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Produce a detailed analysis of the policies to achieve stated corporate objectives of one or more companies, and an examination of the problem of resource acquisition and deployment relevant to those policies.

Provide a relevant literature review on the problems investigated and relate current management theory to practical recommendations.

Demonstrate a lucid and logical discourse containing objectives of the project, methodology, relevant literature review, recommendations for action, appropriate references and bibliography.

Background and rationale of research

This chapter introduces the long-term social, political and economic impact of mega-events on the hosting country and the surrounding area. In this chapter, the researcher sheds light on the background of the research along with the research rationale and purpose. Based on the background information on the research topic, the researcher develops the research aim and objectives that help in laying the overall foundation of the project.

The research investigates the financial, economic and social impact of summer London Olympic 2012. Hosting the Olympic provided an opportunity for London to set benchmark for the rest of the nation in the world other than allowing a platform for the athletes to compete at the national level. Being selected to host mega-event is a huge opportunity for the nation or the country, as this allows the nation to gain global popularity and recognition. The global recognition helps in raising the profile of the country thereby, gaining political, economic and social benefits. These social, economic and political impacts have both short-term and long-term effects on the hosting nation or the country. In addition to, this research sheds light on both positive and negative economic, political and social impact of summer London Olympic 2012 at London’s East End.

London hosted the mega Olympic event in 2012 for the third time. As London was selected to host the mega event, the East end of the country encountered changes socially, economically and politically. This is because in order to host a mega event as Olympics the country has prepared them thereby, justifying their suitability to host the event. As Olympics attract a large number of people around the world, the country has to indulge huge financial resources and adequate people for entertaining the tourists and the players (Timesofindia.indiatimes.com 2018).

The summer London Olympics 2012 was the third time that the nation was hosting the sport mega-event. Hosting the sports mega-event provided an opportunity to increase the political and socio-economic boom for the country. Though London is a widely recognized nation at an international platform, hosting Olympics for the third time increased the profile of the company. The research analyzes the social, political and economic impact of hosting summer London Olympic 2012 at London’s east End. The analysis of the social, political and economic impact provided an opportunity to compare and contrast the past and present conditions of the above three parameters in respect to London’s East end. The analysis also provides an opportunity for the researcher to determine whether the country has been left under severe financial or economic debts post hosting the summer London Olympic. In addition to, the investigating the political and social affect of summer London Olympic also helped in comparing and contrasting the past and present scenario of the nation.

Impact of hosting Olympics on London’s East End

Hosting a mega event highlights different problems, as the government has to undertake actions in order to make the event successful. Hosting mega event has long-term social, economic and political impact on the country and its surrounding area. The country encounters issues in terms of lack of adequate funds, lack of human resources and mismanagement. Thus, tiny mistakes lead to long-term social, economic and political impact on the country (Kaplanidou et al. 2013).

It has been seen that hosting and organizing sports mega-event puts the hosting nation or the country into huge financial debts. Reports suggest that the past three cities that have hosted Olympic events have been under huge financial debts. As a result, the cities have been unable to fulfill their dreams. Thus, the financial factor is a major problem that needs analysis by considering both short-term and long-term impacts. This is because the host nation has to bid for hosting the Olympic Games. The bidding process is itself a marathon, as the cities around the world bids to host the sports mega-event. The bidding process is largely dependent on the financial and economic condition of the nation or the country as well as their present infrastructure and development. The economic constraint thereby, affects both political and social factors of hosting sports mega-events such as Olympics.

Olympic is one of the mega events that is hosted throughout the world in different countries. This mega event features the leading international sporting events that facilitate the participation of thousands of athletes around the world. It is considered the world's foremost sports competition with more than 200 nations participating in the competition. The Olympic Games are hosted every four years with both winter and summer games. The Olympic games now have different forms such as Paralympics Games, Youth Olympic Games and Special Olympic Games (MacAloon 2013).  

The summer London Olympics 2012 was hosted in Olympic park in East London that hosts several other sports venue. More than 175,000 spectators each day visited London’s East End to enjoy the Olympic Games thereby, making it the focus of the Olympic activity. The Olympic village was within the walking distance for all the venues in the Park that improved the experience of the athletes and the officials. The summer London Olympics also hosted other prestigious venues in London including Wembley Stadium, Lord’s Cricket Ground and Horse Guards Parade for beach volleyball. A four-year-old cultural Olympiad was included in the summer London Olympics in 2012. The opening ceremony of summer London Olympics 2012 was hosted on 27 July 2012 thereby, commencing the 60 days sports mega-event across the UK. The hosting of summer London Olympics 2012 highlighted the nation’s increasing support for sports and athletes (Timesofindia.indiatimes.com 2018).

Positive and negative impact of summer London Olympics 2012

What is the issue?

The mega-events have the long-term impact on the country and the surrounding environment that is caused due to lack of management of the resources appropriately. As a result, the country and the surrounding are unable to overcome the issues that have the long-term impact (Muller 2015). The issues of hosting mega-events include cost overruns, the future of sporting venues, and transformation of Olympic housing to public housing, security issues, infrastructure improvement, marketing merchandise and impacts of tourism. All these factors highlight the social, economic and political issues faced by the nation or the country hosting sports mega-events such as Olympic.

Why is it an issue?

It is an issue because the government encounters problems socially, economically and politically. As a result, the financial and social environment of the surrounding environment is hampered (Taks, Chalip and Green 2015). The social, economic and political issues are considered as issues because these factors determine the standard and profile of the country at a global platform. Unable to identify the issues leads to severe long-term consequences for the hosting nation or country.

Why is it an issue now?

It is an issue now because London’s East End has suffered economic issues while organizing the Olympic event. This was because the funds received by the board of people failed to spend the amount appropriately. Initially, the total estimated cost was £4 billion. However, after revision, the estimated cost was raised to £9.32 billion (politics.co.uk 2018). It is an issue now because reports suggest that organizing mega-events has put the hosting nation or the country into huge financial debts that has hampered their long-terms plans for the nation.

What this research sheds light on?

The research sheds light on the significance of managing the economic, political and social aspects of organizing mega events effectively (Mills and Rosentraub 2013). This research is important because investigating the social, economic and political impact of hosting summer London Olympics 2012 will help in analyzing the present financial condition of the country.

The aim of the research is to investigate the long-term impact of events on the particular place. In this research, the long-term social, political and economic impact of London Olympics mega event on London’s east end is investigated.

The objectives of the research include:

  • To understand the long-term social, economic and political impacts of mega-events
  • To investigate the social, economic and political impact of London Olympics on London’s east end
  • To critically evaluate the long-term impact of London Olympics on London's east end
  • To provide suitable recommendations for improving the long-term impact of London Olympics on London's east end

The questions of the research include:

  • What are the long-term social, economic and political impacts of mega-events?
  • What are the long-term social, economic and political impacts of London Olympics on London’s east end?
  • What are the long-term social, economic and political impacts of London Olympics on London’s east end?
  • What are the suitable recommendations for improving the long-term impact of London Olympics on London’s east end?

Any mega event has a huge impact on the venue due to which the place encounters both positive and negative attributes simultaneously. The research is significant as this helps in investigating the long-term social, economic and political impact of the mega event on the selected venue. Thus, investigating the long-term social, political and economic impact of hosting Olympic in London’s east end is essential, as this helps in shedding light on the growth of the country. Additionally, the investigation provides an opportunity to evaluate the increment or decrement of employment, financial scenario and development of the country before and after the hosting of the mega event (Li, Blake and Thomas 2013). The research provides an opportunity to investigate to potential things that can go wrong while organizing mega-events due to shortage or mismanagement of social, economic and political factors. It has been seen that hosting and organizing sports mega-event puts the hosting nation or the country into huge financial debts. Reports suggest that the past three cities that have hosted Olympic events have been under huge financial debts. As a result, the cities have been unable to fulfill their dreams. Thus, the financial factor is a major problem that needs analysis by considering both short-term and long-term impacts. This is because the host nation has to bid for hosting the Olympic Games.

Factors affecting hosting of mega-events

Five chapters form the entire structure of the dissertation. The five chapters include the introduction, literature review, research methodology, data analysis, conclusion and recommendations.  

Chapter 1: Introduction

The introductory chapter of the research lays the overall foundation of the research as this introduces the topic, provides a brief background of the topic as well as states the research rationale and purpose. Research aim and objectives are formulated in this chapter based on which the entire research is conducted.

Chapter 2: Literature review

This chapter includes different theories and concepts with respect to the research topic and helps in identifying the independent and dependent variables. This chapter is conducted by using the different resources such as books, journals and other relevant official internet resources.

Chapter 3: Research methodology

In this chapter, the researcher states the different methodological tools that can be used while carrying out a research thereby, helping to develop a deeper understanding. In addition to, the researcher also justifies the selection and use of particular methodological tools for completing the research successfully.  

Chapter 4: Data analysis and interpretation

This chapter includes analyzing the data that is collected by the researcher by using appropriate data collection techniques.

Chapter 5: Conclusion and recommendation

In this chapter, the researcher deduces conclusion of the overall research work and provide suitable recommendations based on the identified issues for improvement.

Thus, in this chapter, it can be concluded that mega-events do impose the long-term impact on the hosting country or the surrounding area. Olympic is one of the mega events that are in different countries over the years. The members of the Olympic board select the venue of hosting the next Olympic event based on various credentials. In order to prepare for the mega event, London’s east end has to encounter different changes that had a long-term impact. Thus, analyzing the social, economic and political impact of hosting Olympic at London’s east end provides an opportunity to investigate the past and present changes in the place and analyze both positives and negatives of the situation.

In this chapter, the researcher mentions and discusses the concepts, factors and impacts of the independent and dependent variables. Because of in-depth discussion and analysis, the chapter provides an opportunity for the readers to develop a deeper understanding of the research topic. The gathered knowledge and information helps in the researcher to evaluate the arguments of different researcher critically. In addition to, the researcher is also able to support own findings with the already existing pieces of literature, theories and concepts. The chapter also presents a framework that conceptualizes the entire findings of the chapter that provides a brief overview of the research topic, aims and objectives.

Significance of managing economic, political and social aspects

Events are highly recognized by the society as this helps in engaging large gatherings and spreading knowledge. As commented by Kaplanidou et al. (2013), the event is defined as the something that is extremely important for the society. However, as argued by Gaffney (2013), mega event is defined as the events that are organized at large scale. Thus, the mega-events have the ability to affect the nation or the host city in terms of social, economic and political aspect. Due to global media coverage, the country or the nation acquires global recognition. The mega event is considered as the greater or mega version of any hallmark event. According to Knott, Fyall and Jones (2015), the term mega-event is also defined as the recurring or one-time major event that happens for a limited period. The mega event helps in raising awareness, profitability and appeal for the nation or the country at the international platform.

Hosting of mega-events is considered a huge opportunity for the countries or the nations, as this provides an opportunity for the nations or the countries to gain global recognition and acclaim. The countries or the nations are able to gain popularity due to which their economic condition of the company of the country. For instance, hosting mega-events increase the tourism of the country that helps in maximizing the economic condition of the country. The different types of mega-events across the nation include Olympics, FIFA, Cricket World Cup, Tennis Grand Slam, Soccer Asian Cup and Rugby World Cup (Lee et al. 2014). All the aforementioned mega-events are hosted across the nation at regular interval of time. This provides an opportunity for all the nations across the globe to get equal opportunities to host the mega and mark their presence on an international platform.

As mentioned by Dogru (2016), more than one organizers is required for organizing the mega-event along with the presence of live participants. The presence of live participants at the location of the mega-event physically is one of the factors that make a normal event into a mega-event. The hosting of mega-event has probable objectives in the hosting country or the nation. One of the major objectives of hosting mega-event is the local economic development that attracts tourism, maximize social cohesion and promote the city along with its local culture and heritage. However, the mega-events also differ as some mega-events attracts virtual public whereas the some requires physical attendance.

Objectives and questions of research

 In order to be eligible for hosting mega event, some factors play a crucial role in organizing the event successfully. Both pre and post determinants play an important role that determines the success of the mega-event. As commented by J. Dickson, M. Benson and Anne Terwiel (2014), in order to host a mega event, the competition begins with the bidding process. Different countries or nations have to bid their price in order to organize and make the required arrangements for hosting the mega-event. However, as criticized by Caiazza and Audretsch (2015), the participants of the mega-event are the most crucial factor that determines the success of the mega-event. This is because it is the participants and their field of excellence that helps in making the mega-event successful. Thus, to ensure active participation from the participants, the host country needs to arrange exceptional facility such as technological advancements.

Apart from the aforementioned factors, the television production is another important factor in organizing mega-events. As mentioned by Muller (2015), lack of appropriate telecasting of the mega-event fails to leave an impact on the global platform. This is because if the media is unable to cover the mega-event, the world will not know about the nation or the country. The contribution of media in reaching out each individual around the world and connecting them with the world news and events is impeccable. Thus, appropriate media coverage is necessary for the nation or the country that is hosting the mega event. However, as criticized by Lee et al. (2014), the sponsor is the most crucial factor that affects the organization of the mega event. This is because that sponsors help in getting adequate financial resources to the country or the nation that is hosting the mega-event. Thus, it is crucial to strike a balance among the three factors, participants, media and sponsors to host a mega-event successfully.

The unique combination of time, management and the needs of the people ensure the success of the mega-events. As commented by Caiazza and Audretsch (2015), the well confinable parameters such as the stakeholders, environmental impact, fixed deadline and the competitive rules determines the overall success of the mega-events. Thus, it can be said that the management and the organizers are the most important factors that highlights the success of the mega-events. There lies increased level of difficulty due to the vastness of the mega-events. As a result, variety of management methods, techniques and approaches are required for organizing the mega-event successfully. The various managerial factors affecting the organizing of mega-event includes project management, its techniques, skills and approaches.

Structure of the dissertation


Hosting mega-event leads to big cost and expenditure of capital for the host nation or country thereby, ensuring improved facility. As commented by Li and McCabe (2013), the nation receives financial support from both private and public financial firms for developing the nation or the host country. The host country or the nation has to expend huge money in order to organize mega-events in the short-run. However, as argued by Vanwynsberghe, Surborg and Wyly (2013), it is still difficult for the host nations or countries to maintain the new stadiums and other related infrastructure for organizing the mega-event. For instance, the winter Olympic hosted in Sochi cost $51 billion to Russia whereas the Summer Olympic in Beijing, China cost around $40 billion. In China, the budget of hosting the Summer Olympic was 3 times higher due to the existing corruption (Arnegger and Herz 2016).

The hosting of mega-event imposes additional economic expenses on the nations or the countries in terms of organizing security, renting equipment and extra police time. As commented by Coakley and Souza (2013), huge economic resources of the host nation or country are engaged in organizing the security due to the fear of terrorism. This is because the host nation or the country is responsible for the security of the participants of the mega-events as well as people attending to mega-event. For example, in the case of 1972 Summer Olympic in Munich, the terrorist attack killed 12 team members of Israel. Since the occurrence of such an incident, the security cost is considered extremely important and huge financial resources are spent to achieve it successfully. It has been seen that Brazil has to spend €300 million out of €10 billion in ensuring effective security for the nation during hosting the FIFA mega-event in 2014 (Baade and Matheson 2016).

As mentioned by Arnegger and Herz (2016), mega-events are considered as the economic engines of the hosting nation or the country. It is considered as an universal experience because the mega-events give rise to short-term costs rather than short-term revenue and is expected to have long-term gains for the hosting nation or the organizers. The long-term economic gains of mega-events for the hosting country or the nation include trade, foreign investment and trade. However, on the contrary, depending on the vastness of the mega-event and the hosting city or the nation, the economic impact can range from positive to negative and sometimes neutral. For instance, the mega-event hosted in Barcelona in 1992 has positive economic impact on the country, as the country was able to improve their existing infrastructure.

Though economic impact of organizing mega-event is more prevalent, the political impact has gathered little attention recently. As commented by Bennett and Haggerty (2014), the past and present political scenario of the nation or the country determines and judges their suitability to be selected as the host of mega-events. For instance, the French politics have been successful in creating a reputation that helped them in being selected as the venue of hosting mega-events frequently. For example, the nation has hosted several mega-events over the years including Winter Olympics (1962, 1992), Rugby World Cup (1991, 2007) and World Cup (1998). In addition to, the rising power of Brazil foreign policy has helped the nation in presenting them as one of the suitable venues for hosting mega-events (Muller and Steyaert 2013). Thus, it is claimed that mega-events help in hosting the national identity of the host country thereby, legitimizing the political identity of the nation.

It has been seen that being selected as the host of mega-events influences the repression of the state and the citizens. As commented by Tilcsik and Marquis (2013), the nations or the countries need to have friendly foreign policies in order to be selected as the host of mega-events. The ruling government needs to ensure that politics of the country are favourable for hosting mega-events thereby gaining more attention. However, as argued by Getz and Page (2016), political corruption also affects the hosting of mega-events in particular nation or country. It is known that the World Bank sanctions particular financial resources in order to prepare a country for hosting mega-events. Thus, increased corruption with the political system of the country hampers their loan sanction thereby, affecting the preparation of hosting the mega-event. In addition to, the sponsorship is also hampered due to the existing corruption within the political system of the country.

When it comes to organizing mega-events, international relations plays a significant role that is created by the political image of the hosting country or the nation. It has been seen that Southeastern and Southern Europe has hosted 12 mage-events out of 28 sports mega-events. This shows the positive and friendly political image of the European countries at the global platform. It is also said the political corruption influences or limits the opportunity of the nation or the country to be selected to host mega-event. This is because the existence of corruption hampers the successful organizing and hosting of the mega-events (Muller and Steyaert 2013).

The society plays a key role in hosting or organizing mega-events if events are hosted and organized in a well-planned manner. As commented by Taks (2013), hosting events provide an opportunity for the nation or country to increase their popularity at an international level. When the country hosts mega-events, it helps in increasing the employment of the country. This is because the country has to develop and enhance their existing presence in order to achieve the international standards of hosting mega-events. The rate of employment increases because the government of the country employs huge man force for completing the required work within time. The range of employment varies from development, security and management. However, as argued by Grix (2014), the hosting of big events increase the communication within the community. The society comes together to host the mega-event successfully by communicating effectively.

In addition to, hosting of events provides social recognition to the country or the nation at the global platform. The global media coverage gains the attention of the countries across the nation thereby, attracting an increased number of tourists. The people from all around the world visit the nation or the country hosting the mega-event. In this way, the nation or the country hosting the mega-event is able to promote their culture and heritage on the global platform. This helps in improving the social cohesion of the society. The increase in the number of tourists provides an opportunity for the hosting nation or the country to maximize their economic condition of the country. The increased revenue helps the government of the country to improve their existing standard thereby, uplifting the social standard.

The hosting of mega-event has a huge social impact on the hosting nation or the country. This is because hosting mega-event provides an opportunity for the hosting nation or the country to receive global recognition and and acclaim. As a result, the hosting nation or the country is able to promote their local culture and heritage at a global platform. In addition to, hosting mega-event creates increased local employment, as the hosting nation or the country has to develop their existing infrastructure for which they need adequate work force Getz and Page (2016).

It is ascertained that the hosting of mega-events brings potential opportunities for the host country or the nation. As commented by De Nooji and Van Der Berg (2013), being the host of a mega-event brings the country into the spotlight and ensures global recognition. As a result, the profile of the hosting nation or the country is raised. Thus, enhancing the profile of the company provides a long-lasting effect on the country. For example, it has been seen that hosting of Olympics in countries such as Beijing, Barcelona and Sydney has helped the nations in raising their existing profile on a global platform. In addition to, hosting mega-events also helps in changing of perceptions of the host country in the nation’s eye. Raising the profile of the country helps in additional benefits for the country.

However, as argued by Prayag et al. (2013), long-term investment is another opportunity that is enjoyed by the hosting country. This provides an opportunity for the host country to develop a legacy of improved sporting venues. In addition to, improvement and development in the cities roads and infrastructure are also noticed, as they have to combat with the increased influx of the tourists. Moreover, hosting of a mega-event also allows the hosting country to provide an opportunity to the citizens to be a part of the mega-event that would have been otherwise not possible. Apart from increasing the tourism of the host country, hosting of mega-events also increases the rate of employment of the host country. Moreover, hosting of mega-events, such as Sports mega-event helps in supporting the local athletes thereby, boosting their self-esteem and morale.

The nation or the country hosting the mega-event provides many opportunities. This is because the hosting nation or the country receives global acclamation due to extensive media-coverage. The opportunity of hosting mega-event provides an opportunity for the hosting nation or the country to transform the city and the surrounding area economically, physically and socially. This is possible because of the necessary support and tools the nation or the country receives due to increased media coverage. The country is able to promote trade, tourism and ensure surrounding development for hosting mega-event.

With global recognition and raising the profile of the hosting country, hosting mega-event brings in certain challenges for the host country or the nation. As commented by Minnaert (2012), the cost is the major challenge that is encountered by the nations or the countries hosting mega-events. This is because the nation or the country hosting the mega-event has to undergo the complete renovation in order to achieve the minimum standard in terms of hosting the mega-event. For instance, the nation or the country has to build stadiums or renovate the stadiums, beautify the surrounding environment, improve the transport and the accommodation facility. Though the countries or the nations hosting the mega-events have an estimated budget before the event, it is difficult to pin down the exact cost of hosting the mega-events.

However, as argued by Dogru (2016), human rights violation is one of most significant challenge that the hosting nation or country of mega-events encounters. In order to build adequate and improved infrastructure for hosting mega-event, the urban areas of the city are been destroyed. As a result, the local communities and the populations are displaced without their consent. For example, it has been seen that during Beijing Olympic, almost 1.5 million people were moved from their homes with minimal compensation in order to make way for the required infrastructure. In addition to, the neighborhood of the residents was also destroyed due to which they have to move away from their friends, work and families.

Another human rights issue that is encountered while hosting mega-events is fear and security. It is the sole responsibility of the hosting nation or the country to ensure complete security of the people visiting their country during the occurrence of the event. The fear of terrorism is the major concern in terms of the security of the country. Incidents have been recorded that highlights terror attack during the hosting of the mega-events. As a result, innocent lives were lost thereby, creating a negative on the global platform on the hosting country or the nation. Ensuring high security for several days and engaging the majority of the defence force for the security also hampers the lives of the normal people or the citizens of the country (Alekseyeva 2014).

As commented by Hall (2012), another human rights challenge that the hosting country or the nation faces is poverty. It has been seen that the country uses huge financial resources for making the nation or the country eligible for hosting mega-events neglecting the needs and demands of the lower people in the city. Huge development in their surrounding raises the question regarding their poor financial condition and increasing poverty. They tend to question the government regarding the source of such huge funds that are being used for the development of the nation or the country hosting the mega-event.

In spite of the positives and the opportunities of hosting mega-events, there come potential challenges of hosting mega-event for the hosting nation or the country. Keeping in mind the existing societal gap between the rich and the poor, surrounding development and advertisement gives rise to conflicts within the society. The people comprising of the poorer section considers these advertisement and surrounding development unnecessary, as they feel that the financial resources needs to be used for improving the healthcare and educational system of the country or the nation (Dogru 2016).

Thus, in this chapter, it can be concluded that being selected to be able to host the mega event is one of greatest opportunity that different aims for. This is because the there are both pre and post long-term impacts of hosting mega events in the country and the surrounding area. As a successful organization of mega event ensures worldwide recognition for the country thereby, maximizing their economy, on the other hand, mismanagement of the allocated funds and resources leads to unsuccessful organization of mega events. Thus, it can be said that organizing mega events have the long-term impact on the country and the surrounding area in terms of social, economic and political aspect.

This chapter includes the different kinds of research methodologies that can be used for carrying out and proceeding with the research. It is essential for the researcher to analyze the various methodological tools and select the most appropriate research methodology based on the research aim and objectives and completing the work successfully. The chapter also consists of suitable justifications for using particular methodological tools along with the research ethics and limitations encountered by the researcher.

For carrying the research, the researcher, in this case, has used interpretivism philosophy, deductive approach and descriptive research strategy. This is because the use of interpretivism philosophy allowed the researcher to consider the views and opinions of different authors from different authors and support own judgments and arguments. The use of deductive approach allowed the researcher to refer to already existing works and describe the presence and justifying each phenomenon at the research. Secondary data collection technique and thematic data analysis have been used by the researcher to investigate the social, political and economic impact of summer London Olympics 2012 at London's East End.

Research onion is considered as a tool that provides an opportunity for the researcher to continue with the research in the appropriate direction. As commented by Saunders et al. (2009), the research onion consists of six layers namely the philosophies, approaches, designs, strategy, sampling techniques, data collection and data analysis techniques. Each of the layers of the research onion is further divided that has specific properties. Thus, the researchers proceed as the layer unfolds and takes into account the unique properties of the components of the layers for using it in completing the research successfully.

Pragmatism, interpretivism and positivism are the major elements of research philosophy. Positivism and interpretivism philosophies combine to form pragmatism research philosophy. As commented by Neuman (2013), the objective of positive philosophy is to use a scientific approach to validate and verify the collected data. On the other hand, interpretivism philosophy enables the researcher to consider the views and opinions of different individuals and support own findings.

Interpretivism research philosophy is the most appropriate research philosophy for this research. This is because the use of interpretivism philosophy allowed the researcher to consider the views and opinions of different individuals in terms of the social, economic and political impact of London Olympics 2012 at London's East End and support own findings. 

Inductive and deductive approaches are the main elements of the research approach. The objective of inductive approach is to develop new theories and concepts based on the observations made by the researcher while carrying out the research. On the other hand, the objective of deductive approach is to support the observations and findings with the existing theories and concepts (Taylor, Bogdan and DeVault 2015).

Deductive approach is the most appropriate research approach for this research. This is because the use of deductive approach allowed the researcher to support own findings in terms of the social, political and legal impact of London Olympics with previously existing concepts and theories of hosting mega-events.

The three main components of research designs include descriptive, explanatory and exploratory research design. Exploratory and explanatory research design combines to form the descriptive research design. The objective of explanatory research design is to investigate the occurrence of specific research phenomenon. On the other hand, the aim of exploratory research design is to test the research hypothesis and fulfill the aim and objectives (Mackey and Gass 2013).

  The descriptive design is the most appropriate research design for this research. This is because the use of descriptive design allowed the researcher to fulfill the research aim and objectives by investigating the social, economic and political impact of summer London Olympics 2012 at London's East End.

Action research strategy, survey, interview and case study research strategy are the main elements of the research strategy. The aim of the action research is to identify the issues in the existing research. Interview and survey research strategy allows the researcher to collect data from live participants on the research topic. Case study research strategy enables the researcher to analyze different reports and interpret the findings (Lewis 2015). 

Case study research strategy is the most appropriate research strategy for this research. The use of case study research strategy allowed the researcher to investigate and analyze different reports and findings in terms of the social, economic and political impact of summer London Olympic 2012 at London's East End.

The primary and secondary data collection techniques are the main elements of data collection technique. The aim of the primary data collection technique is to collect recent data from a particular population that is suitable for the research topic. On the other hand, secondary data collection technique highlights collecting relevant data and information from existing pieces of literature and support own findings (Silverman 2016).

The collected data can be analyzed by percentages, statistical analysis, averages, modes and median whose results are presented in bars, charts and graphs. However, themes can also be developed based on the research topic and then analyzed to complete the research successfully (Vaioleti 2016).

The researcher needs to ensure that the research ethics are followed in order to complete the work successfully. One of the most important ethics in research is data privacy and security. It is against the ethical consideration of the research to disclose the collected data without the consent. Confidentiality ensures high quality research work, as this mitigates the chance of data leakage. On the other hand, collecting relevant data and information from authentic resources is also an important ethics of carrying out a research. Data manipulation for completing the research successfully is also against the ethical considerations of carrying out the research. In addition to, using the data other than academic purpose is strictly prohibited by the researcher. 

The researcher encountered some limitations while carrying out the research that somewhat compromised the quality of the work. As the data was collected from secondary resources, one of the major limitations encountered by the researcher was availing the suitable internet resources. The researcher was unable to find the appropriate internet facilities that discussed the social, economic and political impact summer London Olympics 2012 at London's East End. In addition to, lack of adequate investigation was also an issue for the researcher, an in-depth investigation of the social, economic and political impact of London 2012 Olympics was lacking.

In this chapter, it can be concluded that the use of particular research methodologies has been the primary reason for completing the research work successfully. The use of the aforementioned research methodologies has provided an opportunity for the researcher to investigate the social, economic and political impact of summer London Olympics 2012 at London’s East End.

In this chapter, the researcher analyses the different themes that have been developed based on the research topic. This provides an opportunity for the researcher to distinctive themes by considering the research aim and objectives and evaluates the long term impact of hosting mega-events on the country or the nation.

The mega events are large-scale programs that are hosted over a period. The mega-events are organized for days with participants and visitors over the world. Social or cultural impacts of mega-events are crucial, as this provides an opportunity for the country or the nation to promote their cultures and heritages. Hosting mega-event provides an opportunity for the hosting nation or the country to gain global recognition. The ability to host mega-event is extremely respectful, as the host nation or the country is able to promote them by displaying their raised living and social status in the society (Bennett and Haggerty 2014). On the other hand, hosting of mega-events brings in huge economic provisions for the hosting nation of the country. As commented by Grix and Lee (2013), during the period of getting the city, surrounding environment and the venue ready, economic impact is hugely noticed. This is because this period gives rise to huge employment, as the city has to develop the existing infrastructure and build new ones for hosting the mega-event. However, as criticized by Taks (2013), the country hosting the mega-event has to bid and win the bid for organizing the event. This requires huge investment, as the country needs to stand out from the competitors for hosting the mega-event. Other than, economic and social impact, politics also affects the hosting of mega-events in the city. The political stability of the country or the nation hosting the mega-event is crucial, as this decides the eligibility of the country or the nation for hosting the mega-event. For instance, the existing corruption in the political system hampers the development and urbanization of the country thereby, affecting the hosting of mega-event.

Types of events

Important and unusual occurrences of programs are termed as events. Based on the level of organization and hosting of the program event can be categorized into small, medium and mega. This is solely based on the level of execution and hosting of the event. As commented by Van Den Broek, Bauer and Bourg (2013), small events take place for few hours with limited number of attendees. These are generally, family occasions that are hosted for celebrating particular events such as birthdays, success and anniversary. Small events are hosted within particular venue with less or minimal financial expenses. It has been seen that small events fails to leave any political, economic and social impact on the society. Thus, small events fail to have long-term impacts on the society, as it is a closely related affair. On the other hand, medium sized events are organized or hosted at medium scale. This includes celebrating festivals and national occasions that include specific population in the society (Van Den Broek, Bauer and Bourg 2013). The amount of financial resources required for hosting medium sized events are marginal. It can be hosted in both confined or open area by few hundreds of people. In the case of hosting medium sized events, the organizers have to take permission from the local authorities and host the event by considering the requirements of the localities.

However, as argued by Richards (2013), mega-events are large-scale programs that are hosted for more than one day. Mega-event is the greater version of the hallmark event that has political, social and economic impact on the hosting nation or the country. The mega-event have long-term impact on the society, as the government plays a key role in making the city selected to host mega-event. Mega-events promote the culture, heritage and uphold the economy of the country by giving rise to tourism and employment (Yu and Kim 2013).

Nations that have hosted Olympic over the years

Olympic is the most eminent sports mega-event that has been hosted around the world in order to promote sports globally. Over the years, Olympics have been hosted around the world that has helped the hosting nation or the country to mark their global presence. The list of cities that have hosted Olympics over the years include:

Los Angeles (1984): For hosting the Summer Olympics in 1984, Los Angeles was the sole bidder. As a result, the city was highly benefitted after hosting the Olympics and gained huge profit. Reports suggest that as Los Angeles was the sole bidder in 1984, the city refused to sign the contract in terms of (International Olympic Committee). Henceforth, Los Angeles served as the role model for the upcoming cities that hosted Olympics in the coming years (Wenn 2015).

Barcelona (1992): Barcelona bid over $10 million for hosting the Olympic Games in the summer of 1992 and it cost around $10.2 million to host the sports mega-event. After analyzing the economic impact on Barcelona from 1986-2004 of hosting Summer Olympics 1992, it can be said that hosting the mega event was a tremendous success for the city. This is because hosting the sports mega-event helped in urbanization of the city thereby, making the city more attractive. The city used their resources effectively that helped the city in efficient cost minimization. This highlighted well-planned investment by Barcelona thereby, making it as the role model based on their development of infrastructure. It has been seen that Olympics in Barcelona helped in minimizing rate of employment from 18.4% to 9.6% within the year 1986-1992. However, the rise of inflation prices was recorded between 1985 to 1990 by 235% (Faylor 2014). Barcelona undertook major infrastructure development project after this hosting of sport mega-event. Thus, it can be said that Summer Olympics for Barcelona acted as a catalyst for the nation for infrastructure and development.

Atlanta (1996): In 1996, Atlanta hosted the Olympics mega-event that increased the rate of employment of the country by 17% in countries such as Georgia. The random growth model suggested that Olympics had a positive impact on the employment of Atlanta. The city invested an estimated $2 billion to carry on and complete project related to hosting Olympics between 1990 to 1996. An estimated 580,000 new employments were created in Atlanta between 1991 and 1997. The Atlanta Convention and Visitors’ Bureau suggested that an estimated $5.1 billion economic impact of Olympics in Atlanta (Feddersen and Maennig 2013).

Beijing (2008): Beijing underwent rebranding effort in order to bid and host for Olympics 2008. Conflicts were visible between the core values and identities of the city and the government and the reality experienced by the visitors. This is because the public failed to accept the core values and identities. Thus, it can be said hosting of the Olympics failed to change the fundamental experience of the people living in the city. However, on the contrary, Beijing 2008 Olympics is one of most expensive mega-event with an estimated cost of over $40 billion, thereby, suggesting that the estimated cost was three times than the amount invested by Athens. On the other hand, people of Beijing associated with urban development, economic development and socio-psychological development were extremely satisfied with hosting the Olympics event. The fact that Beijing is one of country with most unequal economy, the residents also had mixed feelings in terms of higher prices and overcrowding (Gustafson 2013).

London (2012): The hosting of London Olympics in 2012 had a huge economic impact on the city compared to the hosting of the Olympics that has been hosted previously in London. The rate of local employment increased at London’s East End by 4% between 2009-2012 thereby, highlighting better economic impact (Prayag et al. 2013).

Impact of hosting mega-events in developed nations

The developed nations such as United Kingdom, United States of America, Russia, Germany and France are considered as considered as the developed nations in the world. The developed nations are already recognized globally as they are categorized as the first world countries. The social, economic and political scenarios of the developed countries are more stable compared to the developing countries. As commented by Mills and Rosentraub (2013), one of major advantages of hosting mega-events in developed countries is their highly developed infrastructure and urbanization. For instance, while bidding for hosting Olympic mega-event, the surrounding development plays a critical role. This is because the well developed surrounding and infrastructure of the country facilitates the hosting of the event. However, as argued by Grix and Houlihan (2014), economic stability is the major advantage for the developed countries. The government of the country can expend freely to improve the already developed surroundings. Due to economic stability, the government of the developed countries does not restrict their expenses for the required development thereby, hosting of the event successfully. However, on the contrary, hosting of mega-events on developed countries provides an opportunity for the people to enjoy a lifetime experience (Coakley and Souza 2013). As the citizens of the developed country have economic stability, they are able to enjoy the mega-event without any financial burden. In fact, the citizens of the developed nations contribute from their end for promoting the mega-event such as promoting the local sports and athletes. In addition to, hosting of mega-events such as Olympics provides an opportunity for the developed country to be selected as the venue or destination for mega-events several times thereby, gaining profit for the entire nation.

Stratford City Project

Stratford is one of important transport hub that needed development for summer London Olympics 2012. After being selected as the venue for hosting summer London Olympics 2012, regeneration of Stratford was considered as one of most exciting project undertaken in the UK. The Stratford city project was commenced with the ambition of developing the transport and the surrounding infrastructure. Stratford was granted for developing in February 2005 and played a significant role for UK being selected as the hosting nation for summer London Olympics 2012. This is because Stratford was both ideologically and geographically important in connecting the different venues for Olympics. In order to host summer London Olympics 2012, Stratford City project aimed towards developing a direct link from Kings Cross to St Pancras via Ebbsfleet and Stratford to the European continent such as Paris in 2 hours and Brussels in one hour fifty-five minutes (Intelligent Transport 2018).

 The Stratford city has a close relationship with the railway industry that required regeneration during the past decade as this holds a strong position in London’s transport infrastructure. It has been seen that the industrialization that happened in the 19th century failed to benefit Stratford completely. The 1844 metropolitan Building Act restricted the operations of many noxious and toxic industries in London and Middlesex. As a result, those were moved to the border to Stratford and West Ham thereby, polluting the area. According to the Stratford City development project, Channel Tunnel Rail Link (CRTL) was constructed that considered Stratford as the international station ad came to be known as Stratford Box. The initial phase of the project was completed within time and budget and is considered as the first major new railway project constructed in the UK is the past century. Upon completion of the project in 2007, Britain was connected to Europe and the 108-kilometer long high rail track that stretched from Central London to Channel Tunnel. As a result, Stratford city was only seven minutes away from Kings Cross and London during the summer London Olympics 2012. The rail service between the two stations carried athletes, spectators and media at every 15 seconds interval with a total capacity of 240,000 passengers every hour. The rail service between the two stations in Stratford was built with the concept of Japanese bullet train. The new high speed Channel Tunnel Rail operated up to speed 140 mph. Thus, £250 million was invested upon thirty trains and was ready for introduction by the end of 2009, that is, before summer London Olympics commenced in 2012 (Matters 2018).

The existing Stratford railway station was replaced by high level DLR station that was followed by existing low level platforms on the London Line in the Northern part. From January 2009, the rail services between Transport for London and North Line Services was transformed to high-level platform at Stratford. The North Line Service that was out of use at Stratford was aligned with Sothern line that ranged 5 kilometer. This new line at Stratford served as the main public transport between Olympic park’s Stratford international DLR station and adjoining stations. At Stratford, nearly £1 billion was invested during 2006-2011 for developing the underground projects thereby, developing the speediest connection between central London and other venues (Richter 2018).

Disadvantages of hosting Olympics for the hosting country or nation

Olympics are one of the important sports events in the world featuring sports and athletes from all over the world. The professionals’ athletes at an interval of four years compete with each other in different competitions. However, there are potential disadvantages of hosting the Olympics for the nations. As commented by Knott, Fyall and Jones (2015), hosting Olympics is a potential risk for the country as the hosting nation or country takes huge risk because they invest exceptionally without any back up plan. The huge amount of money is expended by the country in order to maintain cleanliness and adequate infrastructure for the stadium where games are hosted.

The above figure highlights the estimated cost of hosting Olympics for the nations. The figures suggest high expenses for the hosting nations that costed the nation’s chunk of the available financial resources. This is because the nations hosting Olympics are unsure whether they will be able to gain enough profit from the tourist influx and tourism. However, as argued by Li and Kaplanidou (2013), force eviction is another disadvantage for the nations hosting Olympics. Force eviction in the cities hosting Olympics has been noticed due to development and urbanization.  For example, in Brazil an estimated 1.5 million were evicted forcibly in order to make way for the athletes for the Olympics. Because of force eviction, the people had to move to faraway places from the friends, families, work, medical facilities and educational facilities. In addition to overcrowded cities, roads, hotels and increased price at the stores makes the daily life of the population difficult. The localities has also complained of losing their privacy when Olympics was hosted in their city. Increased fear of terrorism is another disadvantage of hosting Olympics. This is because human gatherings tend to attract more terrorism as they get the opportunity of getting mass eviction. Reports suggest killing of 11 Israeli in the Munich massacre during the 1972 Summer Olympics in Munich, West Germany (Li and McCabe 2013).

Transport up gradation for summer London Olympics 2012

Upgrading the transport system for summer London Olympics 2012 was the most challenging, as the transport system had to connect 34 venues, 26 sports, 10,500 athletes and 8.8 million spectators along with 22,000 media people. Ten venues for the summer London Olympics 2012 were at the outskirts of London and at the East End in Weymouth and Portland in Dorset, Rowing at Eton Dorney and Mountain Biking at Hadleigh in Essex. Millions of people lined the routes during the two national Torch Relays and during the road race events. The respond of the UK transport industry nd the local authorities to this unprecedented transport challenge was considered as one of the greatest achievements for summer London Olympics 2012. Public Body Transport in London played a significant role in securing the transport in Stanford, London. The Underground, Docklands Light railway along with heavy rails included the lines that are considered as a major improvement for the current infrastructure of the railway transport (Learninglegacy.independent.gov.uk 2018).

During summer London Olympics 2012, the railway worked efficiently with days at 4.5 million journeys. The figures are considered as way higher than the maximum loads ever recorded in London. London rail distributed more than 300,000 Oyster Card to both locals and and tourists for easy travelling. In addition to Transport for London provided extensive hours of service without any delay along with elaborate tube signage and volunteers that guided the travelers effectively.

The above image highlights the Olympic lanes and the parts of central ORN that were hardly popular. This is because the lanes were considered as undemocratic, as this granted special facilities and privileges to the VIP’s and the family members of the Olympic members. This led to congestion as they were adding to the travelling population of the normal London publics.

In addition to, Travel Demand management (TDM) was applied in order to substantially enhance the traffic conditions during the summer London Olympics 2012. Reports suggest that London promised to reduce the general traffic by 20-25% during the bid. The characteristics of Travel Demand Management (TDM) highlights increased business and school holidays, work from home facilities, avoiding travelling at the peak systems and prohibiting construction traffic, freight and delivery. In the case of summer London Olympics 2012, the implementation of Travel Demand Management worked exceptionally well, as this reduced the traffic by 30-32% (Railway Technology 2018).

In this chapter, it can be concluded that hosting of of mega-events imposes long-term impact social, economic and political impact on the hosting country or the nation. It can be said that hosting of mega-events provides an opportunity for the hosting nation or the country to gain global recognition thereby, increasing infrastructure development, tourism improvement and foreign investments. The above analysis highlighted that nations or the countries that have hosted Olympics over the years has encountered huge economic profit thereby, facilitating growth and development within the host city.

From the above findings, it can be concluded that mega-events does have long-term social, economic and political event on the hosting nation or the country. Thus, it can be said that summer London Olympics 2012 had long-term economic, social and political impact on London’s East End. The above information shows that London’s East End was a place with political, economic and social instability. Over crowdedness, political conflicts and aloof people of the society were the major problems. As a result, London’s East End was considered a troublesome place due to the above-mentioned conflicts. The above analysis suggests that after being selected as the venue of hosting summer London Olympics 2012, the economic, political and social scenario of the place developed drastically. In order to host the sports mega-event, London’s East End had to develop their surrounding environment and infrastructure to accommodate the increased influx of the tourists and the athletes. The data analysis suggests that the venue or the city hosting the mega-events undertake huge economic risk. They take up funds for the development and urbanization of the city in order to make the surrounding environment presentable for the people visiting the city. The city invests huge financial resources without any backup plan to compensate the loss that is incurred suddenly.

The above data analysis also suggests that long-term economic impact of hosting mega-events gives rise to employment for the localities. In order to ensure development and urbanization, the employment at London’s East End saw a rise. This was to complete the development and urbanization work at London’s East End before the event was hosted. In order to make the Olympic event successful, the government at London’s East End played a crucial role. This is because political involvement in the place made it easier to allocate and invest funds for the surrounding development and urbanization. In addition to, hosting of summer London Olympics 2012 increased the tourist influx in the place. Tourist increment helped London’s East End to gain global recognition due to increased media coverage. However, one of disadvantages of hosting summer London Olympics at London’s East End was force eviction that resulted force the inhabitants to move out of their places and live far away from friends, families, educational facilities and medical facilities.

Objective 1: To understand the long-term social, economical and political impacts of mega events

Objective 1 is linked with theme 1 and theme 2. According to the literature review, hosting of mega-events has long-term economic, political and social impact on the hosting nation or the country. The information gathered from the literature review highlights that investing chunks of financial resources without any back up plan impose potential threats in the long-term, as the hosting nation or the country have no back up plans for sustaining the loss that is incurred suddenly. However, on the positive note, hosting of mega-events gains global recognition due to extensive media coverage for the venue.

Objective 2: To investigate the social, economical and political impact of London Olympics on London’s east end

Objective 2 is linked with theme 7. According to the data analysis, it can be seen that London’s East End was comparatively less developed from the rest of the London. This is because of the existing political instability, over crowdedness and social conflicts. The place lacked adequate infrastructure and development that hampered social development. The data analysis highlights the hosting of summer Olympics at London’s East End allowed the place to develop appropriately thereby, having positive long-term impact on social, economic and political aspect.

Objective 3: To evaluate critically the long-term impact of London Olympics on London’s east end

Objective 3 is linked with theme 3, theme, 4 and theme 5. According to the literature review, it can be said that hosting mega-event leads to big cost and expenditure of capital for the host nation or country thereby, ensuring improved facility. For instance, the winter Olympic hosted in Sochi cost $51 billion to Russia whereas the Summer Olympic in Beijing, China cost around $40 billion. In China, the budget of hosting the Summer Olympic was 3 times higher due to the existing corruption. The past and present political scenario of the nation or the country determines and judges their suitability to be selected as the host of mega-events. For instance, the French politics have been successful in creating a reputation that helped them in being selected as the venue of hosting mega-events frequently.

Objective 4: To provide suitable recommendations for improving the long term impact of London Olympics on London’s east end

Objective 4 is linked with theme 6. According to the data analysis, it can be said that Olympics are one of the important sports events in the world featuring sports and athletes from all over the world. The professionals’ athletes at an interval of four years compete with each other in different competitions. However, there are potential disadvantages of hosting the Olympics for the nations. For example, in Brazil an estimated 1.5 million were evicted forcibly in order to make way for the athletes for the Olympics. Because of force eviction, the people had to move to faraway places from the friends, families, work, medical facilities and educational facilities. In addition to overcrowded cities, roads, hotels and increased price at the stores makes the daily life of the population difficult.

Based on the identified problems, the suitable recommendation includes:

  • Creating transparency within the system: While developing the economic, political and social scenario is necessary, creating a transparent system. This is because creating transparency will provides an opportunity for the people associated with the development work to keep track of the work. Having a transparent system helps in clear flow of work and progress thereby, completing the work

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