The significant episodes impacting the life of individuals include divorce, death of spouse, marital separation, injury, accidental death of relatives and retirement from job. Strong and Cohen (2014, p. 493) reveal the psychosocial consequences of the events of divorce on the affected individuals. Indeed, the divorced people continue to experience sustained depression, diminishing self-concepts, decreased psychosocial well being and happiness leading them to the state of social isolation and predisposition toward other psychological co-morbidities. The research literature reveals the threefold increase in patterns of depression among women separated through divorce. Furthermore, the research findings reveal the patterns of alcohol addiction among individuals following the events of divorce. Ader (2007, p. 784) advocates the contention revealing the irregularities in immune system experienced by individuals in context to the death of spouse. The clinical literature reveals the increased levels of serum neopterin among HIV affected males who had witnessed death of their spouses due to AIDS. Granacher (2015, p. 35) describes the impact of brain trauma on the attention spans, arousal and executive control of the affected individuals. Indeed, the responsiveness and attention of traumatized patients adversely influences due to the lesions in brain and psychosocial impact of the traumatic episode. Lugton (2002, p. 12) reveals the aggressive responses of the people following accidental deaths of their relatives or friends. These incidences produce a prolonged impact on the emotions and temperament of individuals, thereby destabilizing the psychosocial status of the affected population. Milne (2013) describes the impact of significant life events including accidents, incarceration and retirement on the coping capacity of the affected individuals. The people influenced by such incidences suffer from maladaptive conditions and mental problems, as contended by the evidence based clinical literature. Indeed denial, anger, depression, social withdrawal, acceptance and bargaining are some of the instincts that develop in the people affected by significant events of life.
Indeed, the group responses to the people affected by bereavement include the support extended by the social circle, friends, family members and relatives. Indeed, the family members provide utmost assistance to their affected relative during the period of loss or trauma. Other societal assistance include the care and support rendered by the social organizations, physicians, nursing professionals, friends and other miscellaneous agencies with the intent to subdue the psychosocial influences on the affected people following the major life instances. Lehmann, Jimerson and Gaasch (2001) discuss the importance of behavioral approaches warranted by support groups in context to mitigating the manifestations following the significant life events among the impacted individuals. Indeed, the temperamental and psychological assistance by the support groups helps the traumatized individuals in overcoming the psychosomatic conditions during the significant episodes of life. Framingham and Teasley (2012, p. 101) illustrate the importance of social resources in developing resilience among individuals in context to the unprecedented disasters. Indeed, grief is defined as a family process and appropriate attention and supportive strategies warranted by the news media, social groups and medical fraternities in controlling the psychosocial outcomes of the significant life disasters.
Indeed, the support rendered by medical fraternity including nursing professionals, counsellors and other support groups assists in mitigating the condition of bereavement among the individuals by the significant life events like death and fatal diseases. The mental conditions experienced by the mourning individuals require effective treatment through medication and psychological orientation programs by the nursing professionals. The clinical literature reveals the psychosomatic disturbances including emotional and behavioral alterations, and panic attacks among the people experiencing the state of grief and loneliness following the significant life episodes. The importance of local support groups including hospitals, hospice care facilities and non-governmental organizations in reducing the sorrow and painful condition of the bereaving individuals is widely supported by the evidence based research literature. The people affected by state of bereavement following the events of death or accidents include the healthcare staff working in close association of the patients during their advanced stages of illness and end of life tenures. In fact, the emotional relationship of these staff members with the dyeing individuals primarily attributes to their state of emotional dilemma following the death of these patients. These affected individuals continue to experience patterns of psychological manifestations that adversely influence their work performance and relationships with family members, friends and peers. The caretakers affected by loss of their dear ones require adequate training and assistance by various healthcare and social groups with the intent to mitigate the state of their grief and emotional disturbances following the significant life episodes.
The healthcare institutions require practicing standardized organizational policies in context to providing qualitative support and assistance to the individuals affected by the state of bereavement and mental conflicts. Indeed, the age variations among the people requiring support need considerable attention while formulating organizational norms for rendering effective assistance following the significant life episodes. The aged population requires extra attention and care by the healthcare professionals in potentially rendering support and emotional assistance for overcoming the state of mental agony during the significant life episodes. The age related organizational bereavement policies provide the road map to nursing professionals for taking care of the mental challenges experienced by the target population. The patterns of psychological counselling and emotional approaches require effective organizational policies for their appropriate implementation in context to instilling confidence and restoring peace and happiness among the affected individuals. The research literature warrants the role of best organizational practices for rendering immediate assistance to the people affected by significant life episodes. Indeed, the immediate assistance proves to be more effective in mitigating the state of sorrow among the people experiencing significant life episodes. The Standards for Bereavement Care formulated and standardized in 2001 in United Kingdom; however, the law faced major amendments in terms of emphasizing safer practices in context to the requirements of the bereaved individuals.
The external support sources required for assisting people affected by significant life episodes include the healthcare volunteers, physicians, nursing professionals and social media persons actively engaged in mitigating the behavioral malfunction of the target population. Indeed, emotional support and psychosocial assistance highly warranted for individuals experiencing bereavement following the loss of their spouse, relatives or friends. The contention behind providing support by external sources emphasizes on rendering empowerment to the ailing individuals and making them feel their responsibilities and commitments toward their present life. Indeed the care givers require thorough understanding of the crisis intervention strategies and conceptual approaches in context to supporting the people affected by grief and bereavement following the significant life events (James and Gilliland, 2013, p. 420). The stage models including Kubler-Ross’s stages, Bowlby’s Attachment Theory and Schneider’s growth model warrant thorough understanding by the external support groups in context to antagonizing the significant losses experienced by individuals following the major life episodes. The affection of the grieving people with the deceased individuals require careful analysis for devising support strategies to challenge the patterns of emotional pain, hopelessness and loneliness among the target population. The skills related to effectively interacting with the mourning individuals required within the caregivers to successfully divert their attention from the significant event and enhance the patterns of responsiveness and resilience following the painful episode. The anger and frustrations of the service users require careful handling in context to devising proactive approaches for assisting them in the real life scenarios. Indeed, the intent of providing external holistic support to the grieving people related to the contention of restoring physiological, psychosocial, environmental, cultural and spiritual homeostasis among the target population.
The research literature reveals the physical manifestations including weakness, stomach cramps, chest discomfort, breathing difficulty, dysphagia, myalgia, vertigo, missing feelings, common cold, sleeping problem and nausea among the bereaving individuals (Jeffreys, 2011, p. 39). Indeed, the physical support required to reduce these reported manifestations include obtaining rehabilitation and occupational therapy by the trained occupational and physical therapists. O'Brien (2011, p. 325) reveals the need for understanding care seeker’s religious practices and spiritual temperament in context to facilitating emotional homeostasis following the adverse events. The effective communication by the external care givers is the key to rendering spiritual assistance for removing psychosocial incapacity and fear among the ailing individuals. The effectiveness of yoga and aromatherapy need to be emphasized by the caregivers to deliver their maximum benefits among the affected population. The evidence based research literature contends the effectiveness of psychological counseling by support groups including counselors and school staff to the grieving children (2011, p. 340). These measures help in combating the patterns of anxiety and depression among the affected population. The psychosocial assistance the by the external support groups aims at reducing isolation of the grieving individuals through consistent interactive sessions. Furthermore, generating trust within the care seekers assists in inducing emotional expression through regular discussions and interactive sessions. The development of discourse within the conversation by support groups leads to the changes in perception of care seekers; thereby resulting in patters of positive attitude as evidenced by the research based academic literature (Nichols and Jenkinson, 2006, p. 9). Furthermore, the external support groups help in developing the coping mechanism among affected individuals to mitigate the patterns of psychosomatic and intellectual ability following the significant life events.
The organizational assistance highly warranted to restore patterns of health, wellness and behavioral stability among the individuals affected by significant life events. Indeed, effective leadership within the organizational support group required to devise strategic approaches for providing care and therapy to the people affected by significant life episodes. The students experiencing bereavement require organizational support in terms of effective retention and graduation practices to facilitate their academic enhancement following the painful episodes (Balk, 2011). The organizational counseling programs warrant deployment of qualified caregivers with extensive understanding of the characteristics of grief and mourning for actively rendering adequate support and care to the grieving individuals. Furthermore, the provision of healthcare counseling, communication development, mental health aids and stress management strategies by health care fraternities and supportive organizations required to proactively support the affected population following the significant life events. The organizations including hospitals, polyclinics, general practices, nursing fraternities, hospice facilities and dental care homes require rendering qualitative care and support to the individuals suffering under the stressful circumstances. The provisions of primary care by general practitioners and social care by nursing professionals and psychological counselors through the organizational domain required to provide uninterrupted care and social support to the grieving population. The care giving organizations also warranted to develop core competencies among their staff by conducting educational seminars and interactive sessions in context to delivering qualitative care to the target population.
Grief is indeed, a multifaceted reaction of individuals against the significant life events including loss of relatives, property or other similar disasters. The personal experience relates to the significant life episode, where an army official died with serious war injuries in the camp. His immediate caretakers including wife and parents suffered unprecedented shock and emotional trauma following the event. Indeed, it became intensely difficult for the relatives and friends to bear the shock of the potential loss of the precious life of their dear ones and the immediate relatives started experiencing bereavement, state of behavioral alteration and hopelessness following the significant life event. The loss was indeed indispensable; however, it became fairly difficult to challenge the progression of behavioral degradation among the affected individuals following the event. The mitigation strategy acquired with the intent to motivate the affected individuals for assisting them against the stressful conditions include conducting periodic interactive sessions for providing psychological assistance with assertion and reasoning for inducing alteration in behavior and psychology of the target individuals. The next approach in assisting the bereaved family included the involvement of other healthcare professionals including occupational therapists, social workers and psychologists to reduce the impact of severe mental complications following the death of the army person. Indeed, the family members of the deceased individual began to gradually indulge themselves in day today activities following the periodic interactive counseling sessions. After sixteen long months, the family started acclimatizing with their daily schedule and the impact of the psychological trauma began to reduce gradually resulting in the psychosocial stability of the grieving individuals. The family regained happiness as they started involving themselves more in their daily commitments and the influence of the loss considerably declined over a period of time. They duly acknowledged the rendered support and resumed normal life patterns with their continued personal and professional engagements. Indeed, the outcome of this practice indicates the importance of effective bereavement antagonistic strategies warranted to mitigate the behavioral fluctuations and patterns of denials among the grieving population following the significant life event. Furthermore, the family environment is of paramount importance in assisting the individuals to overcome the impact of bereavement in context to the loss of one of their members following the disastrous events.
Indeed, the health and social care organizations require reviewing their statements, policies and procedures periodically for providing extended support to the individuals affected by significant life events. The provision of installing updated equipments and objects of luxury warranted to provide additional physical comfort to the ailing individuals. The provision of televisions and fitness equipments further ensures the daily engagement of the target population that facilitates in treating their attention deficits and behavioral fluctuations following the significant life episodes. The strategies of organizing interactive sessions with the individuals and managing outdoor trips for the aged population ensure the induction of happiness and satisfaction among the target groups. Furthermore, the provision of better career options for the youngsters will assist in mitigating the financial challenges following the significant episodes. The social care organizations also require conducting training sessions and special care programs for the people with unique needs and comorbidities in context to the major life incidences. The provision of group sessions and individualized therapies allows the bereaving individuals to share their emotions and behavioral challenges with reference to the potential losses undergone due to the significant episodes. Ferrel, Coyle and Paice (2015, p. 29) reveal the significance of bereavement approaches in context to their active implementation through palliative care clinics and hospice facilities. The provision of bereavement services for the survivors of deceased individuals through the implementation of total care plans under hospital based palliative care ensures the proactive mitigation of the challenges of survivors and assistance in developing coping skills for overcoming the state of grief following the significant life events. Furthermore, the health and social care organizations must emphasize on initiating interdisciplinary programs and educational sessions among their staff members to equip them with tools and techniques in dealing with the behavioral disturbances experienced by the bereaving population following the disastrous life episodes. The educational certifications in the discipline will certainly ascertain standardization of care and therapy to the ailing individuals affected by the significant life episodes for retrieving expected outcomes stipulated in accordance with the policies and standards of the health and social care organizations.
Ader, R., 2007. Psychoneuroimmunology. 4th ed. UK: Elsevier.
Balk, D.E., 2011. Helping the Bereaved College Student. NY: Springer.
Ferrell, B.R., Coyle, N. and Paice, J., 2015. Oxford Textbook of Palliative Nursing. NY: Oxford.
Framingham, J. L. and Teasley, M.L., 2012. Behavioral Health Response to Disasters. USA: Taylor & Francis.
Granacher, R. P., 2015. Traumatic Brain Injury: Methods for Clinical and Forensic Neuropsychiatric Assessment. 3rd ed. USA: CRC.
James, R. and Gilliland., 2013. Crisis Intervention Strategies. 7th ed. USA: Brooks.
Jeffreys, J. S., 2011. Helping Grieving People: A Handbook for Care Providers. USA: Routledge.
Koocher, G. and Greca, A.L., 2011. The Parents' Guide to Psychological First Aid: Helping Children and Adolescents Cope with Predictable Life Crises. New York: Oxford.
Lehmann, J., Jimerson, S.R. and Gaasch, A., 2001. Teens Together Grief Support Group Curriculum: Adolescence Edition: Grades 7-12. New York: Routledge.
Lugton, J., 2002. Communicating with Dying People and Their Relatives. UK: Radcliffe.
Milne, D., 2013. The Psychology of Retirement: Coping with the Transition from Work. UK: Wiley-Blackwell.
Nichols, K. and Jenkinson, J., 2006. Leading a Support Group. UK: Open University Press.
O'Brien, M.E. 2011. Spirituality in Nursing. 4th ed. USA: Jones & Bartlett.
Strong, B. and Cohen, T., 2014. The Marriage and Family Experience: Intimate Relationships in a Changing Society. California: Wadsworth.
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