Community Policing and Private Businesses
Discuss about the Policing, Justice and Society for Private Businesses.
Community policing may be defined as a policy, which ensures that the police is working closely with the members of the community (Short 2016). Community policing is a kind of policy that requires the police to follow a positive approach for addressing the issues related to public safety. Community policing builds ties between the law enforcement agency and other organizations such as non-profit organizations, government agencies, media and private businesses. The modern community policing movement focuses on the changes brought about in the role played by law enforcement from being reactive, bureaucratic to the becoming of an open, dynamic agency that works closely with the members of the community (Drew and Prenzler 2015).
The term ‘disadvantaged’ is used for individuals or group of persons who are either physically or mentally disabled; or financially unstable or lack political support and other means of influence (Short 2016). In other words, the disadvantaged group refers to the group of people who have restricted access to the natural resources and financial opportunities. In Australia, the aboriginals are usually deemed as the indigenous group or the ‘disadvantaged group’.
The police officers are obligated to extend protection to every citizens of the country irrespective of sex, age, gender, religion and race. They are responsible for safeguarding every citizen from any offence and crime and ensure safety of the citizens (Murphy and Tyler 2017). In regards to the aboriginal or the Indigenous group, the police officers must pay more attention as the indigenous group are already the disadvantaged group who has limited access to the natural resources and become subject to social exclusion due to their disabilities and lack of political and financial support. The only remedy to improve the relationship is the promotion of programs or events that mainly focus on the helpful role played by the police in association with the cultural awareness programs may prove to be advantageous for both the parties (Kiedrowski 2013).
Some of the examples of community policing include the problem solving and prevention strategies; partnerships; Community participation; analysis, evaluation and measurement and organizational development and change. In Australia, the historical relationship between the aboriginals and the police has largely been negative and has a substantial impact on the present relationship between the indigenous group and the law enforcement agency. In the past, there had been several reports relating to the racism and harassment conducted by the police officers against the indigenous group (White 2015).
Challenges faced by Indigenous Groups in Australia
Over the past years, there have been several reports of incidents relating to the relationship between the police and the Aboriginal people. On one hand, several witnesses testified that the police have been behaving inappropriately with the community members whereas some non-aboriginals and police officers stated that the police officers were merely responding to the criminal behavior (White 2015). The South Sydney Youth services stated that due to the negative nature of the relationship existing between the two, the indigenous group only perceives the punitive side of the police activity and the police only perceives the criminal aspect of the community (Bartkowiak-Théron and Asquith 2017).
Nevertheless, in the recent years, there have been improvements in the relationship between the local indigenous group and the police. Several witnesses have stated that the police have made several initiatives in addressing the issues complained about by the community members (Kiedrowski 2013). The NSW police have implemented wide range of organizational strategies over recent years with a view to improve the relationship between the police and the indigenous group of people (White 2015). The NSW Police was advised to recruit 138 sworn Aboriginal officers approximately with an aim to increase awareness about the issues faced by the Indigenous people and enhance the recruitment of Indigenous women permanently.
Given the history of tension between the indigenous group and the police, the police officers shall be provided with trainings and the students shall be required to attend lectures to learn about the issues faced by the aboriginals. The NSW Police Force believes that as per the role played by the Police force, they must endow the indigenous people with employment opportunities (Short 2016).
There are other intervention programs introduced by the NSW police force include interventions addressing the issues related to domestic violence, alcohol abuse, truancy that is faced by the indigenous group. The NSW Police Force strives to provide safety to the citizens of the state and expects respect in return from the community to which it extends protection. In order to achieve this objective, the NSW police makes sure that the employees of the Force demonstrates respect for the diversity of the community and that the policing procedure and practices comply with the culture prevalent within the community.
The NSW Police Force has developed a specialist program namely, the Indigenous Police Recruitment Our Way Delivery (IPROWD) that purports to provide assistance to the indigenous group in acquiring education, developing skills and build up self-confidence to succeed in making a career with the NSW Police Force (Kiedrowski 2013). Furthermore, NSW has introduced PCYC or Police Citizens Youth Club, that is an organization which encourages young people to work with police and community with a view to achieve their and explore their potential capabilities.
Initiatives taken by NSW Police Force
The role played by the liaison officer is to fill the gaps existing between the two groups whose past relations demonstrates distrust and imbalances. The ALCO program was initiated with a view to provide assistance to the police in resolving and addressing issues affecting the indigenous or the aboriginals by maintaining a good rapport between the indigenous group and the police (Theodore 2015). The aboriginal community liaison officer (ACLO) occupying a place between the indigenous and the police force faces several challenges as while exercising his duties, he is deemed the agent of the other by both the groups, which results in rejection by both the groups. However, ultimately, how the police force would perceive ACLO and how they would like to work with them depends largely upon the circumstances in which the ACLO is exercising his duties.
Furthermore, since most of the prisons in Australia have the indigenous group of people as the inmates, despite the fact that the aboriginals include two percent of the country’s population. The NSW Police Force is of the opinion that one of the most effective remedy to prevent the indigenous group from landing in jail is recidivism, which refers to a situation where the individual reoffends and lands up in jail (Theodore 2015). The PCYC program initiated in Sydney is dealing with the problem by teaching the jail inmates job skills and boxing on prior release of the inmates (Bowen and Neill 2016).
From the above discussion, it can be inferred that while the community policing has gained success irrespective of the least degree to which the community have been implementing such community policing, it may not enable the communities to take part in the policing activities. With respect to the high level of contact between the law enforcement agency and the indigenous groups in Australia, they are working in partnership with various governmental agencies and other community groups with a view to operate the policing activities in the own group. The community policing initiatives include the early street level interventions which prevents the youth from committing crimes and land up in jail; it also includes various interventions to address the issues and difficulties faced by the indigenous group of people including domestic violence, alcohol abuse, truancy and homelessness, etc.
Thus, there are no universally defined criteria to determine good policing practice. Nevertheless, there are certain common 0structures that can be use to determine whether policing practice is effective or not is that the police officers must set their own goals to reduce crimes and ensure safety of every citizen of the country. Once the goal is decided, they must ensure community participation in order to achieve the goals. With the implementation of the IPROWD program, it aims at enhancing greater employment within the indigenous community.
As the program was initiated to assist the indigenous group in developing their career in the NSW Police Force by assisting them to acquire education and other skills knowledge. The greater employment opportunity would enhance the income, residential stability and easy access to health care services. The officers as well as the entire community must feel that the goals set represent what they want to achieve, as this would enable the officers to undertake proactive approach in resolving he issues related to the public safety.
Bartkowiak-Théron, I. and Asquith, N.L., 2017. Conceptual divides and practice synergies in law enforcement and public health: Some lessons from policing vulnerability in Australia. Policing and Society, 27(3), pp.276-288.
Bowen, D.J. and Neill, J.T., 2016. Effects of the PCYC Catalyst outdoor adventure intervention program on youths' life skills, mental health, and delinquent behaviour. International Journal of Adolescence and Youth, 21(1), pp.34-55.
Drew, J. and Prenzler, T., 2015. Contemporary police practice.
Haber, P.S. and Day, C.A., 2014. Overview of substance use and treatment from Australia. Substance abuse, 35(3), pp.304-308.
Katzenellenbogen, J.M., Miller, L.J., Somerford, P., McEvoy, S. and Bessarab, D., 2015. Strategic information for hospital service planning: a linked data study to inform an urban Aboriginal Health Liaison Officer program in Western Australia. Australian Health Review, 39(4), pp.429-436.
Kiedrowski, J., 2013. Trends in indigenous policing models: An international comparison. Ottawa, ON: Public Safety Canada.
Murphy, K. and Tyler, T.R., 2017. Experimenting with procedural justice policing. Journal of Experimental Criminology, pp.1-6.
Short, D., 2016. Reconciliation and colonial power: Indigenous rights in Australia. Routledge.
Theodore, W., 2015. Native to the Nation: Disciplining Landscapes and Bodies in Australia.
White, R., 2015. Indigenous young people and hyperincarceration in Australia. Youth Justice, 15(3), pp.256-270.
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