Critically discuss different policy measures that non OPEC member States can take to mitigate the impact of OPEC’s current trend as an international oil producer cartel.”
Petroleum is the most essential element for every country throughout the world but it cannot be produced in a factory as it is a natural thing. In world market petroleum plays the most important role in respect of the economic stability. Twelve countries along together has formed an organization in relation to control the conducts of import and export of petroleum. This organization is known as Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries in abbreviation it is famous in the name of OPEC. In the world economy OPEC performs a major role in relation to the exporting of petroleum throughout the world. But apart from these twelve countries there are a lot of country in this world who are also seeking petroleum and they are financially also much stronger in comparison to the OPEC countries like USA, Soviet Union, UK and many others. Some of the members of OPEC are UAE, Venezuela, Iran, Iraq and some other countries as well (Chapman and Hodges, 2011). Here in this context various aspects relating to the conducts and strategies of the countries who are not the members of the OPEC are going to be discussed along with relevant statistics and formations adapted by non OPEC member countries. OPEC countries manipulate the price level of petroleum in the international market in a normative manner (Rugman and Hodgetts, 2003). Sometime it becomes very difficult for the non OPEC countries to regulate their conducts in the international market in relation to petroleum related issues. The strategies that may be adapted by the non OPEC countries in relation to petroleum related issues are going to be discussed under the following:
Nationalization (Strategy 1):
By way nationalization of oil producing organizations and corporations impact of privatization in the market of crude oil can be diminished that will not only refer more revenue to the government sectors but also promotes a balance in the international crude oil market. This procedure must not be confused with the restrictions upon the exportation of crude oil. It has represented one of the most important turning points in relation to the development of policies relating to oil trade in the international market. Privatized business conducts are eliminated by the nationalization, as resources of oil in the oil producing nations are controlled by the private international corporations. It permits oil producing nations to obtain control over private properties, though it may violate some of the existing legal contracts. If these nations become the only proprietors of this confiscated resources by violating the law of contract, they will be in a superior position to manipulate the price of the crude oil in the international market, and they will decide the way by which the actual current value of their known stock of petroleum under the ground can be maximized. A number of major implications may be observed as the consequence of nationalization of crude oil. On the other hand, nationalized oil corporations are in some occasion torn among the expectations of the nation that they ought to carry the national flag and their personal goals in relation to success in trade; it could signify a level of emancipation relating to the confines of the national agenda (Rugman and Brewer, 2001).
Considering historical background (strategy 2):
In the year of 1949 Iran and Venezuela were the foremost nations to be in motion towards the formation of OPEC by making an approach Saudi Arabia, Kuwait and Iraq, signifying that they swap over visions and investigate boulevards for usual and quicker communication between oil manufacturing countries (Rittberger, Zangl and Kruck, 2012).
In the year of 1959, the IOCs (International Oil Companies) abridged the prescribed value for Venezuelan rudimentary at 5¢, thereafter 25¢ for each barrel. And the same for Mid-East crude at a rate of 18¢ for each barrel (Energy indicators, 2008).
In Cairo, Egypt, the foremost Arab Petroleum Congress assembled. There they recognized an ‘Oil Consultation Commission’ in relation to that IOCs ought to present value alteration tactics to establishment of manufacturing nations (Kazim, 2007). In the year of 1959, Abdullah Tariki to Juan Pablo Perez Alfonzo has been introduced by a reporter Wanda Jablonski in Cairo, at the Arab Oil Congress. They were both exasperated by the slash in prescribed values by IOCs as well as International Oil Corporations. Maadi Pact or Gentlemen's Agreement was the consequence of this meeting (Ricks, 2000).
In the year of 1960, reporter Wanda Jablonski accounted a noticeable antagonism in the direction of the West and a rising disagreement in opposition to malingerer landlordism in the central of Eastern region. In his prominent book permitted The Prize: The Epic Quest for Oil, Money, and Power In this book it is described by Daniel Yergin that the process by which the regular Oil, which proscribed 75 per cent of the petroleum industry of United State. In the month of August of 1960 with no straight caution to petroleum exporting countries, declared slash of up to 7% of the prescribed values of Mid-East rudimentary oils. Most of the oil producing corporations uniformly abridged the prescribed value for Mid of Eastern region crudes. Mid-East nations previously sensed bitterness towards the Western region above the malingerer landlord customs of Multinational Oil Corporations that at the time forbidden all oil related procedures inside the congregation nations (Noreng, 2002).
In the period of 10th to 14th September of 1960, the Baghdad convention was apprehended by the inventiveness of Juan Pablo Pérez Alfonso the Hydrocarbons minister and Abdullah al-Tariki the Venezuelan Mines and the Saudi Arabian Energy and Mines minister. The administration bodies of Venezuela, Kuwait, Iraq, Saudi Arabia and Iran, met in Baghdad with an object to talk about the ways to amplify the value of the rudimentary petroleum created by their particular nations and act in response to independent proceedings by the Multinational Oil Corporations, they at that period of time proscribed all oil related actions inside the hosting nations. "Collectively along with the Arab and non-Arab manufacturers, the Organization of Petroleum Export Countries (OPEC) has been formed by Saudi Arabia for the purpose of securing the unsurpassed available value from the most important oil companies. From this period of time OPEC countries always tried to control the international crude oil market and they wanted to establish supervision upon the transactions of developed countries in relation to oil import and export (Middle East Oil Trade, 2010 and 2011, 2012).
Considering political issues (Strategy 3):
In accordance with the confer with compact PFC Energy, only 7 per cent of the anticipated oil and gas reserves throughout the world are in nations that permit private global corporations gratis rein. Entirely 65 per cent are under the control of nationalized corporations for instance Saudi Aramco, along with the other concerning nations like Venezuela and Russia, where admittance by the Western corporations are not easy. The PFC study entails unfavorable political collection to capitalism in several nations is inclined to perimeter upon oil manufacture enlarged in Iran Mexico, Kuwait, Iraq, Russia and Venezuela. Saudi Arabia is also preventive capability extension, but for the reason that of a self imposed limit, nothing like the other nations (Kirton, 2009).
As per the publication made by the New York Times, the oil bradawl thump in the United States has been augmented petroleum manufacture by more than 70 % from the year of 2008 and has abridged the United States petroleum importation from OPEC countries by 55% (Energy indicators, 2008).
Increasing production capacity (Strategy 4):
From the year of 2011 the United States of America has engrossed the speedily augmented home manufacture of light, sweet, tight oil by way of plummeting same kind of or parallel status, brings in crude petroleum mainly from Nigerian and some other suppliers of African territory. Since 2011 to the year of 2013, 50 per cent of petroleum importation diminution collision light crude. Just about 96 % of the two million barrels every day, which is around 290,000 m3/d of its expansion, arrives from sweet crude from stiff source development. As home manufacture prolongs to amplify, the United State is in front of upcoming confronts of fascinating the sweet stiff oil (International Crude Oil Trade, Year 2013, 2014).
In the year 2011 the United States brought in 1.7 million barrels every day which is around 270,000 m3/d. In the year 2013 crude petroleum importation were abridged to one million barrels every day which is around 160,000 m3/d. In the early months of 2014, light rudimentary importations to the average of United States was only 0.6 million barrels every day which is around 95,000 m3/d (International Crude Oil Trade, Year 2011, 2012).
In the month of July of 2014 the non-OPEC manufacture was envisaged at 1.7 million barrels every day that is approximately 270,000 m3/d along with the Canada and United States manufacturing 1.6 million barrels every day that is around 250,000 m3/d in 2014 .
In the month of June 2014 petroleum prices unexpectedly go down by around a third as United State, oil manufacture greater than before and the demand of China and Europe for petroleum reduced. Just previous to the United States quickly reversed out of the rudimentary oil importation marketplace for the reason that of thriving nationwide creation, the smudge value of North Sea Brent crude petroleum fatigued as on 17th June of 2014 at supplementary than US$115 for each barrel.
Obtaining good quality oil from other resources (Strategy 5):
Nigeria is the biggest manufacturer of sweet petroleum in OPEC. On July 2014, as the United States clogged bring in sweet crude oil, additional crude petroleum has become obtainable to processing plant in China, South Korea, Japan and India. They together bought at around 42 per cent extra Nigerian crude oil in the year 2014 in comparison with 2013. Opening in June of 2014 Saudi Aramco— national oil and gas company of Saudi Arabia and the biggest oil producing corporation of the world in expressions of production, reduced the value of its rudimentary oil to refineries of Asia to contend with petroleum from African and other Nigerian suppliers.
In announcement as on 27th of November in the year 2014, in the OPEC seminar in Vienna, it was declared that the 'OECD-Americas' has been the most important non OPEC petroleum supply provider to an predictable contribute enlargement of 1.4 million barrels every day that is 220,000 m3/d, to an average of 57.3 million barrels every day that is 9,110,000 m3/d, throughout the year of 2015. Since the year of 2011 until middle June of 2014 the yearly standard value of petroleum was about US$110 each barrel. From the month of June of 2014, nevertheless, the cost of oil slips at $US80. OPEC disagreed that this plummet in the cost of petroleum was not absolutely "accredited to oil marketplace rudiments." at the same time as oil marketplace rudiments, "sufficient supply, reasonable demand, a powerful US dollar and doubts concerning worldwide financial expansion" donated to the fall of value, "tentative movement within the oil marketplace has too been a significant aspect."
Attempts towards price control (Strategy 6):
Notwithstanding as to the worldwide inundate, as on 27th November of 2014 in Vienna, Oil Minister of Saudi, Ali al-Naimi, barren the application from the shoddier OPEC associate countries, such as Algeria Venezuela, and Iran, for manufacture slash. Standard crude, Brent petroleum pitched to US$71.25, a four year short. Al-Naimi said that the marketplace would be absent to accurate itself. "Ancient strategy of defensive price." has been adapted by OPEC. In according with a number of analysts, OPEC might allow value of Brent petroleum drop to US$60 to sluggish downward US shale petroleum manufacture. Regardless of a concerned financial system in associate nations, al-Naimi has repeated his declaration on Saudi functioning.
On November of 2014, with creation at 30.56 million barrels every day that is around 4,859,000 m3/d, OPEC go into its sixth month of over and above their combined target of manufacture.
On 11th December of 2014 the value of OPEC orientation container of Crudes has been drop to US$60.50 and by 13th December of the same year, the value of Brent petroleum fallen to US$61.85.
The 12th January of 2015, value of OPEC orientation container of Crudes has been reduced to US$43.55. On the month of February of 2015, OPEC had come in its ninth successive month of over and above their combined target of manufacture.
After the above discussion it can be said that OPEC countries are at the controlling position in the world market in relation to the pricing of petroleum as well as the exportation of crude oil. Though the other countries gave an important contribution to produce oil and also to make refinery plants but these were not so successful as to the mark of OPEC member countries (Citino, 2002). Developed countries like America has given huge effort to the improvement of oil production sector but it was not so appreciable like the associate countries of OPEC. OPEC countries are blessed by nature and that is the main reason of the autonomy in the international crude oil market, but in some stage OPEC is obtaining undue advantages (Buckley, 2009).
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