCALL, 27(1), 4–20.

Canale, M. (2014). From communicative competence to communicative language pedagogy. In Language and communication (pp. 14–40). Routledge.

Cartledge, S., Bray, J. E., Leary, M., Stub, D., & Finn, J. (2016). A systematic review of basic life support training targeted to family members of high-risk cardiac patients. Resuscitation, 105, 70–78.

Hatala, R., Cook, D. A., Zendejas, B., Hamstra, S. J., & Brydges, R. (2014). Feedback for simulation-based procedural skills training: a meta-analysis and critical narrative synthesis. Advances in Health Sciences Education, 19(2), 251–272.

Hauch, V., Sporer, S. L., Michael, S. W., & Meissner, C. A. (2016). Does training improve the detection of deception? A meta-analysis. Communication Research, 43(3), 283–343.

Hunt, E. A., Cruz-Eng, H., Bradshaw, J. H., Hodge, M., Bortner, T., Mulvey, C. L., … Jones, K. (2015). A novel approach to life support training using “action-linked phrases.” Resuscitation, 86, 1–5.

Kleinman, M. E., Brennan, E. E., Goldberger, Z. D., Swor, R. A., Terry, M., Bobrow, B. J., … Rea, T. (2015). Part 5: Adult basic life support and cardiopulmonary resuscitation quality. Circulation, 132(18 suppl 2), S414–S435.

Lee, J. H., Cho, Y., Kang, K. H., Cho, G. C., Song, K. J., & Lee, C. H. (2016). The effect of the duration of basic life support training on the learners’ cardiopulmonary and automated external defibrillator skills. BioMed Research International, 2016.

Macken, W. L., Clarke, N., Nadeem, M., & Coghlan, D. (2017). Life After the Event: A Review of Basic Life Support Training for Parents Following Apparent Life-Threatening Events and Their Experience and Practices Following Discharge. Irish Medical Journal.

Mardegan, K. J., Schofield, M. J., & Murphy, G. C. (2015). Comparison of an interactive CD-based and traditional instructor-led Basic Life Support skills training for nurses. Australian Critical Care, 28(3), 160–167.

Müller, M. P., Richter, T., Papkalla, N., Poenicke, C., Herkner, C., Osmers, A., … Heller, A. R. (2014). Effects of a mandatory basic life support training programme on the no-flow fraction during in-hospital cardiac resuscitation: An observational study. Resuscitation, 85(7), 874–878.

Oh, P.-J., Jeon, K. D., & Koh, M. S. (2015). The effects of simulation-based learning using standardized patients in nursing students: A meta-analysis. Nurse Education Today, 35(5), e6–e15.

Oxford, R. L. (2016). Teaching and researching language learning strategies: Self-regulation in context. Taylor & Francis.

Parham, S. C., Kavanagh, D. J., Shimada, M., May, J., & Andrade, J. (2018). Qualitative analysis of feedback on functional imagery training: A novel motivational intervention for type 2 diabetes. Psychology & Health, 33(3), 416–429.

Perkins, G. D., Handley, A. J., Koster, R. W., Castrén, M., Smyth, M. A., Olasveengen, T., … Wenzel, V. (2015). European Resuscitation Council Guidelines for Resuscitation 2015: Section 2. Adult basic life support and automated external defibrillation. Resuscitation, 95, 81–99.

Schröder, H., Henke, A., Stieger, L., Beckers, S., Biermann, H., Rossaint, R., & Sopka, S. (2017). Influence of learning styles on the practical performance after the four-step basic life support training approach–An observational cohort study. PloS One, 12(5), e0178210.

Schwaighofer, M., Fischer, F., & Bühner, M. (2015). Does working memory training transfer? A meta-analysis including training conditions as moderators. Educational Psychologist, 50(2), 138–166.

Schwalbe, C. S., Oh, H. Y., & Zweben, A. (2014). Sustaining motivational interviewing: A meta-analysis of training studies. Addiction, 109(8), 1287–1294.

Shin, H., Sok, S., Hyun, K. S., & Kim, M. J. (2015). Competency and an active learning program in undergraduate nursing education. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 71(3), 591–598.

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