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Australia's Greenhouse Gas Emissions

Discuss about the Phenomenological and Qualitative Description Research.

Buildings in Australia contribute 23% of the country’s greenhouse gas emissions. This is according to the Chief Executive Officer of the Green Building Council of Australia. The council holds that the fastest way of ensuring a reduction in greenhouse gas emission is by enhancing the energy efficiency of buildings. This paper seeks to interrogate the causal factors for the slow uptake and recommend mechanisms that can be used to increase the same. The paper will seek the perspectives of industry players in the construction sector including contractors, engineers, property developers and investors to shed light on the inertia towards sustainable housing. The paper will also interrogate what the government of Australia has done to promote sustainable housing in the country and what it could still do to further the same.

In 2007 at United Nations Climate Change Conference, the then Prime Minister for Australia submitted that the 23% of greenhouse gas emissions are attributed to the building industry. Greenhouse gas emissions account for about 40% of the total energy consumption in Australia. According to Green Building Council report of 2007, poor indoor environmental quality in Australia costs the economy an estimated 12 billion US dollars every year. Australia’s net greenhouse gas emissions from all the sectors in the economy totaled to a sum of 559.1 Mt. of carbon dioxide in the year 2005 according to the National Green House Gas Inventory. Experts project that by 2010, the residential building industry in the country will yield between 56.7 and 58.1 Mt. of carbon dioxide. Experts also anticipate that the commercial building sector is headed to double its greenhouse gas emission levels to 63 Mt. of carbon dioxide. Commercial buildings in Australia are estimated to be responsible for about 8.8% of the national greenhouse gas emissions.

More than half of Australia’s greenhouse gas emissions are attributable to the use of electrical appliances by persons considered as outsiders to the sector majorly residents (Shearer et al. 2016 p. 818.). Water heaters accounts for nearly one quarter, space heating and cooling contribute an estimated 15% (from natural gas sources and wood). As for the commercial building sector, an overwhelming 89% of greenhouse gas emissions are attributed to electricity. A look at specific energy utilization; cooling yields 28%,  air handling brings forth 22% of greenhouse gases while lighting and heating takes 21% and 13% respectively. Going by building type hospital and office buildings altogether yields about 40% of the total greenhouse emitted by the commercial sector.

Significance of the Study

This section provides the reader with information on how the study will benefit them. It also identifies who will benefit from the outcomes of the study. The significance of a research paper outlines how the research results will contribute to the improvement of certain aspects of life. It answers to the question: why should the study be conducted? Is it worth the researcher’s time? This section of the research paper provides justification for carrying out the research. It is also called Justification of the Study.

Greenhouse gases remain one of the largest contributors to global warming and climate change. Buildings contribute a significant share to the global greenhouse gas emissions 40%. Buildings also account for about 30% of the total energy consumption according to the United Nations Environmental Program. These figures support the proposition that the development of energy efficient and sustainable buildings will greatly reduce the amount of green-house gas emissions. This study will add its voice to the list of authorities who have already spoken and written about the need for strategies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions as a way of combating climate change. As such this study will contribute information that is critical to understanding the issues around climate change and global warming and in addition make recommendations to how remedies to the current global warming situation.

The researcher observes with concern that there is not sufficient academic research that has been done on the role that energy efficient and sustainable building methods could have in reducing the amount of greenhouse gas emissions. The research therefore responds to the need for more scholarly work on the necessity of adopting green building technologies and this paper is responding to that need. In the same vein the research seeks to fill the gap in scholarly work targeting green building technologies (GBT). Green building technologies are defined as the practice of building structures by employing methods that are environmentally friendly and efficient on resources throughout the life span of the building (Ding 2013 p. 242). It follows that construction of buildings according to the green building technology would significantly cut on the consumption of energy, minimize negative impacts on the environment and optimize resource utilization. This is what is lacking in Australia’s building sector and the paper hopes to bring this up as a pertinent issue.

The outcomes of this research will inform state and national authorities of Australia in coming up with policies on the promotion of sustainable buildings. These are very necessary if the current data available on greenhouse gas emissions according to the National Greenhouse Gas Inventory and the Green Building Council of Australia. Such policies are critical in creating a framework for regulating industry players in order to ensure compliance with green building requirements.

Green Building Technologies and Australia's Building Sector

The results of this research will contribute to the legislative process regarding the building sector. It will aid the legislative arm of government on drafting legislations to regulate the sector of building and construction. The researcher also intends to publish the outcomes of the study in order to contribute to the existing pool of knowledge on energy efficient sustainable housing in Australia and the world. Such legislations will then become the basis for policy formulation by statutory bodies charged with regulating the building and construction industry.

In 2003 the government of Australia through the Department of Environment and Heritage undertook a survey to unpick and assess the degree of environmental impacts arising from the building fabric. The study employed the life cycle analysis to predict the options for cutting on the impacts of these materials to the environment. Additionally the research looked into ways and means of enhancing sustainability of building materials in the supply chain of construction in order to address environmental concerns. The study sought to know whether it was necessary to include sustainability requirements into the Building Code of Australia. In the year that followed the Australian Building Code Board took up some of the recommendations of the study and placed them alongside the already existing ones (safety, health and amenity). The outcomes of the study showed that the residential sector yielded the highest amount.

Sustainable housing obtains its magnitude from two distinct traditions. First is the notion of a green or natural house. This kind of house is considered to be healthy because it minimizes the use of manufactured products most of which are associated with side effects pollution and leakages. This approach also advocates for a reversion to the indigenous structural designs and the use of traditional building materials which would have less intrusive impacts on the local ecosystem (Yates 2013 p. 123). In line with this first concern of natural houses is the need for energy efficiency. This is coupled with the drifting attention towards architectural designs that favor less use of extra energy for cooling or heating and employs more use of solar energy. The objective of sustainable housing has been to developing homes whose effects to the environment is significantly because they are constructed using materials that are renewable and environmentally friend.

In New Zealand attempts have been made to use kiln timber (untreated, but usually treated by removal of Boron salts). This has however had undesirable consequences because there has been the problem of leaching of the chemicals into the ground which ends up in groundwater (Moore & Morrissey 2014 p. 8). This has also had the effect of increasing the rate of rotting of the timber apart from the health impacts on the lives of the occupants. The argument is that houses that are environmentally friendly have the effect of making living affordable in the long term because they reduce the costs of energy to be used in maintaining the building. Note that energy costs such as cooling and heating of spaces have been identified as some of the factors that drive the energy consumption (Wood et al. 2012 p. 461).  

Outcomes and Policy Implications

Research conducted about maintenance in New Zealand depicts a decline in the culture of maintenance. Most of the maintenance works carried out on most building falls within the category of cosmetic maintenance (Wood et al. 2012 p. 461). These are refurbishments that are with the sole objective of increasing the market value of the property. Issues of environmental concerns, energy efficiency and health risks have been pushed to the back. It will require greater commitment to energy efficiency standards and new approaches to regulatory guidelines in order to remedy the issues that are arising in the building sector in Australia.

However, the private market of property development has not been keen on sustainable housing. Public housing providers have not shown interest in energy efficient housing either. Arguably they are motivated not to go this direction by the marginal costs of construction and the concern for affordability (Ramirez-Lovering & Murray 2011 p. 58).

In countries such as Australia where a majority of citizens own property, homes have shelter value and exchange value. Housing is usually exploited as an avenue for upward movement in the property stock as well as capital gain through sale of houses. These factors drive industry players in favor of undertaking short term maintenance (with a goal to enhance appearance and style for marketing purposes), rather than refurbishments targeting long term durability. Public authorities that seek to provide cheap housing for low income families can build sustainable houses.

The aims and objectives of the study dictate the depth, breadth, length and scope of the research. They define the direction to be taken by the research.

This refers to the overall purpose sought to be achieved by the study. It is usually supposed to concise and brief to the point. The aim broadly states the desired or anticipated results of the study to be carried out. It outlines what is to be achieved by the research. This study will focus on three aims;

  1. The study focuses on an evaluation of the factors that have contributed to the slow uptake of sustainable, energy efficient buildings in Australia despite the impressive figures seen indicating an increase in the demand for sustainable building.
  2. What role has the national government, legislature and state authorities of Australia played in the building industry with regards to sustainable housing?
  3. What factors are responsible for the inertia among industry players in the building sector towards embracing energy efficient, sustainable construction methods?

The research objectives dissect the research aims into a few parts and handle each portion of the aim in isolation. The objectives of this research are;

  1. To assess the current situation in the building sector with regards to energy efficient sustainable housing. What is the level of compliance?
  2. To understand the perspectives of commercial property developers on sustainable buildings.
  3. To understand the take of residential property developers on energy efficient sustainable housing.
  4. To evaluate the role of statutory bodies and third party regulatory bodies on the promotion of sustainable buildings in Australia.
  5. To evaluate the role of the national and state governments in Australia in the promotion of energy-efficient and sustainable housing. What measures could the government initiate in order to enhance the uptake of green housing in Australia?


Research methods can be categorized into 2 broad groups; qualitative and quantitative methods. A quantitative study is one that makes descriptions and inferences and seeks to provide solutions to the research problem by drawing from numbers or figures (Willis et al. 2016 p. 1190). It puts emphasis on numerical data obtained in the study, the analysis of which becomes the basis for providing solutions to the research questions. It is used to quantify opinions, perspectives and reasons for observed phenomena. Many times, quantitative research follows after a qualitative study which identifies the perspectives, reasons and opinions.

Government Efforts and Recommendations

Qualitative method of research is dependent mostly on aspects that are not numerical in nature and are in most instances not quantifiable. It relies on information that is qualitative in nature and cannot be measured using empirical methods (Willis et al. p. 1190). Qualitative studies basically adopt an exploratory approach. They focus on pinpointing reasons, perspectives and motivations behind certain phenomena in life. Qualitative studies lay the foundation for a possible quantitative study in the future.

This research will employ the use of both qualitative and quantitative methods. Given that the research is largely descriptive in nature the qualitative approach is the most suitable. However, in the analysis of data obtained by way of focus groups and in depth interviews, limited use of SPSS (Statistical Packages for Social Sciences) may be employed. Descriptive research may make use of qualitative of methods since it does not handle numerical data (Rutberg & Bouikidis 2018 p. 211).

There is a number of data collection methods that can be applied in the course of qualitative research. Generally, they are a combination of structures and semi structured methods. They include the following as identified in (Shrivastava et al. 2018 p. 88). They include;

  1. Content analysis- An evaluation of results from other qualitative studies.
  2. Participant Observation-In this method the researcher spends time in the study area and observes for themselves firsthand while collecting information about the research.
  3. Focus Groups-selected groups are chosen to be interviewed.
  4. In depth interviews-the researcher conducts detailed interviews with persons considered as having the relevant information.
  5. Case Studies-researcher selects an organization, institution or community in conducting the study.

This research will make use of two methods of qualitative data collection. The first will be the use of in-depth interviews. The researcher will interview persons representing industry players to get insights on the circumstances contributing to the slow uptake of the energy efficient sustainable housing in Australia. Additionally, the study will use content analysis. This is a thorough review of the literature that already exists in the field of study. The researcher will investigate what other scholars have written and one about the state of energy efficient and sustainable housing in Australia. The outcomes of this content analysis will also guide the researcher in coming up with the conclusions on the study.   

The selected persons to be interviewed should be from following bodies/sectors

  1. Private Sector developer
  2. Green Building Council of Australia
  3. State Department of Environment and Heritage
  4. Australian Building Code Board

SPSS (Statistical Packages for Social Sciences) software for data analysis will be used for this study to analyze and interpret the quantitative data obtained from the above 2 methods of data collection i.e. interviews and focus groups. SPSS will analyze the descriptive statistics such as frequencies as well as predictions in the identification of focus groups. Since the methods of data collection will be largely qualitative (with necessary inclusions of the qualitative methods as already noted), it follows that the nature of data obtained will to a large extent be qualitative; in the form of interview transcripts, text documents, recordings (both audio and video) and notes. The following are some of the methods that will be applied by the researcher in analyzing the data apart from SPSS (already discussed above);

  1. Narrative Analysis-the researcher will reconstruct the statements from respondents considering the circumstances of each case and the context of each respondent. It is a reorganization of the raw data by the researcher.
  2. Discourse Analysis-This method of data analysis involves the evaluation of existing written texts on similar research such as peer reviewed articles and journals.

Sustainable Housing: Green and Natural Homes

Conclusion

Based on the literature review conducted and the study methods to be used, the study anticipates a variety of issues to come up in the course of the research. They include but are not limited to costs, insufficient public knowledge, fragmented construction process, age of the housing stock and administrative barriers. Assuming that high cost of construction is the reason causing developers to shy from construction of sustainable houses, the study suggests that more research will be required to device more cost-efficient methods of sustainable building. Administrative barriers such as complex bottlenecks and certification processes can be removed through inactive engagement between all the industry players and the state agencies. The research suggests that fragmentations in the construction process can be addressed by offering formal training for staff in existing construction on sustainable building to enhance their capacity so that their respective firms do not have to outsource expertise on sustainable building.  Age of housing stock could also emerge as one of the reasons for the slow uptake of sustainable housing. In such a case the study proposes that the local authorities could embark on a program of phasing out old buildings to be replaced by sustainable housing only. The researcher expects that the outcomes of this qualitative research will be the basis for future quantitative studies in the sustainable housing sector.

Buildings in Australia contribute 23% of the country’s greenhouse gas emissions. This is according to the Chief Executive Officer of the Green Building Council of Australia. The council holds that the fastest way of ensuring a reduction in greenhouse gas emission is by enhancing the energy efficiency of buildings. This paper seeks to interrogate the causal factors for the slow uptake and recommend mechanisms that can be used to increase the same. The paper will seek the perspectives of industry players in the construction sector including contractors, engineers, property developers and investors to shed light on the inertia towards sustainable housing. The paper will also interrogate what the government of Australia has done to promote sustainable housing in the country and what it could still do to further the same.

More than half of Australia’s greenhouse gas emissions are attributable to the use of electrical appliances by persons considered as outsiders to the sector majorly residents. Water heaters accounts for nearly one quarter, space heating and cooling contribute an estimated 15% (from natural gas sources and wood). As for the commercial building sector, an overwhelming 89% of greenhouse gas emissions are attributed to electricity. A look at specific energy utilization; cooling yields 28%,  air handling brings forth 22% of greenhouse gases while lighting and heating takes 21% and 13% respectively. Going by building type hospital and office buildings altogether yields about 40% of the total greenhouse emitted by the commercial sector.

Kiln Timber in New Zealand

The researcher observes with concern that there is not sufficient academic research that has been done on the role that energy efficient and sustainable building methods could have in reducing the amount of greenhouse gas emissions. The research therefore responds to the need for more scholarly work on the necessity of adopting green building technologies and this paper is responding to that need. In the same vein, the research seeks to fill the gap in scholarly work targeting green building technologies (GBT). Green building technologies are defined as the practice of building structures by employing methods that are environmentally friendly and efficient on resources throughout the life span of the building. It follows that construction of buildings according to the green building technology would significantly cut on the consumption of energy, minimize negative impacts on the environment and optimize resource utilization. This is what is lacking in Australia’s building sector and the paper hopes to bring this up as a pertinent issue.

  1. The study focuses on an evaluation of the factors that have contributed to the slow uptake of sustainable, energy efficient buildings in Australia despite the impressive figures seen indicating an increase in the demand for sustainable building.
  2. What role has the national government, legislature and state authorities of Australia played in the building industry with regards to sustainable housing?
  3. What factors are responsible for the inertia among industry players in the building sector towards embracing energy efficient, sustainable construction methods?

The research objectives dissect the research aims into a few parts and handle each portion of the aim in isolation. The objectives of this research are;

  1. To assess the current situation in the building sector with regards to energy efficient sustainable housing. What is the level of compliance?
  2. To understand the perspectives of commercial property developers on sustainable buildings.
  3. To understand the take of residential property developers on energy efficient sustainable housing.
  4. To evaluate the role of statutory bodies and third party regulatory bodies on the promotion of sustainable buildings in Australia.
  5. To evaluate the role of the national and state governments in Australia in the promotion of energy-efficient and sustainable housing. What measures could the government initiate in order to enhance the uptake of green housing in Australia?

Greenhouse gases remain one of the largest contributors to global warming and climate change. Buildings contribute a significant share to the global greenhouse gas emissions 40%. Buildings also account for about 30% of the total energy consumption according to the United Nations Environmental Program. These figures support the proposition that the development of energy efficient and sustainable buildings will greatly reduce the amount of green-house gas emissions. This study will add its voice to the list of authorities who have already spoken and written about the need for strategies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions as a way of combating climate change. As such this study will contribute information that is critical to understanding the issues around climate change and global warming and in addition make recommendations to how remedies to the current global warming situation.

This research will employ the use of both qualitative and quantitative methods. Given that the research is largely descriptive in nature the qualitative approach is the most suitable. However, in the analysis of data obtained by way of focus groups and in depth interviews, limited use of SPSS (Statistical Packages for Social Sciences) may be employed. Descriptive research may make use of qualitative of methods since it does not handle numerical data.

  1. Content analysis- An evaluation of results from other qualitative studies.
  2. Participant Observation-In this method the researcher spends time in the study area and observes for themselves firsthand while collecting information about the research.
  3. Focus Groups-selected groups are chosen to be interviewed.
  4. In depth interviews-the researcher conducts detailed interviews with persons considered as having the relevant information.
  5. Case Studies-researcher selects an organization, institution or community in conducting the study.

This research will make use of two methods of qualitative data collection. The first will be the use of in-depth interviews. The researcher will interview persons representing industry players to get insights on the circumstances contributing to the slow uptake of the energy efficient sustainable housing in Australia. Additionally, the study will use content analysis. This is a thorough review of the literature that already exists in the field of study. The researcher will investigate what other scholars have written and one about the state of energy efficient and sustainable housing in Australia. The outcomes of this content analysis will also guide the researcher in coming up with the conclusions on the study.  

The selected persons to be interviewed should be from following bodies/sectors

  1. Private Sector developer
  2. Green Building Council of Australia
  3. State Department of Environment and Heritage
  4. Australian Building Code Board

SPSS (Statistical Packages for Social Sciences) software for data analysis will be used for this study to analyze and interpret the quantitative data obtained from the above 2 methods of data collection i.e. interviews and focus groups. SPSS will analyze the descriptive statistics such as frequencies as well as predictions in the identification of focus groups.


The researcher observes with concern that there is not sufficient academic research that has been done on the role that energy efficient and sustainable building methods could have in reducing the amount of greenhouse gas emissions. The research therefore responds to the need for more scholarly work on the necessity of adopting green building technologies and this paper is responding to that need. In the same vein the research seeks to fill the gap in scholarly work targeting green building technologies (GBT). Green building technologies are defined as the practice of building structures by employing methods that are environmentally friendly and efficient on resources throughout the life span of the building. It follows that construction of buildings according to the green building technology would significantly cut on the consumption of energy, minimize negative impacts on the environment and optimize resource utilization. This is what is lacking in Australia’s building sector and the paper hopes to bring this up as a pertinent issue.

Based on the literature review conducted and the study methods to be used, the study anticipates a variety of issues to come up in the course of the research. They include but are not limited to costs, insufficient public knowledge, fragmented construction process, age of the housing stock and administrative barriers. Assuming that high cost of construction is the reason causing developers to shy from construction of sustainable houses, the study suggests that more research will be required to device more cost-efficient methods of sustainable building. Administrative barriers such as complex bottlenecks and certification processes can be removed through inactive engagement between all the industry players and the state agencies.

List of References

Chan, AC, Darko, A, Olanipekun, AO, & Ameyaw, EE 2018, 'Critical barriers to green building technologies adoption in developing countries: The case of Ghana', Journal of Cleaner Production, vol. 172, pp. 1067-1079. Available from: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2017.10.235. [17 May 2018].

Ding, GC 2013, 'Strategies For Sustainable Housing Development - The Challenges From Renewable Energy', International Journal for Housing Science & Its Applications, vol. 37, no. 4, pp. 239-248.

Fei, Z, Su, L, & Na, L 2017, 'Study on the Green Building Design Method Based on System Ecology', Revista de la Facultad de Ingenieria, vol. 32, no. 16, pp. 518-525.

Khoshbakht, M, Gou, Z, Lu, Y, Xie, X, & Zhang, J 2018, 'Are green buildings more satisfactory? A review of global evidence', Habitat International, vol. 74, pp. 57-65. Available from: 10.1016/j.habitatint.2018.02.005. [17 May 2018].

McIntosh, J, & Guthrie, C 2010, 'Structural Insulated Panels: A Sustainable Option For House Construction In New Zealand', International Journal for Housing Science & Its Applications, vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 1-13.

Moore, T, & Morrissey, J 2014, 'Lifecycle costing sensitivities for zero energy housing in Melbourne, Australia', Energy & Buildings, vol. 79, pp. 1-11. Available from: 10.1016/j.enbuild.2014.04.050. [17 May 2018].

Moore, T, Strengers, Y, & Maller, C 2016, 'Utilising Mixed Methods Research to Inform Low-carbon Social Housing Performance Policy', Urban Policy & Research, vol. 34, no. 3, pp. 240-255. Available from: 10.1080/08111146.2015.1077805. [17 May 2018].

Ramirez-Lovering, D, & Murray, S 2011, 'DASH -- Designing Affordable Sustainable Housing', Architecture Australia, vol. 100, no. 3, pp. 57-59.

Reid, LA, & Houston, D 2013, 'Low Carbon Housing: A ‘Green’ Wolf in Sheep's Clothing?', Housing Studies, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 1-9. Available from: 10.1080/02673037.2013.729263. [17 May 2018]

Rutberg, S, & Bouikidis, CD 2018, 'Exploring the Evidence. Focusing on the Fundamentals: A Simplistic Differentiation Between Qualitative and Quantitative Research', Nephrology Nursing Journal, vol. 45, no. 2, pp. 209-213.

Sharma, M 2018, 'Development of a ‘Green building sustainability model’ for Green buildings in India', Journal of Cleaner Production, vol. 190, pp. 538-551. Available from: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2018.04.154. [17 May 2018].

Shearer, H, Coiacetto, E, Dodson, J, & Taygfeld, P 2016, 'How the structure of the Australian housing development industry influences climate change adaptation', Housing Studies, vol. 31, no. 7, pp. 809-828. Available from: 10.1080/02673037.2016.1150430. [17 May 2018]

Shrivastava, M, Shah, N, & Navaid, S 2018, 'Assessment of change in knowledge about research methods among delegates attending research methodology workshop', Perspectives in Clinical Research, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 83-90. Available from: 10.4103/picr.PICR_41_17. [17 May 2018].

Thalis, P, & Harding, L 2014, 'Urban housing: making the city', Architecture Australia, vol. 103, no. 3, pp. 11-14.

Thompson, N, & Jay, Y 2015, 'Developing Affordable and Sustainable Housing through Energy, Transport, and Building Utility Integration', Journal of Urban Planning & Development, vol. 141, no. 4, pp. 4014037-1-4014037-11. Available from: 10.1061/(ASCE)UP.1943-5444.0000244. [17 May 2018].

Willis, DG, Sullivan-Bolyai, S, Knafl, K, & Cohen, MZ 2016, 'Distinguishing Features and Similarities Between Descriptive Phenomenological and Qualitative Description Research', Western Journal of Nursing Research, vol. 38, no. 9, pp. 1185-1204. Available from: 10.1177/0193945916645499. [17 May 2018].

Wood, G, Ong, R, & Mcmurray, C 2012, 'Housing Tenure, Energy Consumption and the Split-Incentive Issue in Australia', International Journal of Housing Policy, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 439-469. Available from: 10.1080/14616718.2012.730218. [17 May 2018].

Yates, J 2013, 'Evaluating social and affordable housing reform in Australia: lessons to be learned from history', International Journal of Housing Policy, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 111-133. Available from: 10.1080/14616718.2013.785717. [17 May 2018].

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