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Objective Oriented Methodology

Discuss about the Object Modelling.
 

1. The case study that will be considered in our case is that of XYZ Airline Company. XYZ Company is aiming at providing a number of services globally in airline operations, freight transport, food production and loyalty programs. Therefore, this firm has a requirement for a new information system so as to support their daily operations. Hence, in our first assessment of objective oriented methodology drawing its definition it is pertained as a system developed that encourages and maintains the facilitation of re-use of software components. Hence, with such process, computer systems being developed tend to be made up of component basis that tend to enable effectiveness of re-using the intermediate components and facilitate the idea of sharing the components in other systems. Since, the objective oriented methodology is made up of six stages that are planning, business architecture, technical architecture, increment stage, design and building stage, and the deployment stage (Horne et al, 2009) having, effective consideration of such stages models the actions and data objectives rather than being logic.

In relation to our case study 2, the objective oriented methodology could be pertained in regards to the issues of flight reservation systems, travel service reservation systems, human resource management system, accounting and finance system, and sale and marketing systems. These objects tend to have an impact to XYZ Company as it defines the role in the application of their domain in the airline industry. Hence, it tends to have some identity, state and behavior in relation to the actions that they will take. Therefore, the encompassing properties and values in behavior in regard to acts and reacts tend to be effective in analyzing and designing real world settings in the airline industry.

2.  In learning outcome two, our focus is on XYZ Company in relation to study of system development life cycle. Therefore, system development life cycle tends to be a traditional system used by organizations for development purposes. Its framework is structured such that it is made up of sequential process whereby information systems are developed. At times when implementing new systems through SDLC eight stages must be taken under consideration (Everett et al, 2007). Compared to the past, developers used the waterfall approach in SDLC development, where one task was completed the work proceeds to the next step. In most cases, system development initiatives produced the objected results through team efforts. Hence, below I will describe the activities in each phase of system development life cycle in relation to case study firm that is XYZ Airline Company.

Object Modelling in XYZ Airline Company

First will be on system investigation where System developer’s professions tend to agree that most time is invested in the understanding of business situation that should be solved. Therefore, in understanding the technical options for such systems and understanding problems it is likely to emerge during the development process. Hence, this develops a greater chance of actual problem solving (correct) problem. If, we could relate this with our case study firm XYZ Airline Company, take for example the human resource system we are yet to understand than HRM systems tend to work on solving management problems. For instance, they recruit and train, conduct business administration, work on payroll automates, conduct performance records and appraisal. For such a reason system investigation begin with business problem. Problems and opportunities that need understanding from the internal initialization, but also making sure you see the organizational partners. 

Secondly is on system analysis where once projects have been approved, the system analysis of the new systems begins. System analysis tends to be the examination of problems so that plans can be developed to solve them. In this stage, the definition of the problem is done where problem is identified, specifics to the solution are given, and the identities of information requirements that the solution should satisfy.  Therefore, in analysis there tends to exist three basic solutions to their business problems that is; doing nothing to the to the existing system unchanged, modifying the existing system and determining the best solution to purse in the determination of requirements for the enhanced systems (Grance et al, 2004). Looking at our case study, XYZ Airline Company we could draw the case of accounting and finance systems.  The accounting and finance systems tend to handle financial transactions for the company. Therefore, in analyzing systems they company tends to offer real time information and control access across people for the purpose of billing, account payable, account receivable, fixed assets and project accounting. At times problems may not emerge due problem relations, but they may need solutions such as the change of management of training. Hence, system analysis tends to produce the following information that; the strength and weakness that exist in a system, the functioning that these new developed system has to provide answers to the business problems, the user’s data needed for development of the new systems. 

In system analysis it tends to be a description of what systems should do for solving business problem, but system designs tend to describe how systems accomplish the task. For instance, the deliverable in system designs phase is the technical designs that specify the following:

  • How components should be integrated.
  • System outputs, inputs and the users interface.

System Development Life Cycle in XYZ Airline Company

Looking at our case study 2, XYZ aim is to provide a number of services globally through airline operations, food production, freight transport and loyalty programs. Hence, they need a new information system that work for their business purpose. If we could draw a good example of system analysis in problem solving the flight reservation system would be the effective method. Here, there is the idea issue of treating customers in different manners. Therefore, ordinary customers often buy cheaper tickets to save money, but frequent flyers require special discounts. Therefore, system design provides efficient strategy such that frequent fliers are provided with discount rates based on their profiles. Different from ordinary customers they should also purchase tickets through corporate credit cards. 

It is critical to enhance critical and continuous testing when trying to implement new systems in a business process. Testing also tends to detect existing errors (Everett et al, 2007). Therefore, identification of the errors assures that a program should be passed or not, whether it should run or not so as to put the results into incorrect output. Therefore, testing tends to be significant as it outlines the errors and prevents events of shut down in the business systems, or prevents the catastrophic events of information loss. In relation to our case XYZ Airline Company is working on having efficient strategies in the flight industry through development of new systems. If we could relate it with flight reservation system, they could test the program by looking at the number of frequent customer turn out in relation to strategies of discount rates. Therefore, if such a strategy has led to increased numbers in the airline and contains no error it could be passed and taken to the next step of implementation. 

Implementing is perceived to be the initiative of changing the old systems to new systems. Firms utilize several conversion strategies that is; piloting, phased, parallel and direct.

Parallel conversion process, this is where old and new systems operate together for a certain period. The systems use the same data process at the same date and time and the output are compared. It tends to be expensive but least risk (Horne et al, 2009).

Direct conversion is where old systems are cut off and new systems are set in place. It tends to be less expensive, but tends to be risky if the developed new systems don’t work as purported. Here, few systems tend to be implemented through conversion, as a result of the risk involved.

For pilot conversion new systems are introduced in one part of the organization, later the new systems are assessed after some time. If it works properly the system is then implemented (Horne et al, 2009).

Drawing analysis from our XYZ Airline Company, new information of travel service reservation system, HRM systems, accounting and finance systems, flight reservation systems, sale and marketing systems can only be implemented only if they produce significant results. Therefore, we can only implement these systems if the levels of significance are high and the strategies turn out to be effective.

After conversion is conducted, the new systems operate for a certain period, after replacement of the old systems it will tend to no longer meets the objectives. Hence, once the operations of the new systems in XYZ become stabilized, the firm’s audits are done to perceive the operations of the whole system and the emerging capabilities that determine the correct system. In most cases, systems require maintenance such as debugging, updating and new functionality (Lachance, 2015).   

In conclusion, the system development life cycle tends to come up with three major privileges that would be helpful for XYZ Airline Company; this includes control, maintaining accountability, and issue of error detection. Therefore, the significance issue on such system development tends to be that of error detection, where the more expensive it is the more correct it becomes. But on the other hand the process of implementing new systems still has disadvantages such as inflexibility, development of large enterprise application which consumes time, and insufficiency in replacement options. 

References

Macnair, P. A. (2004). Life cycle: Birth, growth, and development. Boston: Kingfisher.

Horne, R., Grant, T., & Verghese, K. (2009). Life cycle assessment: Principles, practice, and prospects. Collingwood, Vic: CSIRO Pub.

Everett, G. D., McLeod, R., & Wiley InterScience (Online service). (2007). Software testing: Testing across the entire software development life cycle. Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Press.

Grance, T., Hash, J., Stevens, M., & National Institute of Standards and Technology (U.S.). (2004). Security considerations in the information system development life cycle. Gaithersburg, MD: U.S. Dept. of Commerce, Technology Administration, National Institute of Standards and Technology.

Kissel, R., & National Institute of Standards and Technology (U.S.). (2008). Security considerations in the system development life cycle. Gaithersburg, MD: U.S. Dept. of Commerce, National Institute of Standards and Technology.

Lachance, D. (2015). CISSP: The Systems Development Life Cycle.     

Molenaar, M. (2008). An introduction to the theory of spatial object modelling for GIS. London: Taylor & Francis.

Fowler, M. (2004). UML distilled: A brief guide to the standard object modeling language. Boston: Addison-Wesley.

In Hudek, A. (2014). The object.

Webber, N. (2011). Implementing models of financial derivatives: Object oriented applications with VBA. Chichester, U.K: Wiley.

Keith, J. (2005). DOM scripting: Web design with JavaScript and the Document Object Model. Berkeley, CA: Friendsof.

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