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Understanding Hallucinations and Nursing Intervention

Hallucinations could be demarcated as the "perception of a nonexistent object or event" and "sensory involvements which are significantly not triggered by stimulation of the pertinent sensory organs” (Corlett et al., 2019). In simple word, hallucinations as a concept tends to include hearing, smelling, seeing, feeling, , and also savoring aspects that are not for actual. Apart from that, auditory hallucinations could be identified as the condition when individual hear voices or other resonances which significantly do not have any physical source. Also this are also the most common type (David, 2019). As stated by Telles-Correia, Moreira & Gonçalves, (2015), hallucinations are most of the times connected with schizophrenia which is a mental illness categorized by disordered thoughts and behaviors. Llorca et al., (2016) has claimed that hallucination do have the ability and it does have a significant impact in the consumer’s quality of life.

The main aim of this essay is to talk about a culturally safe nursing intervention for a consumer with a psychotic illness and the ways in which it will help in the greater good. Post that the essay will talk about an evidence-based psychoeducation strategy that can be implemented while working with an individual who have depressive illness. Therefore, the paper has been divided into two specific area of discussion which will enable the readers with a holistic understanding of the relevant concept.

There are several studies which have specifically stated that nursing intervention for a consumer with hallucination could be identified as a significantly complex procedure in most of the cases (McGarry & Kent, 2016).  The primary reason behind the interventions being significantly tough is based on the fact that it tends to require collection of data from numerous sources. It is evident that with the presence of hallucination, the consumers are hardly able to give dependable information to the health practitioner. Therefore, it gets significantly important to approach the family members and get hold of clinical records in order to understand the exact issues and according plan an intervention plan. According to Sexton et al., (2018), every frontline healthcare partitioner should be culturally aware in order to provide the best possible care to the patients. As a matter of fact, there are numerous reasons behind the claim that every frontline healthcare practitioner should be culturally competent.

Frankel et al., (2018) states that, cultural competence enables all the frontline healthcare practitioners to comprehend, connect, and interact with individuals effectively. More precisely, the concept of culturally competency tends to centers around: Comprehending the association between nurses and patients (Lor, Crooks & Tluczek, 2016). Attaining information related to that of the various cultural practices and different views of the world. Therefore, it is an undeniable fact that each and every frontline healthcare practitioner should be culturally competent, and it has been identified that this competency will help them to provide the optimum healthcare to the patients under all the circumstances. Also, it needs to be stated that the frontline healthcare practitioners must display a significant insolence of acceptance in order to benefit the consumers to share the understanding of hallucination. Moreover, the term “hallucination” should never be constantly forced with the word, rather the word “voices” could be implemented as this might indicate validation.

Importance of Cultural Competence in Nursing

Consumers with psychotic illness needs to be treated with utmost care and the condition needs to be handled in a delicate way. To begin with, it gets significantly important to establish a therapeutic relationship. As stated by Pinho, Pereira & Chaves (2017), the concept of therapeutic relationship could be identified as being a collaboration between two individuals. For this particular disorder, the nurse-patient, in connection with that of the association amongst both contributes to a restorative climate. This particular aspect tends to promote growth and also helps in prevention of the disease. Several obstacles could be identified in relevance to this kind of intervention for the individuals going through hallucinations. The major drawback is that the consumers hallucinating face difficulty expressing their symptoms and they are fearful for confronting the need to change (Berry & Bucci, 2016). Thus, the importance of frontline practitioners to be culturally aware is very much important.

For a frontline practitioner, in order to create a therapeutic relationship in connection to the nurse and the individual with hallucination, implementation of the Peplau’s theory of interpersonal relations established in 1952, could be implemented. Based on this theory, the frontline health care practitioner’s action should be centered towards enabling care in connection with the patient as comparted to than doing things for the patients directly. It has been established by Peplau that each and every healthcare practitioner (Hagerty et al, 2017). In order to gain the maximum benefit out of this theory, it gets significantly important to implement family intervention in this particular process. Apart from that, emotion regulation difficulty could be easily identified as the struggle of an individual to control their sentiments in reply to emotion-elicited stimuli. The nurse needs to be aware of the aspects and highlight them in sequence which will help them to understand and implement the care plan, accordingly.

According to David, Cristea & Hofmann, (2018), the cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), family intervention and social skills training are identified as the factors which have enabled short-term benefits in connection with that of the mental status, symptom management, and improve medication adherence. Family interventions becomes crucial based on the fact that for the individuals having hallucinations, they are not able to state the exact facts. Therefore, clinical records are significantly collected from the peer groups and family members. Also, with this intervention, implementation of the healthcare plans becomes significantly easier as they are being implemented by the peer group or the family members. Therefore, individuals with such disorder will not feel skeptical while sharing their problems and also at the same time they will be much open about the same due to the presence of their near and dear ones.

It is a fact that around 40% of Australia gets considered as the native title. Adding to that, the Australian government reports have highlighted the fact that Indigenous communities hold the freehold title to 17% of the country, primarily which are in the Northern Territory and South Australia (Winn & Taçon, 2016). As a matter of fact, the Aboriginal crowd are tilted towards traditional form of care which are more connected to their land. Based on this observation, it needs to be stated that the frontline healthcare practitioners must value and respect their culture in order to provide the best possible care to a culturally diverse population.

Peplau’s theory of interpersonal relations and Family Intervention

Based on the guidelines presented by the American Psychiatric Association (APA), it could be seen that the psychoeducational interventions needs to be considered as the standard treatment for patients who have been hallucinating (Herman et al., 2018). Adding to that, it has been identified by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration that family psycho­education could easily identified as an evidenced-based practice which should significantly be applied in psychiatric settings. In connection with that of the recovery-oriented paradigm, the fact that has been emphasized on is the involvement of the patient and an emphasis on enabling a concerted relationship by enabling them with the psychoeducation (González-Bueso et al., 2018). It has also been identified that psychoeducation tends to promote a approach which is significantly known as shared decision-making approach.

Now this, approach has been able to bring collected the clinician’s proficiency and the patient’s handling preferences. Connection between the two not only makes the treatment process significantly easier but also at the same time helps in enabling the patients with the best possible care. According to Treichler & Spaulding, (2017), the concept of shared decision making tends to foster autonomy which enables decisions which are backed with the choices of the individuals along with their interests and values. The course of care is noy only decided by the care givers but also at the same time they are mutually determined by the provider and the consumer of the healthcare. Adding to that there are significant number of studies which have stated that shared decision making has been able to increase consumer’s knowledge in regards to the information about the comfort with the proper health care decisions.

This part of the essay will talk about the importance and the exact need of the psychoeducation. Patients who have been identified with hallucinations, there are high chances that the individual has been diagnosed with schizophrenia. Now, individuals who have been diagnosed with schizophrenia, are significantly more susceptible to substances like alcohol and drug abuse and also at the same time they might have co-occurring substance use problems. Based on this observation, it could be realized that the relevant substance use will significantly deteriorate the mental health issues. In relevance to that, the time mental health issue gets untreated, or worsen. Therefore, it has the ability to makes patients more disposed to addictive behaviors (Sudhir, 2018). Also, enlightening the common consumers about the adverse effects of substance use is important, however, enlightening the family members and the peer group about the same also becomes significant. The primary reason behind the need for that is due to the fact they have maximum access to the individuals during their time of suffering.

The gravity of the situation or the disorder could also be identified based on the observation that the patients that have been identified to face significant mental illness tends to die, on average, 25 years earlier as compared to that of the individual without mental illness. Apprehension related to that of the additional medical morbidity and mortality have significantly upsurged the relevant awareness and also at the same time the reputation of mixing physical health and wellness into the relevant concept of behavioral health care (Manwell et al., 2015). Therefore, it could be identified that the intervention plan that has been identified and has been discussed tend to have significant relevance. Adding to that, it could also be identified that psychoeducation could be easily be implemented and also at the same time distributed among all the levels of care and treatment scenarios making it extremely important in the care circuit.

Evidence-Based Psychoeducation Strategies for Depressive Illness

Conclusion

On a concluding note, it could be identified that the paper has been able to thoroughly talk about a culturally safe nursing intervention for a consumer with a psychotic illness and the ways in which it will help in the greater good. Apart from that, the paper has also been able to significantly talk about evidence-based psychoeducation strategy that could be easily applied in relevance to working with an individual who have depressive illness. All the claims that have been made in this paper have been backed with relevant set of discussion. Also, the discussion that has been completed are based on the reliable sources of information. Therefore, this particular paper could be easily considered as a dependable source for further studies in this area of research.

References

Berry, K., & Bucci, S. (2016). What does attachment theory tell us about working with distressing voices?. Psychosis, 8(1), 60-71.

Corlett, P. R., Horga, G., Fletcher, P. C., Alderson-Day, B., Schmack, K., & Powers III, A. R. (2019). Hallucinations and strong priors. Trends in cognitive sciences, 23(2), 114-127.

David, A. S. (2019). The neuropsychological origin of auditory hallucinations. In The neuropsychology of schizophrenia (pp. 269-313). Psychology Press.

David, D., Cristea, I., & Hofmann, S. G. (2018). Why cognitive behavioral therapy is the current gold standard of psychotherapy. Frontiers in psychiatry, 9, 4. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2018.00004

González-Bueso, V., Santamaría, J. J., Fernández, D., Merino, L., Montero, E., Jiménez-Murcia, S., ... & Ribas, J. (2018). Internet gaming disorder in adolescents: Personality, psychopathology and evaluation of a psychological intervention combined with parent psychoeducation. Frontiers in psychology, 9, 787. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.00787

Hagerty, T. A., Samuels, W., Norcini-Pala, A., & Gigliotti, E. (2017). Peplau’s theory of interpersonal relations: An alternate factor structure for patient experience data?. Nursing science quarterly, 30(2), 160-167.

Herman, Y., Shireen, H., Bromley, S., Yiu, N., & Granholm, E. (2018). Cognitive?behavioural social skills training for first?episode psychosis: A feasibility study. Early Intervention in Psychiatry, 12(5), 863-868. doi:10.1111/eip.12379

Llorca, P. M., Pereira, B., Jardri, R., Chereau-Boudet, I., Brousse, G., Misdrahi, D., ... & De Chazeron, I. (2016). Hallucinations in schizophrenia and Parkinson’s disease: an analysis of sensory modalities involved and the repercussion on patients. Scientific reports, 6(1), 1-9.

Lor, M., Crooks, N., & Tluczek, A. (2016). A proposed model of person-, family-, and culture-centered nursing care. Nursing Outlook, 64(4), 352-366.

Manwell, L. A., Barbic, S. P., Roberts, K., Durisko, Z., Lee, C., Ware, E., & McKenzie, K. (2015). What is mental health? Evidence towards a new definition from a mixed methods multidisciplinary international survey. BMJ open, 5(6), e007079.https://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2014-007079

McGarry, D., & Kent, K. (2016). Mental health issues of a psychotic nature. Chronic Care Nursing: A Framework for Practice, 143.

Pinho, L. G. D., Pereira, A., & Chaves, C. (2017). Nursing interventions in schizophrenia: the importance of therapeutic relationship. Nurse Care Open Acces J, 3(6), 00090. DOI: 10.15406/ncoaj.2017.03.00090

Sexton, J. B., Adair, K. C., Leonard, M. W., Frankel, T. C., Proulx, J., Watson, S. R., ... & Frankel, A. S. (2018). Providing feedback following Leadership WalkRounds is associated with better patient safety culture, higher employee engagement and lower burnout. BMJ quality & safety, 27(4), 261-270. https://dx.doi.org/10.1136/ bmjqs-2016-006399

Sudhir, P. M. (2018). Cognitive behavioural interventions in addictive disorders. Indian journal of psychiatry, 60(Suppl 4), S479. doi: 10.4103/psychiatry.IndianJPsychiatry_15_18

Telles-Correia, D., Moreira, A. L., & Gonçalves, J. S. (2015). Hallucinations and related concepts—their conceptual background. Frontiers in Psychology, 6, 991. doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00991

Treichler, E. B., & Spaulding, W. D. (2017). Beyond shared decision-making: Collaboration in the age of recovery from serious mental illness. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 87(5), 567. https://doi.org/10.1037/ort0000256

Winn, N. B., & Taçon, P. S. (2016). Managing the past in Northern Australia: Challenges and pitfalls for indigenous communities, rock art and cultural heritage. Heritage & Society, 9(2), 168-190.

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