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Intake Manifolds and Their Importance

Discuss About The Optimization Computational Fluid Dynamics.

The technology in the automotive comprises of the intake manifold that facilitates the transport of air-fuel mixture to the cylinder engine. The definition of manifold had come from the manifold English word that has a relation to the folding together of numerous outputs and inputs. The major reason for the intake manifold was to facilitate even distribution of combustion mixture to every intake port of the engine’s cylinder as well as the creation of air-fuel mixture. This was done unless the engine in the study had direct injection (Reddy & Gartling, 2010). The even distribution of mixture has its importance in the optimization of engine performance and the volumetric efficiency. The two main desirable technologies were found to have an influence on the volumetric efficiency as it gets increased as well as the design of the intake manifold and the varying timing valve technology for the exhaust and intake valves. The varying timing valve technology has its complexity and the high cost of production. Hence, it restricts the scope of researchers thereby making every researcher in the automotive industry focus on improving the intake manifold.

Therefore, the room for enhancing the intake manifold would be developed further. The system involving air intake has gone through a number of reiterations as well as improvements and the substantial increase in the years that past (Kuzmin, 2011). These past years involved the control of shape and dimension with permission of the engine for the production of increased amounts of power that improve the volumetric efficiency and amount of fuel consumed.

(Nikrityuk, 2011)produced a design with a gaseous-fuel manifold having engines with internal combustion. The engine had its cycle being a two-stroke type that lacks inlet valves would be important in control of the gaseous fuel that enters the pre-compression fuel chamber. This determined invention had the purpose of improving its the volumetric efficiency. Therefore, this invention had a fast demand from the invented suction stroke from the engine’s pistons, the fuel volume that is gaseous within a manifold that would not cause an unusual or unexpected pressure and velocity on the carburettor.

(Anderson, et al., 2016)made a recognition of a pulsating flow inside an inflow manifold with certain disadvantages that come from the pulsation. There was also an observation that was dynamic and static effects in the way in which there would be a flow of fluid. The difference due to the dynamic and pressure effects were the static effects occurring due to the existing velocity difference (Patankar, 2006). In the process, there was a resulting design in its control mechanism in the automatic modification that had a pulsating flow that improved the engine’s operation. The return flow had the general effects in the reduced pulsation as well as the facilitation of flow in the control tube manifold with an improvement of volumetric efficiency.

Desirable Technologies that Influence Volumetric Efficiency

(Date, 2005)this book produced a design that had an improved intake manifold method that allowed the supply of a mixture of fuel for the combustion chamber for improving the engine’s volumetric efficiency. The research had one of its goal being the comparative offer of short passages that split without any passage obstruction for flowing mixture of fuel in every cylinder (Li, 2006). This design allowed free action in breathing. One more goal that this research was aiming was to develop a manifold that would produce an air-fuel ratio by means of carburation that remains similar throughout the manifold’s intake. More studies of this design were to provide branched communication for every unit of a manifold. However, this communication had to be limited enough to allow every branch to take a mixture of fuel mainly from a respective carburizing means. This would have to be big enough to start a further increase in the mixture of fuel that is in a branch. One more branch from a similar section would restrict mixture’s backflow through a carburettor.

(Petrila & Trif, 2006) this research had its design being an inimitable manifold intake type for the internal combustion engine. The main goal of this research was to come up with an intake manifold for the production of maximum efficiency of operation in internal combustion engines. One more objective of the research was to develop an intake manifold with an indicating character that would enable the internal combustion engines to be equipped (Thévenin & Janiga, 2008). This would allow complete cylinder filling with the mixture of fuel in the process of the intake stroke. Another objective of this research was to allow the provision of the intake manifold of the indicated character that is above for an adapted prevention of pumping losses. Such an occurrence would be possible as the manifold would reduce the atmospheric pressure restriction to very small values (Johnson, 2016). Such a mixture of fuel would improve the performance of the engine by the maintenance of low temperatures of the mixture that would leave the manifold. Also, there would be a dependence on the temperature of the engine from the intake stroke to the point where the compression stroke ends for the aiding of completing the fuel evaporation.

(Otte, 2011)produced a design with improved intake manifold having an enhanced volumetric and charging efficiency of the designed engine in its large range in engine load and speed. There was a discovery of the engine’s intake efficiency as well as the combustion of the engine. The generated swirls were the auxiliary passage intake that increased (Tucker, 2016). This increase was possible when the major inlet passage was put in offset relationship respective to the axis associated with the cylinder. Combining the auxiliary inlet use produced an advantageous encounter that provided an air volume distribution that delivered an auxiliary passage intake. The use of such plenum or volume chamber produced a flow in the intake charge going into the intake passage was possible to be stabilized regardless of the speed and eliminated pulsation or reduced substantiality. There was a repeated research that revealed an improved intake manifold than the previous development. Hence, the research could be summarized in that the newly developed manifold was higher compared to the previously done research.

Improvements in Air Intake System


(Kajishima & Taira, 2016)produced a research of two ways that could be influential in increasing the volumetric efficiency. The research provided two solutions that had variable geometry intake manifold and a variable technology used in timing for the exhaust and intake valves. Using the presented scenario at the time, there was a designed manifold of different types with variable intake length in the internal combustion engine. This would lead to a variation in the inlet geometry that allows the flow of air. This is because the main function of the inlet’s manifold air in the engine of the internal combustion had to feed the required air amount to the combustion chamber of the engine. The maximization of the engine performance which is the power and torque, the used inlet manifold had to be able to provide an air of the required quantity for the respective size (Larry, 2005). Subsequently, there would be a great volumetric efficiency in air intake occurring at less speed of the engine (Groth & Zingg, 2006). Hence a proper engine torque delivery at the lesser speed of the engine for improved stop-running conditions.

(Anderson, et al., 2016)made a discovery of the broken normal intake manifold had three parts that were separate, supplement portion, runner cylinder and plenum. The fixed runner dimension was possible to be tuned optimally for a specific speed of the engine. To get over this, a regularly adjustable manifold runner length for the internal combustion engine. An incorporation of the purpose of the supplement flange, plenum as well as the continuously adjustable runner length into the plastic box that was designed from specific shaped sections (Blazek, 2005). The pulsating or alternating nature in the air flow through the each cylinder’s manifold may lead to resonance in the air flow at distinct speeds. That may lead to an increased volumetric efficiency, therefore, the power at the specific speed of the engine may lead to a reduction in the efficiency in other speeds. This was showed to have a dependence in the speed of the engine manifold intake capable in setting up automatic optimum runner length, vehicle speed, fuel economy, engine speed as well as an increased performance of the engine at every functioning circumstance.

(Amano & Sundén, 2011)made a research of a multiple stage ram manifold intake for an internal combustion engine having four cycles that may minimize imbalances in the fuel/air ratio as well as the volumetric efficiency. The manifold intake that had plenum chamber consisted of at least two ram stages. The stage that occurred first was having ram tubes that facilitated the transportation of air/fuel mixture to the plenum chamber from the body’s throttle. The stage occurring second had at least 2 ram tubes that transported the air/fuel mixture to a plurality valve intake from plenum chamber and through the intake port head. The plenum chamber had to behave similar like the buffer between the throttle body or the carburettor and every intake valves. The mixture of air/fuel got into the plenum chamber through the ram tube in the first stage. The gaseous mixtures would then flow into one of the ram tubes in the second stage. This would depend on the cylinder that was on the intake stroke. The research produced a result from drawings of the mixtures of air/fuel ration as well as the volumetric efficiency being minimized. This came up due to transient variations in occurred conditions in the first stage of ram that concentrated in the plenum chamber (Iannelli, 2006).

Designs for Improved Intake Manifold

(Post, 2010)made a research that provided a description of the dynamics of the wave acoustics in the intake manifold of the internal combustion engine showing an improved understanding of the model in linear acoustics. The research performed experiments on a single cylinder of the Ricardo E6 engine as well as the description of the developed model as well as the measurements that were set. The model in linear acoustics was simplified by the description of the created estimation of the time pressure history at the engine’s port. This is consistent with the measured data from the equipped engine having simple intake system. The method of intake was governed by immediate piston velocity values as well as the open area under the valve. The action of the resonant wave dominated the process. The model had an indication of usefulness in the identification of the resonance tube role with the intake process leading to the development of the simple hypothesis that explained the structure of the inlet pressure time history. The depression of the depth was due to the early movement of the piston that was governed by the wave action intensity. This came up due to the existing ratio in pressure across the valve, this favoured continuous inflow that could be maximized in opening the valve’s period where less than 1 complete oscillation was maintained at the resonating frequency occurring as the valve remains open.

(Ramshaw, 2011) made a study of the effect of the inlet manifold acoustics for motor racing. There was a design of tuned manifold inlet for natural aspiration in the racing engine as well as showing the volumetric efficiency as well as the speed of the engine in achieving an excess 125% as well as 18000 revolutions/minute (Peyret, 2007). The formula SAE manifold intake had a division in three different parts, runner cylinder, plenum and restrictor. The resulting study made it possible for the motor racing intake process engine to expose the inertial effect of the ram, making a major influence of the inlet process with an engine of at greater rotations per minute. On the other hand in the lesser speed of the engine, the acoustics resonance natural effect was very weak in wave action (Wang, 2011). The action of the resonant wave in the acoustic model made a presentation of the important difference between the two effects. The acoustic model attributes were put in comparison by the researcher to time-marching conventional gas-dynamics with a calculated approach.

Variable Geometry Intake Manifold

(Schetz & Fuhs, 2011)produced more research compared to (Lomax, et al., 2013) with a study on the model having linear acoustics for numerous multi-cylinder in the engine having internal combustion intake manifolds that include the intake throttle effects that could be used in hybrid time/frequency domain technique that calculates the dynamics of the intake wave of the applied natural aspirated engine. These methods allow the researcher to create a virtual model of complex manifold geometry. The researcher created models that could be assembled in sub-models (Zhang & Cen, 2015). A straight pipe went through the fluid flowed in both ends. The second sub-model had an intake throttle with the third sub-model being an enlarged compartment that involved the three pipe lengths positioned end to end. The 4th sub-model was the side-branch that included a model with a straight pipe having an end closed. Another sub-model was expanded with 2 or more side-branches. The research found good organization of with measurement for the respective sub-models. Testing the bench in promising arrangement and isolation made the various sub-models be organized in modeling the complex running engine inlet manifold.

(Ishii & Hibiki, 2010)made further research that proceeded to improve the (Kundu & Cohen, 2010)research. The improved research was made of continuous varying intake manifold that had flexible plenum. There was a communication with the engine’s internal combustion intake manifold. This communication was mainly to the intake manifold having a flexible plenum that offers a runner length that is adjustable in the process of operating the engine. The assembly of intake manifold had to include the plenum volume during that time as well as facilitation of mounting for movement in housing. The section that was flexible provided a length that would vary with the structural support that was provided in the housing. The intake channels were similar in the content of flexible section providing plenum volume movement (Abbott & Basco, 200). The result in this research was that the length of the plenum had to be extended for reduced speeds of the engine as well as being shortened with the increasing engine speed. The size of operating plenum had to have a constant size as well as being comparatively small. A regular idle speed could be provided compared to the systems having varying plenum volume.

(Hall & Dixon, 2013)made a study of the volume of the intake plenum as well as the influence of the volume on the cyclic variability, engine performance as well as its emission. Also, there was an influence in the system’s inlet manifold that had a connection to the engine’s intake valve that allowed movement of air/fuel mixture or air alone for introduction into the cylinder of the engine. It was discovered that the movement in the intake manifold was not easy to examine (Günther & Sens, 2017). This was due to the majority of the engine companies were concentrating on the varying intake manifold technique as it had the effect of improving the performance of engines. This research performed an examination on the effects of varying the volume of the plenum on the performance of the engine as well as the emission that constituted of base study on the varying intake plenum. The research also determined the indication as well as the engine’s brake performance features, pulsating flow pressure in the runner intake manifold, change coefficient in indication of mean effective pressure in its use in cyclic variability indication. The HC, CO2 and CO emissions were taken into consideration in the estimation of effects of alteration in the plenum volume (Jawad Mustafa, 2017). There was a decrease in the variation coefficient that is in the presented mean effective pressure (Schmidt, 2012).

Manifold Runner Length Adjustment

(Wesseling, 2009)has a study done on the required intake resistor using the formula SAE in limiting the performance, keeping the cost low and maintenance of safe experience in racing. The performance of the engine had a limitation due to the intake resistor. Hence, the researcher had to use the ramification method of the engine’s restrictor thereby leading to an enhanced performance of the engine and allowing an advantage in the competition (Reynolds, 2008). The turbulence vanes had almost no effect on the intake performance. The research was also done on the numerous plenum types with the discoveries being conical-shaped concept in intake offered the best performance as well as provided higher order in improving the magnitude in the deviating cylinder-to-cylinder efficiency in volume (De, et al., 2017).

(Warsi, 2005)made a further study on the research in (Chen, 2011). The study was on the effect of varying the length of the intake plenum on the feature of the performance of the engine with regards to an SI engine having MPFI system that uses fuel injectors that are electrically controlled. The research has a description of the intake manifold that only transports the air from the plenum to the engine’s cylinder while the fuel gets injected through the intake valve. This is different from the carbureted engine. The research was done on the engine with the aim of developing a base study that would lead to designing a latest varying length of the plenum intake manifold. The research takes into account the features of the engine’s performance that include the brake power, brake torque, specific fuel consumption and thermal efficiency in the estimation of influence of various lengths of the plenum intake (Kleinstreuer, 2010). The results of this research were the increase of speed of the engine led to drive of the plenum in shortening the deformable runner in the highest speed of operation. Also, the results showed that there was an improvement of the features of the engine performance caused by varying length of the intake plenum mostly on the consumption of fuel at lesser engine speed (Wendt, 2008).

This project aims at including the uniform flow simulation of the air-fuel mixture thereby developing a model that is accurate and resembles the engine that is being studied, the engine model is developed to have a volumetric efficiency that is improved and has an uninterrupted fuel mixture flow.

The literature that was reviewed provided a large scope that was to be used in this study. In these sources, it could be noticed that the researchers intended to produce high performing manifold engines through the development of optimum features in the manifold. This paper focuses on the v6 700cc engine. This engine is studied for the possibility of attaining its optimum performance. The mixture of fuel would be examined in its static and dynamic properties.

Multiple Stage Ram Manifold Intake

This abbreviation stands for Computational Fluid Dynamics which is a commonly used tool in generating solutions for the flow of fluids without or with solid interaction. The analysis in CFD is based on the flow of fluid according to the physical properties that are the pressure, velocity, temperature, density as well as the viscosity are performed. The virtual generation of solutions with the physical phenomenon in association with the flow of fluids lacks a compromise on the accuracy. This means that the properties are to be included simultaneously.

A model that is mathematical of the physical scenario and the numerical method use software tool for analyzing fluid flow. One example is the Naiver-Stoke that is an equation specifying the mathematical model of the physical scenario. The model in mathematics varies in relation to the content of the problem. The content may be mass transfer, heat transfer, phase change, chemical reaction as so on. In addition to this, the analysis in CFD greatly depends on the whole process in the structure. The mathematical model has a verification that is very important in creating an accurate scene that solves the problem. Besides, the determination of best numerical problems that generate the path going past the solution is as important as the model in mathematical form. The software used would analysis the conduction of the key elements when generating processes that are product sustainable just like the physical prototypes being able to be drastically reduced.

The simulation process has evolved into an important design for current development of products landscape. Mostly, engineers have been able to use this ANSYS software to make use of the multiphysics that is better in prediction depending on the reaction of the design to all the conceivable environment. The purpose is to come up with a design that is faster, better performing and cheaper products. The ANSYS software has a workbench that brings together the meshing, modelling, fluid, structural, electromagnetics, dynamics and the turbo system all under one roof. The convergence of the ANSYS, there is a talk on the ANSYS future.

The functioning of the ANSYS workbench make use of the drag and drop schematic in the project to link the process of simulation, CAD, tool optimization and the project updates. Parameter modification and the changes are made to any selected section of the schematics as well as the automatic workbench updating of the project. The simulation is possible to save time by the production of iterations, max/min, DOEs and other scenarios. The software also allows the transfer of data information between projects facilitating easy Multiphysics.

Acoustics in Intake Manifold

The Computational Fluid Dynamics is one of the fluid mechanic's branches that makes use of numerical algorithms and methods in solving and analyzing problems that involve the flow of fluids. The modelling in CFD are based on the equations that govern the dynamics of fluids; momentum, mass conservation and their energy. The use of CFD helps in the prediction of flow of fluid behaviour depending on software tool mathematical modelling. This is now used in wide valid tools of engineering. The process of simulation in CFD is based on numerous steps that all involve the fluid flow analysis such as the analysis of the V6 7800cc engine in this research.

Pre-Processing – this step occurs first as the process of simulation would need help in the described geometry that has to be in a good manner. The person doing the simulation has to make an identification of the interested fluid domain. The interested domain has to be further divided into smaller segments that are known as a step in mesh generation. A number of pre-processing can be performed in this step. The pre-processing software that may be used is the SOLIDWORKS and the ANSYS Meshing or the TGrid.

Solver – Once the physics problems have been identified, the model on the physics flow, properties of the fluid materials and the set boundary conditions are put to solve the problem with the help of a computer. The used software that may be used in this step includes the ANSYS CFX, ANSYS FLUENT, CFD++, Star CCM and the OpenFOAM. This software could be used depending on their unique capabilities. The use of this ANSYS software allows the possibility of solving equations that govern problems that relate to the flow.

Post-processing – the last step involves the obtaining of the results from an analysis of various methods that include vector plots, contour plots, streamlines, data curves and so on. Appropriate graphs are able to be graphically represented and reported in this step. The most used software in this step is the ABSYS CFD-Post, FieldView, Tecplot 360 and the EnSight.

Meshing in ANSYS is provided by numerous spectrum of tools for the task of meshing. These meshing tools facilitate the formation of meshes in regards to fluid dynamics. Every meshing tool has a defined set of capabilities and needs. However, all the tools required in meshing procedures are developed with the aim of powerful and robust solution for mesh development thereby reducing the time needed for the creation of meshes. This mesh creation is also done while maintaining t high accuracy in the results in a short time. The meshing workbench in ANSYS software does the similar end purpose as all other meshing engineering software but at an advanced module of meshing at easy use and parametric mesh solving. There are various meshes that are considered in this step. They are the; hexahedral, prismatic inflation layer, hexahedral core, cut cell Cartesian, hexahedral inflation layer, body-fitted Cartesian and the tetrahedral.

  1. Launching an IC engine System

The geometry of the simulation file is downloaded from the customer portal then the workbench has to be started. In the workbench, the engine’s analysis system id dragged onto the project schematic page and the ICE edited for its properties taking note of the green tip beside the ICE tick. The green tick authorizes proceeding into the next IC engine step.

  1. Reading an existing geometry into an IC engine and decomposition.

The design model of the geometry cell is opened and the desired dimension is selected. In this research, it was best determined to use mm. afterwards, the geometry file has to be imported taking not of the valve properties of the engine in the study. The inputs are then provided or the purpose of decomposition. The cylinder line is edited in the cylinder faces applied noting that half of the geometry in the display is the one considered. The symmetry faces are selected and applied as was done before after rotating the diagram.

Next is the definition of the post-processing files where the distances are from the reference plane. Various distances can be input to define various planes in space. These distances are entered and separated by a semicolon.

The valve that has to be considered is then set as well as considering the valves that are not to be considered. The valves are set by selecting the respective valves and applied for accepting these respective selections. The dimensions of the valve are defined in this step. New IC valve data are added to the “add new IC valve data group” where the valve body type was set to the EX valve. The valve body and its corresponding section are selected. A value of 0 mm is set for the valves that are not considered, exhaust valves.

Next is the selection of the inlet and outlet plenum where there are default values of these surfaces for a reduction in simulation time. The generated key is clicked and the decompose key is then clicked after which the geometry preparation and processes on decomposition process themselves in a minute.

The valve lift could be set as a parameter to easily allow numerous valve lifts to be investigated. The FD1 is enabled for them in the valve and the parameter set to valve lift. The design model is then closed and saved.

  1. Mesh setup definition and geometry of the mesh

The IC engine is analyzed in the mesh cell. In this step, the setup mesh is clicked in the engine toolbar for the definition of the mesh parameters where the default settings are retained. The mesh analysis is then automatically operated after clicking the okay button. The port mesh controls are set and the IC mesh generation activated for mesh generation. Once the mesh is generated, the meshing window is closed. The mesh cell is the updated on the workbench window to complete the meshing step. The project is then saved.

  1. Addition of design points for observing the changing results with the changing input parameters.

After the decomposing of the mesh, the boundary conditions are defined as well as the monitors and post-processing images. The data and images that have to be added to the report are also set. The solver settings are edited where the various default settings of the steps are checked. The settings can be changed if need be. All the tabs in this solver settings have to be perused. This research will be using the default solver settings. The dialogue box of the solver settings is then closed.

  1. Simulation running.

The general solver settings are set and the solution is started. The setup cell in opened and could be run in parallel with more number of processes for faster completion of the solution. The fluid launcher dialogue box is activated after which the fluid opens reading the mesh files and setup case. This study makes use of the monitor based convergence criterion where on velocity magnitude is defined in an interior face zone after which this information would be used in defining the convergence criterion. The convergence criterion is added for the weighted criterion. The monitor surface-mon-5 is activated. The convergence is successful of all the criteria as satisfied. Complete the parameter loop and the ANSYS workbench is accessed to view the parameter and workspace and edited.  The simulation would then run for every design point taken some time where every solution for every design point is updated.

The following are the resources that are required to conduct this experiment;

References

Abbott, M. & Basco, D., 1989. Computational Fluid Dynamics: An Introduction for Engineers. reprint ed. Townsville: Longman Scientific & Technical.

Amano, R. & Sundén, B., 2011. Computational Fluid Dynamics and Heat Transfer: Emerging Topics. illustrated ed. Cairns: WIT Press.

Anderson, D., Tannehill, J. & Pletcher, R., 2016. Computational Fluid Mechanics and Heat Transfer, Third Edition. 3, illustrated ed. Cairns: Taylor & Francis.

Blazek, J., 2005. Computational Fluid Dynamics: Principles and Applications. 2 ed. Townsville: Elsevier.

Chen, N., 2011. Aerothermodynamics of Turbomachinery: Analysis and Design. 1 ed. Townsville: John Wiley & Sons.

Date, A., 2005. Introduction to Computational Fluid Dynamics. 1 ed. Darwin: Cambridge University Press.

De, S., Agarwal, A., Chaudhuri, S. & Sen, S., 2017. Modeling and Simulation of Turbulent Combustion. illustrated ed. Sunshine Coast: Springer Singapore.

Groth, C. & Zingg, D., 2006. Computational Fluid Dynamics 2004: Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Computational Fluid Dynamics, ICCFD3, Toronto, 12-16 July 2004. illustrated ed. Sunshine Coast: Springer Science & Business Media.

Günther, M. & Sens, M., 2017. Knocking in Gasoline Engines: 5th International Conference, December 12-13, 2017, Berlin, Germany. 1 ed. Brisbane: Springer.

Hall, C. & Dixon, L., 2013. Fluid Mechanics and Thermodynamics of Turbomachinery. 7 ed. Townsville: Butterworth-Heinemann.

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Institution of Mechanical Engineers (Great Britain). Thermodynamics and Fluid Mechanics Group, I. o. M. E. (. B. E. a. T. M. G. E. R. C. o. F. T. a. C., 1993. Engineering Applications of Computational Fluid Dynamics: European Conference, 7-8 September 1993, Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Birdcage Walk, London, Issue 5. illustrated ed. Darwin: IMechE.

Ishii, M. & Hibiki, T., 2010. Thermo-Fluid Dynamics of Two-Phase Flow. 2, illustrated ed. Cairns: Springer Science & Business Media.

Jawad Mustafa, I. A. M. A. M. K., 2017. Computational Fluid Dynamics Based Model Development and Exergy Analysis of Naphtha Reforming Reactors. 1 ed. Townsville: Inderscience Enterprises.

Johnson, R., 2016. Handbook of Fluid Dynamics, Second Edition. 2, illustrated, revised ed. Sunshine Coast: 2, illustrated, revised.

Kajishima, T. & Taira, K., 2016. Computational Fluid Dynamics: Incompressible Turbulent Flows. 1 ed. Cairns: Springer.

Kleinstreuer, C., 2010. Modern Fluid Dynamics: Basic Theory and Selected Applications in Macro- and Micro-Fluidics. 1 ed. Townsville: Springer Science & Business Media.

Kundu, P. & Cohen, M., 2010. Fluid Mechanics. 4 ed. Cairns: Academic Press.

Kuzmin, A., 2011. Computational Fluid Dynamics 2010: Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Computational Fluid Dynamics, ICCFD6, St Petersburg, Russia, on July 12-16, 2010. illustrated ed. Hobart: Springer Science & Business Media.

Larry, S., 2005. Fluid Mechanics and Thermodynamics of Turbomachinery. 5 ed. Townsville: Elsevier.

Li, B., 2006. Discontinuous Finite Elements in Fluid Dynamics and Heat Transfer. illustrated ed. Hobart: Springer Science & Business Media.

Lomax, H., Pulliam, T. & Zingg, D., 2013. Fundamentals of Computational Fluid Dynamics. illustrated ed. Cairns: Springer Science & Business Media.

Nikrityuk, P., 2011. Computational Thermo-Fluid Dynamics: In Materials Science and Engineering. 1 ed. Albany: John Wiley & Sons.

Otte, T., 2011. The Foreign Office Mind: The Making of British Foreign Policy, 1865–1914. 1 ed. Cairns: Cambridge University Press.

Patankar, S., 1980. Numerical Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow. illustrated, reprint ed. Hobart: CRC Press.

Petrila, T. & Trif, D., 2006. Basics of Fluid Mechanics and Introduction to Computational Fluid Dynamics. illustrated ed. Darwin: Springer Science & Business Media.

Peyret, R., 1996. Handbook of Computational Fluid Mechanics. illustrated, reprint ed. Townsville: Academic Press.

Post, S., 2010. Applied and Computational Fluid Mechanics. 1 ed. Cairns: Jones & Bartlett Publishers.

Ramshaw, J., 2011. Elements of Computational Fluid Dynamics. 1 ed. Cairns: World Scientific.

Reddy, J. & Gartling, D., 2010. The Finite Element Method in Heat Transfer and Fluid Dynamics, Third Edition. 3, revised ed. Hobart: CRC Press.

Reynolds, J., 1971. Thermofluid dynamics. 1 ed. Townsville: Wiley-Interscience.

Schetz, J. & Fuhs, S., 1999. Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics. illustrated, revised ed. Cairns: John Wiley & Sons.

Schmidt, J., 2012. Process and Plant Safety: Applying Computational Fluid Dynamics. illustrated ed. Sunshine Coast: John Wiley & Sons.

Thévenin, D. & Janiga, G., 2008. Optimization and Computational Fluid Dynamics. illustrated ed. Townsville: Springer Science & Business Media.

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