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Strain Gauge Overview

Discuss about the Performance Analysis of Strain Gauge.

A strain gauge is a sensor that works in a way that it senses variations in electrical resistance as it experiences deformation in order to monitor a system ‘s pressure, strain, stress, shape and to measure strain. The strain gauge performance can be analyzed using various techniques. The aim of analyzing the performance of a strain gauge is to ensure its effectiveness since the analysis results determine whether it needs adjustments or not. The techniques use for strain gauge performance analysis range from the Automatic Fluid Dispensing System which is widely used for strain gauge evaluation (Varghese et al., 2007) to the performance evaluation based on the load cell and finally using the Effect of Stress impedance (Withers, Watanabe, 2013). All these techniques have different effectiveness levels and can be applied to determine the efficiency of a strain gauge in order to ensure accuracy in measurement.

  • To analyze the performance of a strain gauge using different methods
  • To determine the accuracy of the methods used to analyze the performance of the strain gauge
  • To give recommendations on the improvements to be implemented on the methods used to measure the performance of the strain gauge.

Strain gauge can be defined as the specific device that is being utilized for the purpose of measuring strain over a particular object. The most widespread kind of this strain gauge comprises of the insulating flexible backing that eventually supports any pattern of metal foil. This particular kind of strain gauge is subsequently attached to an entity by a proper connecting link like cyanoacrylate (Sloan et al., 2013). Since, the object is not formed properly, the foil becomes deformed and thus causing a proper alteration within the resistance in electrical field. The change of this resistance is subsequently measured with the help of a Wheatstone bridge and this change in resistance is solely related to the typical strain with the help of a fixed quantity, known as the gauge factor (Ando, Bruno and Salvatore Baglio, 2013).

This type of strain gauge takes up various benefits of the physical properties of any electrical conductance and even its dependence over the geometry of the conductor (Yang, Shixuan and Nanshu Lu, 2013). When the electrical conductor is being stretched in the elasticity limit like not breaking or getting permanently deformed, it becomes longer as well as narrower and the changes or alterations increment the electrical resistance from one end to other. From all the calculated resistance in electrical on strain gauge, there is an inferred amount of induced stress. The strain performance can be made better by not increasing the sensitivity.

The performance of the strain gauge could be easily analyzed by the help of various techniques. The most significant and popular technique for evaluating the performance of a strain gauge is the Automatic Fluid Dispensing System (Cai et al., 2013). This is utilized in various organizations for the purpose of evaluation of the strain gauge performance. The second important technique in this case is the performance evaluation based on the load cell. The third technique is by determining the performance of strain gauge on the basis of the effect of stress impedance.

Performance Analysis Techniques

According to Cruise a strain gauge is a sensor operating with the method that its resistance changes with the force applied to it. In its operation it translates tension, weight and pressure applied on it into an electric resistance change which is measured (Cruise et al., 2008).

Sloan states that the strain gauge load cell is the most common in the industry. They are advantageous for their qualities such as good resonance values, stiffness and a long-life cycle. They work with the principle of deformation where when a material is put on them there is a strain that causes deformation which in turn alters its electrical resistance.

This study seeks to scrutinize the methods used to measure the performance of the strain gauge. Experiments will be performed to determine the most effective method after which recommendations will be made. Strain gauges are applied in various fields and their efficiency plays a significant role in ensuring the success of the projects they are used in (Siebert et al., 2007). Industries require the strain gauge in monitoring a system ‘s pressure, stress and strain. Over the years various methods have been applied in the analysis of the strain gauge performance but most of these methods have proven to be ineffective. This study seeks to apply three of the most effective methods which are, Automatic Fluid Dispensing System in which the automatic fluid dispensing system acts as an alternative to the printing using conductive inks because of ink incompatibility and low flexibility, Performance evaluation based on the load cell and Using the basis of the effect of stress impedance.

Without efficiency a strain gauge will not serve its purpose, this project seeks to ensure the efficiency of strain gauges using the methods of Automatic Fluid Dispensing System, the performance evaluation based on the load cell and using the Effect of Stress impedance (Hild et al.,2009). All these methods will be evaluated in terms of their effectiveness in analyzing the strain gauge performance and adjustments will be made where necessary to ensure maximum accuracy. This project is innovative since it seeks to employ alternative methods to ensure the strain gauge accuracy. Many industries require the use of the strain gauge in order to monitor a system ‘s pressure, strain, stress, shape and to measure strain thus with these measurements assuring of efficiency in strain gauges they will benefit significantly.

The experiment will be designed in a way that three methods used in evaluating the performance of the strain gauge will be evaluated to determine their accuracy and recommendations made on how to improve these methods to ensure that they are totally effective (Soares et al.,2008).

Benefits of Strain Gauge Analysis

The strain gauge is the device, which eventually varies the electrical resistance in proper proportion to the strain. This could result from various internal or external influences. The strain gauge factor GF can be demonstrated as:

Where, is the resistance change that is caused by the strain and RG is the resistance on the un-deformed gauge.  is the strain.

The performance of the strain gauge is evaluated by various different techniques

The methods that will be used to analyze the performance of the strain gauge are as follows:

In this case the automatic fluid dispensing system acts as a substitute to the printing using conductive inks this is so because of low flexibility and ink incompatibly. The strain gauge needs to meet standards such as rigorous and flexible to handle typical stresses resulting from the motion of the human body. The existing conventional strain gauges do not have these characteristics thus must be gauged and replaced by digital components fabricated by the use of printing technologies with the help of conductive ink.

This is the use of high definition fiber optics sensing in the measurement of the strain gauge performance.  This will ensure the strain gauge accuracy since the high definition fiber optics are known for their high-quality performance.

The impedance of the stress on the strain gauge is used to measure its effectiveness. This has a wide application in industries. During the operation of the strain gauge impedance will be measure alongside electrical resistance. A determination will be made on the effectiveness of the strain gauge after arithmetical calculations.

Strain Gauge

Impedance (Ω)

Electrical Resistance (R)

1

2

3

4


The table above will be used to record the measurements on the impedance and electrical resistance of the stress on the strain gauge.

After getting the values of electrical resistance and impedance the effectiveness will be calculated.

All the methods above are essential in the measurement of the effectiveness of the strain gauge. The Automatic Fluid Dispensing System method is the most common of the three methods since it is perceived to be the most effective (Ozbek et al., 2013) (subject to confirmation in this project). The other methods also are applied in the various industries to ensure strain gauge effectiveness.

Printed electronics (PE) are used in the case where there is need for the replacement of conventional strain gauges. This is due to the fact that conventional strain gauges exhibit the characteristics of being rigid and have low flexibility. This reduces their efficiency. Printed electronics are more flexible and rigid as compared to the conventional strain gauges.

Limitations of Conventional Strain Gauges

 The steps in the experimentation part will be involved in the Printed electronics by the use of the Automatic Fluid Dispensing System.

The first step will be the use of the fluid dispensing system to deposit ink in the strain gauge analysis process. The next step will be the identification of the printing parameters followed by the characterization of the fluid dispensing system then identification of the curing parameters and finally a repeat of the characterization of curing parameters.

High performance fiber optics can be used in the measurement of the strain gauge performance. When in use it uses a continuous line of strain and is very effective in the areas which have a high strain gradient.

This project will take a period of one month from the time of writing the project abstract and proposal to performing the various tests on the aluminum composites to determine their suitability to be applied in space shuttles.

Project stage

June 15

June 20

June 25

July 8

July 9

July 10

July 11

Project Abstract

 

Introduction to the performance analysis of strain gauge with different techniques.

 

Research Proposal

 

Literature Review of the performance analysis of strain gauge with different techniques.

 

Methodology of the techniques used in strain gauge performance analysis.

 

Data Collection, experiments on the performance of the strain gauge

 

Data analysis

 

Results of experiments

 

Discussions of results

 

Concluding remarks

 

References

 

Appendices

 

Executive Summary

 

Table of Contents

 

Every research must achieve certain set of rules and regulations of research. There must be approval and correctness as far as morals are concerned. Since this project involves experiments it must be ensured that all the experiments performed ensure safety of everyone. All lab rules must be followed and the right equipment should be used (Morin et al., 2008). All equipment used in this experiment must be thoroughly scrutinized to ensure that they will be safe during usage. All those who will be involved in this experiment will be briefed on the experimental requirements and the safety rules before its commencement.


The effectiveness of this project will ensure the better performance of strain gauges which will make a huge impact on the companies and individuals that use strain gauges by:

  • Giving them a better experience when using strain gauges since it will be easier to use them.
  • Providing greater accuracy since their performance will have been analyzed and defects corrected.
  • Saving industries time which could be spent solving problems which would come up as a result of errors in their measurements using strain gauges (Rossatto et al., 2015).

References

Varghese, Tomy, and Jonathan Ophir. "A theoretical framework for performance characterization of elastography: The strain filter." IEEE transactions on ultrasonics, ferroelectrics, and frequency control 44, no. 1 (2007): 164-172.

Watanabe, Fumihiko, Ichiyo Uno, Yoshiaki Hata, Gerhard Neuendorff, and Axel Kirsch. "Analysis of stress distribution in a screw-retained implant prosthesis." International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants 15, no. 2 (2009).

Withers, Philip J., and H. K. D. H. Bhadeshia. "Residual stress. Part 1–measurement techniques." Materials science and Technology 17, no. 4 (2007): 355-365.

Gardiner, John C., Jeffrey A. Weiss, and Thomas D. Rosenberg. "Strain in the human medial collateral ligament during valgus loading of the knee." Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research® 391 (2007): 266-274.

Márquez, Fausto Pedro García, Andrew Mark Tobias, Jesús María Pinar Pérez, and Mayorkinos Papaelias. "Condition monitoring of wind turbines: Techniques and methods." Renewable Energy 46 (2012): 169-178.

Cruise, R. B., and L. Gardner. "Residual stress analysis of structural stainless steel sections." Journal of Constructional Steel Research 64, no. 3 (2008): 352-366.

Versluis, A. B. A. U. O. M., W. H. Douglas, M. B. A. U. O. G. Cross, and R. L. Sakaguchi. "Does an incremental filling technique reduce polymerization shrinkage stresses?." Journal of Dental Research 75, no. 3 (2009): 871-878.

Siebert, Thorsten, Thomas Becker, Karsten Splitthof, Isabell Neumann, and René Krupka. "High-speed digital image correlation: error estimations and applications." Optical Engineering 46, no. 5 (2007): 051004.

Tee, Tong Yan, Jing-en Luan, Eric Pek, Chwee Teck Lim, and Zhaowei Zhong. "Advanced experimental and simulation techniques for analysis of dynamic responses during drop impact." In Electronic Components and Technology Conference, 2004. Proceedings. 54th, vol. 1, pp. 1088-1094. IEEE, 2014.

Ozbek, Muammer, and Daniel J. Rixen. "Operational modal analysis of a 2.5 MW wind turbine using optical measurement techniques and strain gauges." Wind Energy 16, no. 3 (2013): 367-381.

Morin, D. L., W. H. Douglas, M. Cross, and R. DeLong. "Biophysical stress analysis of restored teeth: experimental strain measurement." Dental Materials 4, no. 1 (2008): 41-48.

Hild, François, and Stéphane Roux. "Digital image correlation: from displacement measurement to identification of elastic properties–a review." Strain 42, no. 2 (2009): 69-80.

Sirevaag, Erik J., Arthur F. Kramer, CHRISTOPHER D. WICKENS MARK REISWEBER, DAVID L. STRAYER, and JAMES F. GRENELL. "Assessment of pilot performance and mental workload in rotary wing aircraft." Ergonomics 36, no. 9 (2013): 1121-1140.

Niewczas, Pawel, Andrew J. Willshire, Lukasz Dziuda, and James R. McDonald. "Performance analysis of the fiber Bragg grating interrogation system based on an arrayed waveguide grating." IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement 53, no. 4 (2014): 1192-1196.

Field, John E., S. M. Walley, W. G. Proud, H. T. Goldrein, and C. R. Siviour. "Review of experimental techniques for high rate deformation and shock studies." International journal of impact engineering 30, no. 7 (2014): 725-775.

Hauk, Viktor, ed. Structural and residual stress analysis by nondestructive methods: Evaluation-Application-Assessment. Elsevier, 2007.

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